Psychology Applied to Work Sixth Edition

Psychology Applied to Work Sixth Edition

I/O Psychology An Overview Preview

Define I/O Psychology Explain how I/O Psychology relates to others fields of psychology Identify work settings for I/O Psychologists Identify I/O Psychologys mandate Identify the 6 major subfields of I/O Psychology Discuss licensing issues

Illustrate high performing work setting Preview (cont) Review brief history of I/O Psychology Discuss changing nature of work

Explain cross-cultural interest in I/O Psychology Conclusions # I. What is I/O Psychology? A. Defining I/O Psychology Definition: Scientific study of behavior in the workplace & the professional practice dealing

with workplace behavioral issues. 2 sides of I/O psychology: Science Practice A. Defining I/O Psychology (cont) Many areas of psychology besides clinical & counseling psychology Career resource O*NET OnLine http://online.onetcenter.org/

I/O grad students talks about field http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=a3eWJ8C2Z7E I/O behavioral health space scientist http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=3ZcyxyfqbHQ A. Defining I/O Psychology (cont) Clinical/counseling/school vs. I/O Clients/patients

Problems/issues addressed Assessment & intervention strategies used Work settings/conditions Compensation/career advancement American Psychological Association (APA) has 53 divisions Numerous functions of the APA (e.g., seminars, journals, code of ethics) http://www.apa.org/

A. Defining I/O Psychology (cont) SIOP (Division 14) of APA http://www.siop.org/ American Psychological Society (APS) http://www.psychologicalscience.org/ 4 main work areas for I/O psychologists: Academia Consulting Firms Business Government

Fig 1.1, p. 4 B. Mandate of I/O Psychology Increase the fit between workforce & workplace during rapid change

Help workforce balance work/family issues C. 6 Sub-fields of I/O Psychology: 1. Selection & Placement Developing criteria & predictors, designing decision-making system for hiring Developing & using psychological tests & inventories in decisions 2. Training & Development (Organizational Learning)

Designing & evaluating effective learning systems C. 6 Sub-fields of I/O Psychology: (cont) 3. Performance Management (Appraisal) Designing & evaluating appraisal systems 4. Organizational Development Diagnosing organizational dysfunction Attitudes & motivation: job satisfaction,

involvement, organizational justice Designing & implementing intervention strategies for change Establishing & working with teams C. 6 Sub-fields of I/O Psychology: (cont) 5. Occupational Health & Quality of Worklife Stress issues assessment & intervention

Workplace violence prevention Balancing work & family 6. Ergonomics (human factors/engineering psychology) Equipment design D. Licensing of Psychologists Psychology regulates its own membership Also regulated by license law in every state Regulates both title & practice

Governed by state regulatory boards Determines standards for admission Conducts disciplinary actions D. Licensing of Psychologists (cont) Controversy About Licensing of I/O Psychologists I/O Psychologists not in clinical practice I/O has different mandate than health care

providers E. Example of High Performing Organizational Culture Video of SAS Company Cary, NC http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NebIGpZIWI http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=9SCxJTmS1Eo http://www.sas.com/ #

II. Brief History of I/O Psychology A. Early Years (1900-1916) 2 major forces evolve the discipline Bryan studied development of Morse code skills (1904) Industrial engineers focusing on improving efficiency Time & motion studies

Industrialization and immigration lead to drive for social reform A. Early Years (1900-1916)(cont) Founding figures 1. Walter Dill Scott --The Psychology of Advertising, 1908 2. Frederick W. Taylor -- redesign of work situations; The Principles of Scientific Management, 1911

A. Early Years (1900-1916) (cont) Founding figures (cont) 3. Hugo Mnsterberg (applied scientific method to practical problems, e.g., safe trolley operators; father of I/O psychology; Psychology of Industrial Efficiency, 1913) B. World War I (1917-1918)

Robert Yerkes & Army Alpha & Beta Tests developed to screen recruits Journal of Applied Psychology founded 1917

C. Between the Wars (1919-1940) Applied psychology emerged as a discipline Psychological research bureaus came into full bloom Bureau of Salesmanship established at Carnegie Institute of Technology James Cattell founded the Psychological

Corporation http:// psychcorp.pearsonassessments.com C. Between the Wars (1919-1940) (cont) Hawthorne-Western Electric Studies/Harvard University Joint Venture

1924 Identified the Hawthorne Effect: showed the significance of novelty (a psychological factor) in productivity Revealed the complexity of human behavior (workers are not machines) Fig 1.2, p. 11 D. World War II (1941-1945)

Selection & Training tests Group ability testingArmy General Classification Test (AGCT) Situational stress tests for Office of Strategic Services (OSS) (military intelligence) Early situational tests: select, train pilots; measure attitude, morale

Development of more employment tests in industry E. Toward Specialization (19461963) Development of college & graduate programs in I/O Psychology

Creation of SIOP, APA Division 14 (1946) [1st president was Bruce Moore--PSU] E. Toward Specialization (19461963) (cont) Sub-specialties crystallized Engineering Psychology ergonomics (1950-1960)

Personnel Psychology Human Relations Movement (1950s), e.g., Organization Development & Change F. Government Intervention (19641993) Government scrutiny emerged as a second authority

1964 Civil Rights Act (Title VII) 1970s government regulation of testing, selection, and placement: Uniform Employment Guidelines F. Government Intervention (19641993) (cont) Americans with Disabilities Act - 1990 Updated Civil Rights Act 1990 Family and Medical Leave Act 1993

G. The Information Age (1994present) Internet influence on change: I.T. Move from specialist to generalists Advent of e-business and the virtual

workplace Speed of delivery of products & services The concept of job erodes to work teams # III. Changing Nature of Work Changes in organizations & work over history is challenge for I/O Psychology: Industrial revolution Mass production

Information technology Global economy Future organizations & work # IV. Cross-cultural Psychology Global Issues Word definitions & meanings

Corporate policies & procedures Values differences Length of the work week Collectivist vs. individualist societes # V. Conclusions I/O Psychology is a very new science & practice not yet well known. I/O likely has a great futuregood career choice.

Organizations & the nature of work have changed greatly over the past centuries & will likely change even morefinding the ideal match between jobs and people will always be challenge for I/O. ###

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