Properties of X'

Properties of X'

Properties of X-bar Complements, Adjuncts, & Specifiers. X-bar theory Specifier Rule: XP (YP) XYP) X Adjunct Rule: Complement Rule: X X (YP) XWP) X (YP) XZP) X or X X (YP) XZP) Predictions?

Propose three different kinds of modifiers: specifiers complements adjuncts Is this valid? Are there really three different kinds? Do they have different properties Formal Definitions Specifier: Daughter of XP, sister to X XP XP (ZP) X or X YP) X YP

X Adjunct: Daughter of X, sister to X X X (ZP) X or X ZP) X or X X (ZP) X or X ZP) X ZP Complement: Daughter of X, sister to X X X X (ZP) X or X WP) X WP maximal projection specifier NP

D the adjuncts N AP big N N N N book head N, N, NP are called the projections of N PP PP PP

from Blackwell with the red cover of poems complement The book of poems The book from Blackwell NP NP D the D the N N book PP

of poems N N N book PP from Blackwell !quick way to distinguish complements and adjuncts in NPs (ZP) X or X doesnt work for other categories). Complements of N are marked with the preposition of. All other prepositions mark adjuncts. (ZP) X or X This is not fool-proof!) Complements always closest to head The book [of poems] [by Burns] head complement adjunct *The book [by Burns] [of Poems] head adjunct complement

NP since complements are sister to head D the N N N book PP PP by burns of poems Only one complement, multiple adjuncts

X (YP) XZP) X or X X (YP) XZP) Iterative X X (YP) XWP) not iterative the book of poems with the red cover from Blackwell in the bath *the book of essays of poems from Blackwell Adjuncts can be reordered The book of poems from Blackwell with the red cover on the bus. The book of poems with the red cover from Blackwell on the bus. The book of poems with the red cover on the bus from Blackwell. ?The book of poems on the bus with the red cover from Blackwell. ?The book of poems on the bus from Blackwell with the red cover. ?The book of poems from Blackwell on the bus with the red cover. *The book from Blackwell of poems with the red cover on the bus *The book from Blackwell with the red cover of poems on the bus *The book from Blackwell with the red cover on the bus of poems (ZP) X or X etc.) Conjunction

The conjunction rule: Xn Xn Conj Xn Complements can be conjoined with complements: The book of poems and of essays Adjuncts can be conjoined with adjuncts The red and blue house *The red and cat The book with the red cover and with a blue spine Complements cannot be conjoined with adjuncts *The book of poems and with the red cover

One replacement One Replacement: replace N with one. NP D the can be replaced by one N N N book PP PP from Blackwell of poems can NOT be replaced by one

therefore an adjunct can follow one but complements cannot! One replacement The book from Blackwell not the [None] from Oxford *The book of poems not the one of essays (YP) XThere is a dialectal difference about the acceptability of this last sentence) Telling complements from adjuncts You should be able to list an example or two of these on the exam

Complements Adjuncts only 1 multiple allowed closest to head may be separated from head can be reordered cannot be reordered conjoin with complements *[one]+complement conjoin with adjuncts [one]+adjunct Interesting ambiguity

The English teacher Teacher from England (YP) Xadjunct reading) Teacher of the English language (YP) Xcomplement) NP NP D the D the N AP N English N teacher N

AP English N teacher Interesting ambiguity The Spanish English teacher The English teacher of Spanish (YP) Xcan only have the language reading) The Canadian and English teacher

(YP) Xcan only have nationality reading) The Math and English teacher (YP) Xcan only have language teacher reading) (YP) Xcan only have the nationality reading) The English one (YP) Xcan only have the nationality reading) An easy mistake to make! When you have only one PP modifier or AP modifier, be very careful to see if it is a complement or adjunct. If it is an adjunct it must be a sister to the X level!!!!! NP

D the this N is CRUCIAL!! N AP big N N banana NP D the N AP big N banana The complement/adjunct

distinction in VPs John [VP often eats apples with a fork] adjunct head complement adjunct In VPs, the direct object is always the complement. Other things require thought. For example the verbs give and put take two complements a NP and PP. I gave the apple to John (YP) Xboth are complements) I put the book on the table I loved the policeman intensely with all my heart VP V

V V V loved PP AP NP with all my heart intensely adjuncts the policeman complement Adverbial NPs He read faithfully every day.

Is faithfully an adjunct? What does the tree look look like? * He read faithfully his syntax book. What can we conclude about how every day and his syntax book? Complements come closer to the head than adjuncts Only 1 occurrence of each complement Reordering

*I loved the policeman the fireman I loved the policeman with all my heart intensely I loved the policeman intensely with all my heart *I loved intensely the policeman with all my heart *I loved intensely with all my heart the policeman Conjunction I loved the policeman and the fireman I loved the policeman intensely and with all my heart *I loved the policemand and intensely Do so replacement

Susan loved the policemen intensely with all her heart but/and Mary did so with her brain! Mary did so mildly with her brain *Mary did so the fireman APs and PPs??? Evidence is much weaker. very afraid of tigers adjunct head very in

complement love with himself adjunct head complement ???? a man in love with all his heart ? a man in love with all his heart with himself We will assume the distinction exists here Specifiers

The only element we have seen in specifiers so far is the determiner. In the next chapter, well argue that even these arent real specifiers. Instead, well argue the specifier is where subjects are generated. More on this later. For now, understand the definition (YP) Xsister to X, daughter of XP), and put determiners there. Summary Specifier: sister to X, daughter of XP Adjunct: sister to X, daughter of X Complement: sister to X, daughter of X

X-bar theory predicts differences in behavior between complements and adjuncts only one complement, multiple adjuncts complement must be closest to head adjuncts can be reordered conjunction *One/did so + complement Summary

Complement/Adjunct distinction hold of prehead material too. The C/A distinction can capture ambiguity There is strong evidence for the C/A distinction in NPs and VPs The evidence for APs and PPs is weaker We are leaving specifiers aside for the moment as something to be dealt with later.

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