PUNCTUATION - Conejo Valley Unified School District
PUNCTUATION: Underlining (Italics), Quotation Marks, Apostrophes, Hyphens, Parentheses, Dashes, & Brackets (WHEW!) English 7CP Mr. Snow Underlining (Italics)
Italics look like this. Underlining looks like this. When using italics or underlining, use one or the other. Do not use both. They mean exactly the same thing. When you write or use a typewriter, use underlining. Its much easier. When you use a computer, use italics. It looks cleaner and better. Underlining (Italics): Uses A. Use underlining (italics) for
titles of books, plays, periodicals, films, television series, works of art, and long musical works. A periodical is a newspaper or magazine. st a re s e ss us! a
l g io se elic e d Th ju Underlining (Italics): Uses
Books: 1984, Crime and Punishment Plays: Hamlet, Romeo & Juliet Periodicals: The LA Times, Newsweek Films: V for Vendetta, The Lion King Television Series: Family Guy, ESPN Sports Center Works of Art: The Dream, Mona Lisa
Long Musical Works: Phantom of the Opera, American Idiot Underlining (Italics): Uses B. Use underlining (italics) for the names of ships, trains, aircraft, and spacecraft. Ships: HMS Titanic, the Pequod Trains: Golden Arrow, Polar Express Aircraft: the Hindenburg, Spirit of St. Louis Spacecraft: Sputnik, Challenger
Underlining (Italics): Misc. C. Use underlining (italics) for words, letters, and numerals referred to as such. There are three as in banana. How do you say duck in French? You write very messy 8s. These letters, words, and numerals are being use as letters, words, and numerals, not as objects. We are not talking about a literal duck
We are talking about the word duck. Quotation Marks Quotation marks look like this: This sentence is in quotation marks. Sometimes they are referred to simply as quotes. You can quote me on that! Id rather not!
Quotation Marks: Quotes D. Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation. A direct quotation is a persons exact words. Then Clint Eastwood says, Go aheadmake my day. When the bell rings, said the teacher, leave the room quietly. Do not enclose an indirect quotation.
Then Clint Eastwood tells the guy to make his day. The teacher told us to leave quietly when the bell rings. Quotation Marks: Quotes E. A direct quotation generally begins with a capital letter. Lisa said, The food isnt ready yet. F. When an expression identifying the speaker
interrupts the quote, the second part of the quote begins with a lowercase letter. When the bell rings, said the teacher, exit the room quietly. Quotation Marks: Quotes When the second part of this broken quotation is a separate sentence, capitalize it. I cant go today, I said. Ask me tomorrow.
Each of these quotes is its own sentence. I cant go today, I said, but you can ask tomorrow. This is one sentence that is broken up. Quotation Marks: Quotes G. You can set off a direct quote from the rest of the sentence by using commas, question marks, or exclamation points, but not a period.
I think this is interesting, said Bernie. Yes, Juan said, I agree. Is that a good video game? she asked. Yes, its my favorite! he responded. Notice that no capital is needed after the quote even if it ends in a ? or ! Quotation Marks: Quotes H. A comma or period always goes within the quotation marks. The exhibit is over there, she told us. Betty said, I love these statues.
Quotation Marks: Quotes I. A question mark or exclamation point should only be inside the quotation marks if it is part of the original quote. Otherwise, place it outside. How far is it? he asked. Who said, Give me liberty or give me death? Jump! he yelled. Im so mad that she said, Go away!
Quotation Marks: Quotes J. When writing dialogue (a conversation), begin a new paragraph each time the speaker changes. K. When a quote is several sentences long, only use beginning and ending quotation marks. Well meet you there. Were running a bit late. There is a lot of traffic. Sorry about that, said Jerry.
Quotation Marks: Quotes L. Use single quotation marks to enclose a quote within a quote. Brandon said, My mom always says, Look before you leap. Did Mrs. Neuman really say, You can use your books on your test? asked Sakura. Notice the placement of the question mark. Mrs. Neumans statement wasnt the question, so it doesnt go inside those single quotes. Sakura asked the question.
