Presentation: Program Overview

AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility Protocols AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients AHRQ Pub. No. 16(17)-0018-52-EF January 2017 Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 1 Learning Objectives After this session, you will be able to Understand the need for early mobilization in the intensive care unit (ICU) Discuss daily early mobility interventions Develop plans to sustain early mobility measures in your unit AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 2 Early Mobility

Delirium Sedation (RASS, SAS) (ICDSC, CAM-ICU) Move To Improve Sedation Vacation Early Mobilization: ICU Ventilator Weaning Mobility Protocol: Non-ICU Multidisciplinary Approach CAM-ICU = Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU; ICDSC = Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist; RASS = Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale; SAS = Sedation-Agitation Scale AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 3 Scope of Problem1-4 Prolonged bed rest in patients often leads to a host of problems such as

Mobility/functional issues Sleep deprivation Delirium Altered nutritional states Prolonged hospitalizations Post-hospital rehabilitation stays Burden to health care system Early exercise and progressive mobility introduced as an intervention to decrease duration of delirium and ventilator days 1. Needham DM, Korupolu R, Zanni JM, et al. Early physical medicine and rehabilitation for patients with acute respiratory failure: a quality improvement project. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Apr;91(4):536-42. PMID: 20382284. 2. Pohlman MC, Schweickert WD, Pohlman, AS, et al. Feasibility of physical and occupational therapy beginning from initiation of mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2010 Nov;38(11):2089-94. PMID: 20711065.

3. Schweickert WD, Pohlman MD, Pohman AS, et al. Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 May 20;373(9678):1874-82. PMID: 19446324. 4. Balas MC, Vasilevskis EE, Burke WJ, et al. Critical care nurses' role in implementing the "ABCDE bundle" into practice. Crit Care Nurse. 2012 Apr;32(2):35-8. PMID: 22467611. AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 4 Purpose and Goals Purpose: To introduce an evidence-based mobility program designed to maintain baseline mobility and functional capacity, decrease incidence of delirium, decrease ventilator days, and decrease length of stay in hospitalized patients. Goals: Employ a multidisciplinary focus on early mobilization as part of the daily clinical routines Maintain patients at their baseline mobility and functional levels Initiate the mobility protocol when the patient is hemodynamically stable Mobilize patients with activity at least twice daily If physical therapy is consulted, the nursing staff will continue to mobilize the patient 12 times per day in addition to physical therapy AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients

Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 5 Early Mobility Interventions Use a multidisciplinary and coordinated approach Employ a nurse-driven protocol Minimize sedative use and interrupt sedation daily Assess then address delirium Screen for eligibility for highest level of mobility Tailor goals to maximize mobility AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 6 Early Mobility: Improved Outcomes Expected outcomes Minimize complications of bed rest Improve overall patient functions

Promote early ventilator weaning Improve overall strength and endurance Decrease length of stay (LOS) in ICU and hospital Decrease hospital costs Psychological benefits: positive outlook for recovery AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 7 Implementation of the ABCDE Bundle5 Put coordinated spontaneous awakening trial and spontaneous breathing trial protocols in place Carefully choose sedatives (this may take ongoing work to change the current practice) Utilize the CAM-ICU implemented in conjunction with RASS 5. Morandi A, Brummel NE, Ely EW. Sedation, delirium, and mechanical ventilation: the ABCDE approach. Curr Opin in Crit Care. 2011 Feb;17(1):43-9. PMID: 21169829.

AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 8 Continued Progress Multidisciplinary daily rounds should involve a discussion of mobility on each patient, in real time, via electronic medical record Registered nurse (RN) should report on the mobility status of each patient at shift change Transfers to and from other units should review current mobility status Signage of mobility algorithms should be displayed on nursing units AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 9 ICU Early Mobility Screening Algorithm AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 10 ICU Early Mobility Protocol

START Patient meets criteria for mobility algorithm Does patient tolerate chair position? Neuro patients Try again tomorrow All other patients Try again later same day NO YES Advance to dangle edge of bed Consider PT consult if vital signs stable and patient does not maintain balance

NO Does patient sit unassisted x 3 minutes? YES Can patient stand? Advance to standing NO Consult PT YES Consult PT 1. 2. 3. 1.

2. 3. Prevent Excessive WOB Desaturation Increase baseline FiO2 up to 20% as needed to keep SaO2 >90% with maximum FiO2 80% If intubated and not on ventilator during activity, have bag valve mask with 100% O2 available If newly extubated: NO AMBULATION ON DAY OF EXTUBATION NO Does patient require 2 minimal assist? Advance to stand pivot transfer bed to chair YES Advance to taking steps

/ambulation Does patient ambulate > 50 feet? Does patient maintain balance? YES Consult PT If patient tolerates chair activity then patient should be up in chair for all meals If PT is consulted nursing staff/patient care technician should continue to mobilize patient 1-2 times daily (in addition to PT) Patient requiring airborne or acid-fast bacilli precautions may not participate in physical activity outside their room YES NO Consult PT Is this baseline?

