Psychological Disorders

Psychological Disorders

L A C I G LO S O

R E H C RD 5 Y 1 S

O R P IS T E D HAP C ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR

Historical aspects of mental disorders The medical model What is abnormal behavior? 3 criteria Deviant Maladaptive Causing personal distress

A continuum of normal/abnormal PREVALENCE, CAUSES, AND COURSE Epidemiology Prevalence Lifetime prevalence Diagnosis

Etiology Prognosis PSYCHODIAGNOSIS: THE CLASSIFICATION OF DISORDERS American Psychiatric Association published first taxonomy in 1952 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders 4th ed. (DSM - IV) Multiaxial system 5 axes or dimensions F 14.3 Axis I Clinical Syndromes Axis II Personality Disorders or Developmental Disorders Axis III General Medical Conditions

Axis IV Psychosocial and Environmental Problems Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning DSM Figure 14.4 Example multiaxial evaluation

TWO MAJOR CLASSIFICATIONS IN THE DSM PSYCHOTIC NEUROTIC DISORDERS Distressing but

one can still function in society and act rationally. DISORDERS Person loses

contact with reality, experiences distorted perceptions. AXIS I CLINICAL SYNDROMES AND

AXIS II PERSONALITY DISORDERS Anxiety Disorders Somatoform Disorders Dissociative Disorders Mood Disorders Schizophrenic Disorders Eating Disorders

Axis II Personality Disorders CLINICAL SYNDROMES: ANXIETY DISORDERS Generalized anxiety disorder free-floating anxiety Phobic disorder

Specific focus of fear Panic disorder and agoraphobia Physical symptoms of anxiety/leading to agoraphobia Obsessive compulsive disorder Obsessions Compulsions PTSD

ETIOLOGY OF ANXIETY DISORDERS Biological factors Genetic predisposition, anxiety sensitivity GABA circuits in the brain Conditioning and learning

Acquired through classical conditioning or observational learning Maintained through operant conditioning Cognitive factors Judgments of perceived threat

Personality Neuroticism Stress A precipitator CLINICAL SYNDROMES: SOMATOFORM DISORDERS

Somatization Disorder 1. Conversion Disorder 2. Hypochondriasis Etiology Reactive autonomic nervous system Personality factors Cognitive factors

The sick role QUICK WRITE Ellie, a new student at Skinner High School, is determined to make friends. When she attends the first psychology club meeting she finds herself in the room with twenty strangers who seem to know each other well. She plans to attend a few more meetings before deciding whether she will join.

A. Demonstrate how each of the following could HELP play a role in Ellies quest for friendship. You may use a different example for each concept. Definitions will not score. Operant conditioning Locus of control

B. Demonstrate how each of the following could HINDER Ellies quest for friendship. You may use a different example for each concept. Definitions will not score. HINDER Agorapohia

CLINICAL SYNDROMES: DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS Dissociative amnesia Dissociative fugue Dissociative identity disor der

Etiology severe emotional trauma during childhood Controversy Media creation? Sybil Repressed memories

CLINICAL SYNDROMES: MOOD DISORDERS Major depressive disorder Dysthymic disorder Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder) Cyclothymic disorder

Seasonal Affective Disorder Etiology Age of onset Genetic vulnerability Neurochemical factors Cognitive factors

Interpersonal roots Precipitating stress CLINICAL SYNDROMES: SCHIZOPHRENIA General symptoms Delusions and irrational thought

Deterioration of adaptive behavior - avolition Hallucinations any modality but usually auditory Disturbed emotions 66% Prognostic factor Gradual onset Sudden onset

SUBTYPING OF SCHIZOPHRENIA 4 subtypes Paranoid type Catatonic type Disorganized type Undifferentiated type New model for classification Positive vs. negative symptoms

ETIOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA Genetic vulnerability Neurochemical factors Dopamine hypothesis Structural abnormalities of the brain prefrontal lobe and

ventricles The neurodevelopmental hypothesis Expressed emotion Precipitating stress stressvulnerability model Figure 14.19 The dopamine hypothesis as an explanation for schizophrenia

NEUROLOGICAL CHANGES IN SCHIZOPHRENIA Figure 14.21 Neurodevelopment hypothesis of schizophrenia Figure 14.22

Expressed emotion and relapse rates in schizophrenia Slide 33 The stress-vulnerability model of schizophrenia

PERSONALITY DISORDERS Anxious-fearful cluster Avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive Dramatic-impulsive cluster Histrionic, narcissistic,

borderline, antisocial Odd-eccentric cluster Schizoid, schizotypal, paranoid Etiology Genetic predispositions, inadequate socialization in

dysfunctional families Prognosis PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS AND THE LAW Insanity Mnaghten rule

The insanity defense Involuntary commitment varies by states danger to self danger to others in need of treatment Culture and pathology

EATING DISORDERS Issues of weight Anorexia nervosa Criteria and subtypes: restrictive and binge/purge Bulimia nervosa Binge eating History and prevalence Age onset

Etiology Genetics Personality perfectionism Cultural issues - perfect body type and digital photograph Family role Cognitive factors

Figure 14.25 - Age of anorexia nervous in the United States Lucas et al. (1991)

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