PowerPoint to accompany Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology ...

PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Holes Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier Butler Lewis

Chapter 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1

Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology 2 Levels of Organization Subatomic Particles electrons, protons, neutrons

Atom hydrogen atom, lithium atom Molecule water molecule, glucose molecule Macromolecule protein molecule, DNA molecule Organelle mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus, nucleus Cell muscle cell, nerve cell Tissue simple squamous epithelium, loose connective tissue Organ skin, femur, heart, kidney

Organ System skeletal system, digestive system Organism - human 3 Levels of Organization 4

Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy study of structure (Greek a cutting up) Physiology study of function (Greek relationship to nature) Structure is always related to function 5

Clinical Application Medical Imaging Noninvasive procedures Provide images of soft internal structures Ultrasonography Use of highfrequency sound

waves Relatively quick and inexpensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging Requires injection of dye Produces computerized images from different

angles 6 Characteristics of Life Movement change in position; motion Responsiveness reaction to a change Growth increase in body size; no change in shape

Reproduction production of new organisms and new cells Respiration obtaining oxygen; removing carbon dioxide; releasing energy from foods 7 Characteristics of Life Digestion breakdown of food substances into simpler

forms Absorption passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids Circulation movement of substances in body fluids Assimilation changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms

Excretion removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions 8 Requirements of Organisms Life depends on five environmental factors

water food oxygen heat pressure 9

Requirements of Organisms Water - most abundant substance in body - required for metabolic processes - required for transport of substances - regulates body temperature Food

- provides necessary nutrients - supplies energy - supplies raw materials 10 Requirements of Organisms Oxygen (Gas) - one-fifth of air

- used to release energy from nutrients Heat - form of energy - partly controls rate of metabolic reactions Pressure - application of force on an object

- atmospheric pressure important for breathing - hydrostatic pressure keeps blood flowing 11 Homeostasis Bodys maintenance of a stable internal environment

Homeostatic Mechanisms monitor aspects of the internal environment and corrects any changes Receptors - provide information about stimuli Control center - tells what a particular value should be (includes a set point) Effectors - elicit responses that change conditions in the 12 internal environment

Homeostatic Mechanisms 13 Homeostatic Mechanisms 14

Body Cavities 15 Thoracic & Abdominal Membranes Visceral layer covers an organ

Parietal layer lines a cavity or body wall Thoracic Membranes Visceral pleura Parietal pleura Visceral pericardium Parietal pericardium

Abdominopelvic Membranes Parietal peritoneum Visceral peritoneum 16 Serous Membranes

17 Serous Membranes 18 Organ Systems

19 Organ Systems 20 Organ Systems

21 Organ Systems 22 Organ Systems

23 Organ Systems 24 Anatomical Terminology Anatomical Position standing erect, facing forward,

upper limbs at the sides, palms facing forward Terms of Relative Position Superior versus Inferior Anterior versus Posterior Medial versus Lateral Ipsilateral versus Contralateral Proximal versus Distal Superficial versus Peripheral

Deep 25 Body Sections Sagittal / Midsagittal or Median / Parasagittal Transverse or Horizontal Coronal or Frontal Cross section, Oblique, Longitudinal

26 Body Sections 27 Body Sections

28 Body Sections 29 Abdominal Subdivisions

30 Body Regions 31

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