Presentation Title Goes Here and Can Take Two or More Lines

Presentation Title Goes Here and Can Take Two or More Lines

Double Patterning Samuel Johnson 11/6/18 Outline

Background Introduction to SADP Deposition Trim mask issue Self Aligned Quadruple Patterning SADP Problems Via Level Manufacturing 2 Single Patterning Lithography and Etch - Lay photoresist - Lithography

- Develop Chris Mack Lecture 59 (CHE 323) Lithography Double Manufacturing 3 Single Patterning Resolution Limit - Theoretical Limit at 36nm - Formula is for half pitch: full pitch is 80nm 4 https://http://www.aspdac.com/

aspdac2013/archive/pdf/3C4.pdf/ Two Lithography Double Patterning Litho-etch-Litho-Etch Litho-freeze-Litho-Etch Chris Mack Lecture 59 (CHE 323) Lithography Double Manufacturing 5 Two Lithography Double Patterning Problems - Expensive: two lithography steps

- Overlay problem https://semiengineering.com/fillcut-self-aligned-double-patterning/ 6 Self Aligned Double Patterning Nakatama, K; et al. SPIE 2012 7 Conformal Deposition

Step 3: Deposition of sidewall material Thickness of deposited layer is crucial Chris Mack Lecture 59 (CHE 323) Lithography Double Manufacturing 8 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Deposition method of choice - Able to deposit on resist material and wafer High quality

Anisotropic process Industrially viable Chris Mack Lecture 59 (CHE 323) Lithography Double Manufacturing 9 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) CVD is simple and cheap High temperature Meets criteria listed before 10

Etching Etch time and conditions will determine material etched - Etching too long will result in different sized features https://semiengineering.com/fillcut-self-aligned-double-patterning/ 11 Trim Mask Issue Sidewall forms all around patterns-loops

A problem if not desired Chris Mack Lecture 59 (CHE 323) Lithography Double Manufacturing 12 Trim Masks Use another lithography step to get rid of undesired material - Second mask - Only use to get rid of unnecessary patterns https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7723830

13 Trim Masks Overlay becomes a problem - Alignment of the second mask becomes a consideration https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7723830 14 Trim Masks

Second SADP Lithography step is simpler than a second LELE Lithography step - Cheaper - Less Critical https://semiengineering.com/self-aligned-double-patterning-part-one/ 15 Self Aligned Quadruple Patterning Double SADP Doubles resolution Two trim lithography steps

Nakatama, K; et al. SPIE 2012 16 Self Aligned Quadruple Patterning Nakatama, K; et al. SPIE 2012 17 SADP Problems Not all patterns can be printed

Primary and secondary patterns cant touch https://http://www.aspdac.com/aspdac2013/archive/pdf/3C-4.pdf/ 18 SADP Problems Anti-parallel line ends - Trim masks overlap if they are too close https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7723830 19

SADP Problems Turns are difficult to control - Unideal patterning results https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7723830 20 SADP Problems-Via Manufacturing Via manufacturing with SADP or single patterning is not possible - Requires another double lithography technique

https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.ezproxy.lib.utexas.edu/document/7940014 21 Via Manufacturing Double manufacturing with half absorbance The common exposed areas are fully exposed 22

Via Manufacturing After etching, unexposed areas form holes Holes can be filled with a conductive via material 23 Via Manufacturing Via connects different layers of materials Other layers formed from other types of patterning 24

In Practice Company Intel Logic Process 14nm MMP Patterning Technique

Production Start SADP 2014 Patterning Method Normalized Wafer Cost 193i SE

1 193i LELE 2.5 Intel 10nm SAQP

end of 2018 TSMC TSMC 16FF 10FF LELE SADP 2015

2017 193i LELELE 3.5 TSMC 7FF SADP early 2017

193i SADP 2 Samsung 14LP* LELE 2015

193i SAQP 3 Samsung 10LPE LELELE end of 2016

EUV SE 4 Samsung 8LPP LELELELE end of 2018

EUV SADP 6 GlobalFoundries 7LP SADP 2018 25

Conclusions SADP along with other multiple patterning techniques will continue to be useful - Combination of multiple patterning techniques Design considerations will dominate what manufacturing method is used Future innovations in multiple patterning are required to continue Moores Law until NGLs are feasible 26

Questions? 27 References Self-Aligned Double Patterning Lithography Aware Detailed Routing With Color Preassignment IEEE Journals & Magazine, ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7723830. Self-Aligned Double Patterning-Aware Detailed Routing with Double via Insertion and via Manufacturability Consideration - IEEE Conference Publication, ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7544285. Fill/Cut Self-Aligned Double-Patterning. Semiconductor Engineering, semiengineering.com/fillcutself-aligned-double-patterning/. Mack, Chris. Lecture 59 (CHE 323) Lithography Double Patterning. YouTube, YouTube, 8 Nov. 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=Foush3X7dCc. Nakayama, Koichi, et al. Self-Aligned Double and Quadruple Patterning Layout Principle. Search

the World's Largest Collection of Optics and Photonics Applied Research., International Society for Optics and Photonics, 14 Mar. 2012, www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/8327/83270V/Self-aligned-double-andquadruple-patterning-layout-principle/10.1117/12.916678.full. Self-Aligned Double Patterning, Part One. Semiconductor Engineering, semiengineering.com/selfaligned-double-patterning-part-one/. Triple Patterning and Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP). Tech Design Forum Techniques, www.techdesignforums.com/practice/guides/triple-patterning-self-aligned-double-patterning-sadp/. 28

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