Preparing PreK-8 teachers to Connect Children's Mathematical ...
Teachers Empowered to Advance CHange in MATHematics Developing Prospective and Early Career Teachers Equitable Mathematics Instructional Practices Corey Drake (TEACH MATH PI) Julia Aguirre, Tonya Gau Bartell, Mary Q. Foote, Amy Roth McDuffie, Erin Turner (Co-PIs)
National Science Foundation Award No. (DRL #1228034) TEACH MATH Project Goals To design and study instructional modules for K- 8 mathematics methods courses that explicitly develop prospective teachers competencies related to childrens mathematical thinking and childrens community/cultural/ linguistic funds of knowledge. To support and study early career teachers
practices related to connecting to childrens multiple mathematical knowledge bases in their mathematics teaching Theoretical Perspectives Teacher learning as situated sociocultural practice, and a process of identity development (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998) We see learning to plan and implement lessons
that attend to and build upon childrens multiple mathematics knowledge bases (CMT, CFoK) as an ambitious, equity-oriented practice that develops dynamically, over time and across spaces (Kazemi et al, 2007; Aguirre, 2009; Turner et al., 2012; Gutierrez, 2009) Equity Approaches to Everyday Practices Connection to everyday practices of mathematics teaching, learning, and teacher education (See also Aguirre, Mayfield-Ingram & Martin, 2013) Including:
Lesson planning Problem-solving interviews with children Video analysis and noticing Use of curriculum materials Parent-teacher conferences Instructional Modules for PreK-8 Mathematics Methods Courses Mathematics Learning Case Study Community Mathematics Exploration Critical Analysis of Mathematics Classroom Practice
Mathematics Learning Case Study Shadowing Getting to Know You Interview Problem Solving Interviews Community Mathematics Exploration Lesson Design
Community Walk Critical Analysis of Mathematics Classroom Practice Analysis of Mathematics Lesson (observed or taught) Curriculum Spaces Video Lens
Use of Lenses Set of prompts related to four lenses: Teaching Learning Task Power and Participation Used repeatedly across the methods course Across multiple representations of teaching Video Curriculum materials Lesson Plans Observations of teaching Reflections on teaching
Lesson study Ball & Cohen, 1996 First Space Second Space Individuals home, community & peer networks Work, school,
church Moje, 2004 Third Space Curriculum spaces reforms that focus just on the design of curriculum materials overestimate the capacity of curriculum materials to communicate and convey the means for accomplishing classroom innovations, and reforms that focus just on the development of teacher capacity underestimate the capacity of curriculum materials to do the same. (Brown, 2002, p. 26)
Need to understand features across curriculum series Affordances & constraints of curriculum materials assume particular ways of using & interacting with them Policies, cultures, and genres of writing/reading that have been built around the use of curriculum materials Focus on small changes that support agency within constrained spaces (Morris & Hiebert, 2011) Curriculum Spaces Opportunities in the written curriculum lesson for
childrens MMKB to emerge Analyzed 24 lessons 3 each from 8 different elementary mathematics curriculum series Introduction to fractions, single-digit multiplication, and multi-digit addition Considering what we know about childrens learning of mathematics, where were the spaces for connecting to (including eliciting, building on, etc.) childrens MMKB?
Coding scheme Spaces for real-world connections Replace Single space Open space Space with no mathematics Spaces for exploration/making sense Spaces for discussing/explaining Each of the above codes could occur before (B) or after (A) a solution strategy has been presented by the teacher and/or textbook and with or without teacher supports.
Findings Real-World Connections 96% of lessons Rarely in ways that would help students use connections to make sense of mathematics Specific design features that open or close potential spaces for exploring and discussing Significant differences existed among the curriculum
spaces in the main lesson and the lesson peripherals (e.g., teaching notes, differentiation activities, homework). Practice Tool for scaffolding PSTs in perceiving and mobilizing spaces within different curriculum materials Strategies for opening spaces: Re-arrange the lesson Peripheral becomes main Open tasks by focusing on design features (e.g., number choice; focus on multiple strategies and representations)
Elicit authentic real-world connections An example: EDM, Grade 4 OBJECTIVE: To guide the exploration of a variety of strategies to solve equal-grouping division number stories (UCSMP, 2007, p. 406) MATH MESSAGE: A box holds 6 chocolate candies. How many boxes area needed to hold 134 chocolate candies? (p. 407) TEACHER DIRECTIONS: Ask several students to give their solutions to the Math Message problem and to describe their strategies. [Information about four possible strategies is provided.] (p. 407-408) Tell students that there are many ways to solve equal-grouping division problems. One strategy, multiples-of-10, is introduced in this lesson (p. 408)
Extended scripting of explanation of multiples strategy, with examples (p. 408410) Encourage students to use a variety of strategies to solve the problems on journal pages 142 and 143 (p. 410) Opening space in the EDM lesson Omit explanation of the multiples strategy and/or the scaffolded worksheet that directs/requires students to use a single strategy Focus on one problem with multiple number choices: Joses class baked _____ cookies for the school bake sale. Students put _____ cookies in each bag.
How many bags did they make? (24, 4) (64, 4) (180, 6) (276, 6) (191, 5) Elicit and connect to authentic connections (may or may not include the context given in the published curriculum materials) Integration of multiple mathematical knowledge bases in practice Childrens
Cultural, Home, & Communitybased Knowledge Childrens Mathematical Thinking VE I T CA U ED
E L A C -S ENT E G TM R LA AC EN Teachers Empowered to
Advance CHange in MATHematics Thank you National Science Foundation Award No. (DRL#1020155)
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