Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

Information Systems, Chapter 10 Information and Decision Support Systems . Decision Making and Problem Solving Every organization needs effective decision making

In most cases, strategic planning and overall goals of the organization set the course for decision making Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 3 Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving

Decision-making phase Intelligence stage Identify and define potential problems or opportunities Design stage Develop alternative solutions to the problem and evaluate their feasibility Choice stage Select a course of action

Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 4 Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving (continued) Problem solving Includes and goes beyond decision making Includes implementation stage Monitoring stage Decision makers evaluate the implementation

Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 5 Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition Programmed versus Nonprogrammed Decisions

Programmed decision Made using a rule, procedure, or quantitative method Easy to computerize using traditional information systems Nonprogrammed decisions Decision that deals with unusual or exceptional situations Not easily quantifiable

Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 7 Optimization, Satisficing, and Heuristic Approaches Optimization model Finds the best solution, usually the one that will best help the organization meet its goals

Satisficing model Finds a good, but not necessarily the best, problem solution Heuristics Commonly accepted guidelines or procedures that usually find a good solution Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 8 Sense and Respond

Sense and Respond (SaR) approach Determining problems or opportunities (sense) Developing systems to solve the problems or take advantage of the opportunities (respond) One way to implement SaR: Through management information systems (MIS) and decision support systems (DSS) MIS DSS

Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 9 The Benefits of Information and Decision Support Systems Decision support systems Performance is typically a function of decision quality and problem complexity

Problem complexity Depends on how hard the problem is to solve and implement Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition The Benefits of Information and Decision Support Systems (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

An Overview of Management Information Systems Management information system (MIS) Integrated collection of people, procedures, databases, and devices Can give the organization a competitive advantage Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 12 Management Information Systems in Perspective Purpose of an MIS

To help an organization achieve its goals Provide the right information to the right person in the right format at the right time Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 13 Management Information Systems in Perspective (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition Inputs to a Management Information

System Internal data sources TPS and ERP systems and related databases Data warehouses and data marts Specific functional areas throughout the firm External data sources Customers, suppliers, competitors, and stockholders whose data is not already captured by the TPS Internet Extranets Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

15 Outputs of a Management Information System Scheduled reports Demand reports Exception reports Drill-down reports

Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 16 Characteristics of a Management Information System MISs perform the following functions: Provide reports with fixed and standard formats

Produce hard-copy and soft-copy reports Use internal data stored in computer system Allow users to develop custom reports Require user requests for reports developed by systems personnel Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 17 Functional Aspects of the MIS Most organizations are structured along functional lines or areas MIS can be divided along functional lines to

produce reports tailored to individual functions Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 18 Financial Management Information Systems Financial MIS Provides financial information to executives and others Some financial MIS subsystems and outputs Profit/loss and cost systems

Auditing Uses and management of funds Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 19 Manufacturing Management Information Systems Manufacturing MIS subsystems and outputs Used to monitor and control the flow of materials, products, and services through the organization Common information subsystems and outputs used

in manufacturing Design and engineering Master production scheduling and inventory control Process control Quality control and testing Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 20

Marketing Management Information Systems Marketing MIS Supports managerial activities in product development, distribution, pricing decisions, promotional effectiveness, and sales forecasting Subsystems

Marketing research Product development Promotion and advertising Product pricing Sales analysis Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 21 Human Resource Management Information Systems Concerned with activities related to employees and

potential employees Subsystems Human resource planning Personnel selection and recruiting Training and skills inventory Scheduling and job placement Wage and salary administration

Outplacement Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 22 Other Management Information Systems Accounting MIS Provides aggregate information on accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and many other applications Geographic information system (GIS)

Capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 23 An Overview of Decision Support Systems DSS Organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to help make decisions that solve problems Used at all levels

Focus of a DSS Is on decision-making effectiveness regarding unstructured or semistructured business problems Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 24 Characteristics of a Decision Support System Provide rapid access to information Handle large amounts of data from different sources

Provide report and presentation flexibility Offer both textual and graphical orientation Support drill-down analysis Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 25 Capabilities of a Decision Support System

Support problem-solving phases Support different decision frequencies Support different problem structures Support various decision-making levels Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 26 Capabilities of a Decision Support System (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

Capabilities of a Decision Support System (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition A Comparison of DSS and MIS DSS differs from an MIS in numerous ways, including:

The type of problems solved The support given to users The decision emphasis and approach The type, speed, output, and development of the system used Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition Components of a Decision Support System At the core of a DSS are a database and a model base Dialogue manager Allows decision makers to easily access and

manipulate the DSS and to use common business terms and phrases Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 30 Components of a Decision Support System (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition The Database Database management system

Allows managers and decision makers to perform qualitative analysis on data stored in companys databases, data warehouses, and data marts Can also be used to connect to external databases Data-driven DSS Performs qualitative analysis based on the companys databases Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 32 The Model Base

Model base Allows managers and decision makers to perform quantitative analysis on both internal and external data Model-driven DSS Performs mathematical or quantitative analysis Model management software (MMS) Coordinates the use of models in a DSS Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 33

The Model Base (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition The User Interface or Dialogue Manager Allows users to interact with the DSS to obtain information Assists with all aspects of communications between user and hardware and software that constitute the DSS Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

35 Group Support Systems Group support system (GSS) Consists of most elements in a DSS, plus software to provide effective support in group decision making Also called group decision support system or computerized collaborative work system Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 36

Group Support Systems (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition Characteristics of a GSS That Enhance Decision Making Special design Ease of use Flexibility

Decision-making support Delphi approach Brainstorming Group consensus approach Nominal group technique Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 38

Characteristics of a GSS That Enhance Decision Making (continued) Anonymous input Reduction of negative group behavior Parallel and unified communication Automated record keeping Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

39 GSS Software Often called groupware or workgroup software Helps with joint work group scheduling, communication, and management GSS software packages Collabnet

Collabra Share OpenMind TeamWare Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 40 GSS Software (continued) GSSs use a number of tools, including: E-mail, instant messaging (IM), and text messaging (TM) Videoconferencing Group scheduling

Project management Document sharing Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 41 GSS Alternatives Decision room Decision makers are located in the same building or geographic area Decision makers are occasional users of the GSS approach

Local area decision network Group members are located in the same building or geographic area Group decision making is frequent Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 42 GSS Alternatives (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition GSS Alternatives (continued)

Teleconferencing Decision frequency is low Location of group members is distant Wide area decision network Decision frequency is high Location of group members is distant Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 44 Executive Support Systems Executive support system (ESS)

Specialized DSS Includes hardware, software, data, procedures, and people used to assist senior-level executives Also called an executive information system (EIS) Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 45 Executive Support Systems (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition

Executive Support Systems in Perspective Characteristics of an ESS Tailored to individual executives Easy to use Drill-down capabilities Support need for external data Can help with situations that have a high degree of

uncertainty Have a future orientation Linked with value-added business processes Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 47 Capabilities of Executive Support Systems

Support for defining overall vision Support for strategic planning Support for strategic organizing and staffing Support for strategic control Support for crisis management Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 48 Summary Problem solving Begins with decision making

Includes implementation and monitoring Decision making is a component Management information system Integrated collection of people, procedures, databases, and devices Data that enters the MIS Originates from both internal and external sources Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 49 Summary (continued)

Output of most MISs Scheduled reports, key-indicator reports Demand reports, exception reports Drill-down reports Primary sources of input to functional MISs Corporate strategic plan Data from the ERP system and TPS Information from supply chain and business transactions External sources including the Internet and extranets Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 50

Summary (continued) Components of a DSS The database, model base, extranets, networks User interface or dialogue manager Link to external databases, the Internet The corporate intranet, extranets, networks Group support system (GSS)

Consists of most of the elements in a DSS, plus software to provide effective support in group decision-making settings Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 51 Summary (continued) Executive support systems (ESSs) Specialized decision support systems designed to meet the needs of senior management Typically easy to use, offer a wide range of computer resources, and handle a variety of internal and

external data Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 52 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 53 Review question #10 Principles and Learning Objectives Good decision-making and problem solving skills

are the key to developing effective information and decision support systems Define the stages of decision making Discuss the importance of implementation and monitoring in problem solving Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 56 Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) The management information system (MIS) must provide the right information to the right person in

the right format at the right time Explain the uses of MISs and describe their inputs and outputs Discuss information systems in the functional areas of business organizations Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 57 Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) Decision support systems (DSSs) are used when the problems are unstructured

List and discuss important characteristics of DSSs that give them the potential to be effective management support tools Identify and describe the basic components of a DSS Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 58 Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) Specialized support systems, such as group support systems (GSSs) and executive support

systems (ESSs), use the overall approach of a DSS in situations such as group and executive decision making State the goals of a GSS and identify the characteristics that distinguish it from a DSS Identify the fundamental uses of an ESS and list the characteristics of such a system Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition 59

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