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Big Data Analytics: utilizing Text Mining to monitor the development of competences in the management accounting profession. Nicola Castellano [email protected] Roberto Del Gobbo [email protected] University of Pisa Department of Economics and Management The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A 1 Castellano Del Gobbo 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium Purpose (I): to investigate skills/competencies and responsibilities related to the management accounting profession, in order to In order to check for development of competences triggered by Big Data and Business Analytics (BD&A) Explorative study based on the comparison of job advertisings posted on Linkedin, for positions of management accountants and data analysts. Analysis of differences and similarities.

Purpose (II): preliminary investigations about contingency factors that could impact on the convergence between the two roles (industry, seniority, etc.) The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A 2 Castellano Del Gobbo 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium Abstract Research involving the management accountant role can be classified into three main research streams: Accounting education: Trends in professional requirements (technical, relational, etc.) for the accounting professions are explored with the purpose to develop coherent educational programs (Palmer et al. 2004; Howcroft, 2017). Macro-perspective: The management accountant role is investigated in association with social, cultural or individual factors (Granlund e Lukka, 1998; Baldvinsdottir et al., 2010). Micro-perspective: scholars investigate the management accountant within its operating environment giving emphasis to the interactions with operating managers (Byrne e Pierce, 2007) or to the situational factors associated to different levels of involvement in decision making (Zoni e Merchant, 2007).

The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A 3 Castellano Del Gobbo 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium The management accountant in literature IT is one of the main factors associated to management accounting innovation (Halbouni, e Nour, 2014) and emplyers ask for the development of suitable competences (Spraakman et al. 2015). Technological contingency: management accountants working in companies that are implementing ERP have to adjust their competencies (Azan e Bollecker, 2011). Big Data/Business Analytics (BD/BA) do actually represent the extreme innovation of IT and managers perceive them as much more useful when used in strategic rather than in operating decision making. (Castellano et al., 2017). The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A 4 Castellano Del Gobbo 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium

The impact of IT on Management Accountants 1.a Are BD/BA triggering a development in the competencies requested to management accountants? 1.b Are BD/BA triggering a development in the functions covered by management accountants? 2. Do competencies and functions vary according to some situational factors (industry)? Competencies and functions of management accountants are compared to those of data analysts in order to check for differences and similarities. The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A 5 Castellano Del Gobbo 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium Research Questions Job advertisings posted on Linkedin (April 2018) for searching for management accounants (392) and Data Analyst (77) in Italy. Data collected: Recruiting Company (or appointed recruitment company); industry; job description; requested attributes; seniority-level; employment type (full-time/part-time).

Management Accountant Data Analyst Job Advertisings nr.: 392 Job Advertisings nr.: Industry (most relevant) Nr % Industry (most relevant) Electrical & Electronic Information Technology & 79 20% Manufacturing Services Electrical & Electronic Marketing and advertising 63 16% Manufacturing Information Technology & 42 11% Marketing and advertising Services Seniority Level Nr % Seniority Level Associate 188 48%Medium level Entry-level 110 28%Entry-level Mid-Senior level

48 12%Mid-Senior level Medium level 33 8% Associate The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A 6 77 Nr % 22 29% 11 14% 9 12% Nr 33 32

9 0 % 43% 42% 12% 0% Castellano Del Gobbo 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium Data collection Data collected have been processed by using the text mining software KH Coder. The elaboration steps can be structured as follows: P1 Determination of Occurrences: word count absolute frequencies of. P2 Concordance Analysis. Definition of significant concepts and analysis of context concordance. A1 Language-Specificity analysis. Based on cross-tabulation and chisquare analysis. Relevance of differences between concepts related to management accountant and data-analyst A2 Co-occurrence analysis. Based on Jaccard index. Relevance of similarities between concepts related to management accountant and data-analyst The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A

7 Castellano Del Gobbo 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium Elaboration process Management accountant Economics Degree Management engineering Degree Structured companies Audit companies Management Control ERP The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A 8 Data Analyst Engineering Degree Information Sciences Degree Statistics Degree Mathematics Degree Mathematics Statistics Degree Team working abilities Relational abilities

Communication abilities Customer interaction Information tools Business intelligence Big Data Analytics Coding languages QlikView SAS Data Visualization Data Analysis Castellano Del Gobbo 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium Language-Specificity analysis (Competencies) Management Accountant Cost analysis Contribution margin analysis Analysis of variances Analysis of inventories Accounting statement Management control Reporting Forecasting Budgeting

The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A Data Analyst Data analysis Performance measurement Predictive analysis Simulation analysis Big data Analytics Web analytics Data mining Business intelligence Data visualization Social media analysis Text analysis Customer profiling CRM Advertising campaign support Strategic support Support new product development 9 Castellano Del Gobbo 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium

Language-Specificity analysis (Job functions) 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium Co-Occurrence Analysis (Competencies) Castellano Del Gobbo 3S The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A 10 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium Co-Occurrence Analysis (Job functions) Castellano Del Gobbo 3S The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A 11 Weak signals of convergence between management accountant and data analyst (soft-skills and behavioral issues)

Data analyst and management accountant are assumed to hold specific competencies: data analysis vs management information systems. The distance between the two roles is wider when comparing the job functions). The differences between the two roles vary considering the industry (particularly for what concern the competencies). Further analysis are deserved on multi-country data. The convergence between controller and data-analyst may be favoured by developing inter-disciplinary university programs. The job description may not be accurate in describing what the management accounting/data analyst will be requested to do in the company. The analysis might be complemented through case studies. The impact of industry is considered only at a very general level. More detailed analysis could shed additional lights. Additional situational factors might be included in the analysis. The management accounting profession in the era of BD&A 12 Castellano Del Gobbo 44th World Continuous Auditing and Reporting Symposium Conclusions, limitations and future development

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