Protists and Fungi - Science Class: Mrs. Boulougouras

Protists and Fungi - Science Class: Mrs. Boulougouras

Protists & Fungi Where do Protists and Fungi belong? 1/28/13 What is a Protist? Kingdom Protista the very first The first eukaryotic organisms:1.5 bya Any eukaryotic organism that is not a

plant, an animal, a fungus or a prokaryote Eukaryotes that are not members of the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia, or Fungi Most are unicellular The Traditional Classification The Junk Drawer of the Kingdoms Animal-like (protozoans) Plant-like

Fungus-like These categories were an artificial way to organize diverse groups of organisms What Protist Means Today Not a single kingdom Several distinct clades DNA evidence protists evolved independently from archaebacteria

May have evolved from the symbiosis of several cells The roots of all eukaryotic diversity that How Protists Move Amoeboid Movement Pseudopods Cilia and Flagella Cilia Flagella

Sporozoans/Passive Movement Spores Protist Reproduction Cell Division Mitosis Conjugation Sexual Reproduction Alternation of Generations Sporangium

Autotrophic Protists: Diversity Phytoplankton Red algae Brown algae Euglenas Dinoflagellates Autotrophic Protists: Ecological Roles Feeding Fish and Whales Supporting Coral Reefs Providing Shelter

Recycling Wastes Feeding Fish and Whales What are Plankton? Any drifting organisms that inhabit the pelagic zone of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water.

From the Greek planktos: to drift or wander Phytoplankton That is, plankton are defined by their ecological niche rather than phylogenetic or taxonomic

classification. They provide a crucial source of food to larger, more familiar aquatic organisms such as fish and cetacea Small, photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean Nearly of photosynthesis on Earth is carried out by phytoplankton

Protists are Plankton not all Plankton are Protists!!! Zooplankton Holoplankton Meroplankton Supporting Coral Reefs Zooxanthellae allow the coral animals to use the food products of

photosynthesis Zooxanthellae can feed on the waste products of coral animals and can use the coral as a home Providing Shelter Giant kelp: the largest known brown alga Can grow more than 60 meters in length Sargassum: another huge

brown alga that floats in large mats near Bermuda, in The Sargasso Sea Recycling Wastes Many protists absorb organic material and use it for food

Grow rapidly in regions where sewage is discharged Recycle the sewage and other waste materials

Blooms: When the amount of waste is excessive, populations grow in enormous masses The algal blooms deplete the water of nutrients, and the cells die in great numbers

The decomposition of these dead algae can rob the water of its oxygen, choking resident fish and invertebrate life Algal Blooms Great blooms of the dinoflagellates Gonyaulax and

Gymnodinium have occurred in recent years on the east coast of the USA Red Tides: these species produce a potentially dangerous toxin

Filter-feeding shell-fish such as clams can trap Gonyaulax and Gymnodinium for food and become filled with the toxin Eating shellfish infected with red tide can lead to serious illness, paralysis, and even death Heterotrophic Protists

Amoebas Food vacuole Ciliates (Example: Paramecium) Gullet Slime Molds: thrive on dead or decaying organic matter Play key roles in recycling organic matter (forest or backyard compost pile) Begin life as amoeba-like cells Plasmodium: cells fuse to produce structures with many nuclei

Water Molds: absorb molecules that other organisms have released into the environment Water Molds and the Potato Famine ~ 40 million Americans can trace some part of their ancestry to Ireland Potatoes Native to South America Introduced to Europe by Spanish explorers By the 1840s major food crop of Ireland Protist: Phytophthora infestans

An oomycete that produces airborne spores that destroy all parts of the potato plant Reduces the potato to a spongy sac of spores and dust Water Molds and the Potato Famine Summer, 1845: unusually wet and cold 60% of the Irish potato crop was destroyed > 1 million people starved

