PowerPoint to accompany Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology ...
PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Holes Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier Butler Lewis
Chapter 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1
Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology 2 Levels of Organization Subatomic Particles electrons, protons, neutrons
Atom hydrogen atom, lithium atom Molecule water molecule, glucose molecule Macromolecule protein molecule, DNA molecule Organelle mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus, nucleus Cell muscle cell, nerve cell Tissue simple squamous epithelium, loose connective tissue Organ skin, femur, heart, kidney
Organ System skeletal system, digestive system Organism - human 3 Levels of Organization 4
Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy study of structure (Greek a cutting up) Physiology study of function (Greek relationship to nature) Structure is always related to function 5
Clinical Application Medical Imaging Noninvasive procedures Provide images of soft internal structures Ultrasonography Use of highfrequency sound
waves Relatively quick and inexpensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging Requires injection of dye Produces computerized images from different
angles 6 Characteristics of Life Movement change in position; motion Responsiveness reaction to a change Growth increase in body size; no change in shape
Reproduction production of new organisms and new cells Respiration obtaining oxygen; removing carbon dioxide; releasing energy from foods 7 Characteristics of Life Digestion breakdown of food substances into simpler
forms Absorption passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids Circulation movement of substances in body fluids Assimilation changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms
Excretion removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions 8 Requirements of Organisms Life depends on five environmental factors
water food oxygen heat pressure 9
Requirements of Organisms Water - most abundant substance in body - required for metabolic processes - required for transport of substances - regulates body temperature Food
- provides necessary nutrients - supplies energy - supplies raw materials 10 Requirements of Organisms Oxygen (Gas) - one-fifth of air
- used to release energy from nutrients Heat - form of energy - partly controls rate of metabolic reactions Pressure - application of force on an object
- atmospheric pressure important for breathing - hydrostatic pressure keeps blood flowing 11 Homeostasis Bodys maintenance of a stable internal environment
Homeostatic Mechanisms monitor aspects of the internal environment and corrects any changes Receptors - provide information about stimuli Control center - tells what a particular value should be (includes a set point) Effectors - elicit responses that change conditions in the 12 internal environment
23 Organ Systems 24 Anatomical Terminology Anatomical Position standing erect, facing forward,
upper limbs at the sides, palms facing forward Terms of Relative Position Superior versus Inferior Anterior versus Posterior Medial versus Lateral Ipsilateral versus Contralateral Proximal versus Distal Superficial versus Peripheral
Deep 25 Body Sections Sagittal / Midsagittal or Median / Parasagittal Transverse or Horizontal Coronal or Frontal Cross section, Oblique, Longitudinal
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