NO Continue with current mobility level AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 11 Intermediate Care Unit 3 designated patient care technicians (PCT) on the unit from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. 2 designated PCTs on the unit from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. Each PCT will discuss level of activity with RN and determine how many times each patient will be walked. AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 12 Mobility Techs Certified nursing assistants Bridge between rehabilitation services and nursing Mobilize patients who do not require skilled therapy Mobilize patients in addition to receiving therapy

Receive training and guidance from therapy staff Receive patient lists/assignments from both nurses and therapists AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 13 Mobility Tech Data Comparison of patients ambulated within 24, 48, and 72 hours before and after addition of mobility tech staff on two hospital units. 2012 2013 2014 2015 VARIANCE Patients ambulated within 72 hours on 4C 93.17%

94.70% 94.24% 94.81% 1.65% Patients ambulated within 48 hours on 4C 86.00% 88.63% 87.89% 89.04% 3.04% Patients ambulated within 24 hours on 4C 68.92%

74.28% 73.18% 74.24% 1.34% Patients ambulated within 72 hours on 4A 93.83% 94.56% 94.84% 95.00% 1.17% Patients ambulated within 48 hours on 4A 86.75%

86.56% 87.20% 88.09% 1.34% Patients ambulated within 24 hours on 4A 71.08% 72.33% 74.35% 75.59% 4.50% AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 14

Framework To Guide Your Program6 Describe the problem Formulate focused clinical question ACT Search for evidence Appraise and synthesize evidence Develop aim (goal) statement PLAN Disseminate best practices

STUDY DO 6. Levin, RF, Keefer JM, Marren J, et al. Evidenced-based practice improvement: merging 2 paradigms. J Nurse Care Qual. 2010 AprJun;25(2):117-26. PMID: 19680149. AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 15 Small Tests of Change6 A good way to start with early mobility Develop a protocol based on evidence Use with one patient first Be selective about initial patient selection to increase likelihood of success Review and revise the protocol Try it again

News of your success spreads! 6. Levin, RF, Keefer JM, Marren J, et al. Evidenced-based practice improvement: merging 2 paradigms. J Nurse Care Qual. 2010 AprJun;25(2):117-26. PMID: 19680149. AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 16 Measurement of Outcomes Process evaluation Percentage of patients who received the intervention of early mobility Outcomes evaluation Ventilator LOS ICU LOS Hospital LOS Incidence and duration of delirium Adverse events

AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 17 Recommendations for Practice Following review and synthesis of the literature Incorporate early mobility into care of critically ill patient Use contraindications to screen patient to ensure safety Use contraindications for continuing PT/occupational therapy (OT) Use a defined mobility protocol to enhance teamwork, consistency Use a multidisciplinary group to help with implementation of protocol, continued look at quality of care Perform Small Tests of Change Disseminate early mobility protocol Engage in multidisciplinary rounding Promote communication Conduct team meetings every 2 weeks

Focus on troubleshooting Reinforce early mobility practice Provide justification of the time allotment for PT AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 18 What Was the Patient Experience Like? It gave me something to do. I was ready before you were It gave me hope. I wanted to walk farther than you wanted me to. You were nervous. AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 19

Sustaining Practice Through Standardization Create organizational memory Develop knowledge reservoirs Maintain standard of nursing practice Implement a mechanical ventilation order set AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 20 Measures for Sustainability Continue consistent daily rounding and employ a rounding script Reinforce a multidisciplinary and coordinated approach Find and embrace ways to build knowledge on applying EM to different patients Watch for any opportunities to support the process Monitor process during times of increased census or increased acuity Make it fun! AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients

Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 21 Continue the Sustainability Measures Is practice sustained 1 year later? Is a physical therapist assigned to the ICU? Are personnel rotated every month? Is early mobility ordered with initial mechanical ventilator orders and inclusive of a PT/OT consult? Has early mobility rounding with a multidisciplinary team continued? AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 22 Questions? AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 23

References 1. Needham DM, Korupolu R, Zanni JM, et al. Early physical medicine and rehabilitation for patients with acute respiratory failure: a quality improvement project. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Apr;91(4):536-42. PMID: 20382284. 2. Pohlman MC, Schweickert WD, Pohlman, AS, et al. Feasibility of physical and occupational therapy beginning from initiation of mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2010 Nov;38(11):2089-94. PMID: 20711065. 3. Schweickert WD, Pohlman MD, Pohman AS, et al. Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 May 20;373(9678):1874-82. PMID: 19446324. 4. Balas MC, Vasilevskis EE, Burke WJ, et al. Critical care nurses' role in implementing the "ABCDE bundle" into practice. Crit Care Nurse. 2012 Apr;32(2):35-8. PMID: 22467611. 5. Morandi A, Brummel NE, Ely EW. Sedation, delirium, and mechanical ventilation: the ABCDE approach. Curr Opin in Crit Care. 2011 Feb;17(1):43-9. PMID: 21169829. 6. Levin, RF, Keefer JM, Marren J, et al. Evidenced-based practice improvement: merging 2 paradigms. J Nurse Care Qual. 2010 Apr-Jun;25(2):117-26. PMID: 19680149. AHRQ Safety Program for Mechanically Ventilated Patients Nurse-Driven Early Mobility 24

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