1.5 million people USA Symbiotic Protists-Mutualists BOTH BENEFIT Example: Trichonympha protist in the digestive system of various species of termites Protist: breaks down cellulose so the termite digest the wood Termite: provides food and shelter for the protist

Symbiotic Protists-Parasites CAUSE DEADLY DISEASES Infect: worms, fish, birds, humans, etc. Cause: Malaria African Sleeping Sickness

Most have complex life cycles involving more than one host What Are Fungi? Eukaryotes Heterotrophs Chitin: complex carbohydrate found in the cell wall Also found in the external skeletons of insects

What Are Fungi? External digestion and reabsorption Many absorb nutrients from decaying matter in the soil Others are parasites Structure and Function of Fungi Multicellular Exception: yeasts are unicellular Hyphae: tiny filaments that

make up fungi Mycelium: many hyphae tangled together that make up the bodies of multicellular fungi Suited to absorb food Structure and Function of Fungi Fruiting Body: Reproductive structure (the mushroom!) Develops from an underground mycelium

Clusters of mushrooms are often part of the same mycelium they are a part of the same organism Structure and Function of Fungi Some mycelia can live for several years Fairy Rings Asexual Reproduction

Cells or hyphae break off from a fungus Begin to grow on their own Sporangia: structures in ferns and some fungi that contain spores Sporangiophores: specialized hyphae where sporangia are found Sexual Reproduction Involves two different mating types

+ and Gametangium: gamete-forming structure Produced when the hyphae of opposing mating types of fungi meet A diploid nucleus (zygote), is formed meiosis occurs produces haploid cells Diversity of Fungi Over 100,000 species Classified according to:

Structure Method of reproduction The Major Phyla of Fungi Chytrids/Primitive fungi -Chytridomycota Club fungi Basidiomycota Bread mold Zygomycota

Sac fungi Ascomycota The Major Phyla of Fungi How Fungi Spread Fungal spores are found in almost every environment Dry, almost weightless spores that scatter in the wind Some fungi lure animals to disperse the spores

Stinkhorns smell like rotting meat, which attracts flies Structure and Function of Molds Rhizoids: a rootlike hypha that penetrates the surface of an object Stolons: a stemlike hypha that runs along the surface of an object Example: black bread mold, Rhizopus

stolonifer Edible and Inedible Mushrooms Many mushrooms are considered delicacies When properly cooked and prepared, domestic mushrooms are tasty and nutritious Wild mushrooms: some are edible, many are poisonous Dont eat wild mushrooms!

Ecology of Fungi: Heterotrophs Saprobes: organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter Parasites Symbionts: live in close and mutually beneficial association with other species Capturing live animals Fungi as Decomposers Fungi are found in every ecosystem,

where they recycle nutrients by breaking down the bodies and wastes of other nutrients Release digestive enzymes that break down leaves, fruit and other organic matter Fungi as Parasites Parasitic fungi cause serious plant and animal diseases Plant Diseases A few fungi cause diseases in humans

Corn smut destroys corn kernels Wheat rust affects wheat fields like wildfire Fungi as Parasites Human Diseases One deuteromycete can infect the areas between the toes (athletes foot) Yeast infections Fungi as Parasites

Other Animal Diseases Genus Cordyceps Fungus infects grasshoppers in rainforests in Costa Rica Microscopic spores become lodged in the grasshopper, where they germinate and produce enzymes that slowly penetrate the insects tough external skeleton Symbiotic Relationships Some fungi form symbiotic relationships in which both partners benefit

Two such mutualistic associations are essential to many ecosystems lichens mycorrhizae Lichen Symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism (algae)

Usually ascomycetes and green alga or cyanobacteria Resistant to drought and cold Can grow in places where few can survive Lichen Joke

There was a fungi (fun guy) and algal (a gal) and they took a lichen (liking) to each other. Mycorrhizae Symbiotic association of plant roots and fungi The hyphae of fungi

aid plants in absorbing water and minerals The plants provide the fungi with the products of photosynthesis

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