Quotation Marks: Uses M. Use quotation marks to enclose titles of short works such as short stories, poems, songs, episodes of a TV series, essays, articles, and chapters or other sections of a book. Quotation Marks: Uses Short stories: Duffys Jacket, Rikki-tikki-tavi
Poems: Im Nobody, Birdfoots Grampa Songs: America the Beautiful, A Hard Rains A-Gonna Fall Episodes of TV shows: This Side of Paradise, The Soup Nazi Quotation Marks: Uses Essays: Self-Reliance, The Creative Process Articles: Annie Leibovitz: Behind the Images, Bush Quells GOP
Revolt Chapters and parts of books: The Natural World, The Myths of Greece and Rome, The Face Off Question Marks So think of it this way: We use underlining or italics for large works, and we use quotation marks for any sections that might be contained in the large works.
Quotation Marks Books Short stories, Poems, Essays, Chapters/sections Plays Periodicals Articles Films TV Series Episodes Works of art Long musical works Songs Apostrophes Apostrophes look like this:
The possessive case shows ownership (remember that?) N. To form the possessive case of a singular noun, add an apostrophe and an s. a boys hat the babys toy Charless opinion Apostrophes: Possession O. To form the possessive of a plural noun not ending in s, add
an apostrophe and an s. mices tracks childrens games mens hats teeths enamel Apostrophes: Possession P. To form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in s, add only an apostrophe. cats basket brushes bristles
four days delay the Carsons bungalow Apostrophes: Possession Q. Do not use an apostrophe with possessive personal pronouns. Is that yours or mine? Ours is friendlier than theirs. His report was as good as hers. R. To form the possessive of some indefinite pronouns, use an
apostrophe and s. Neithers homework - someones coat Everyones choice - anythings cost A QUICK NOTE In general, do not use an apostrophe to make a plural, or Mr. Snow will hunt you down like a wild dog. I love my dogs I love my dogs. There is one exception
to this rule, however Apostrophes: Plurals S. Use an apostrophe to form the plurals of letters, numerals, and symbols, and of words referred to as such. Your os look like as. Try to use &s instead of +s There are three 5s and 8s in my telephone number. You use far too many likes and ums
when speaking. Apostrophes: Contractions T. Use an apostrophe to show where letters, words, or numerals have been left out in a contraction. they had = theyd where is = wheres let us = lets of the clock = oclock she would = shed we have = weve
they are = theyre - I am = Im - 1999 = 99 - we are = were - he is = hes - you will = youll - what is = whats - I would = Id A QUICK NOTE Dont confuse a contraction with a
possessive. Its Friday. [it is] Its nest fell down [possessive] Whos there? [who is] Whose coat is this? [possessive] Theyre coming soon [they are] Their dog is nice. [possessive] Theres the path [there is] That tree is theirs. [possessive] Hyphens: Dividing Hyphens look like this: U. Use a hyphen to divide a word
at the end of a line. Will you help Margaret set the silverware on the table? Divide a word only between syllables. Bes- ide Be- side Hyphens: Dividing Do not divide a one-syllable word. Exercise is helpful to develop bodily strength. Exercise is helpful to develop bodily
strength. Do not divide a word so that one letter stands by itself. The seating capacity of the arena is enormous. The seating capacity of the arena is enormous. Hyphens: Numbers V. Use a hyphen with compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine and with fractions used as adjectives.
thirty-five eighty-nine The amount was two thirds. [no hyphen; not an adj.] It was a two-thirds majority. [used as an adjective] Hyphens: Affixes W. Use a hyphen with the prefixes ex, self, all and great and with the suffixes elect and free. ex-girlfriend
all-knowing president-elect self-respect great-aunt caffeine-free Parentheses Parentheses look like this: ( ) X. Use parentheses to enclose material that is added to a sentence but is not considered
of major importance. Emilio Alguinaldo (1869-1964) was a Filipino statesman. Mom and Dad bought a kilim (pronounced ki - lm) rug from our Turkish friend Ali. Parentheses Material in parentheses can be as short as one word or as long as a sentence. Please be quiet during the performance.
(Take crying babies to the lobby.) Jack Echohawk (hes Bens cousin) told us about growing up on the reservation. Notice that a parenthetical sentence within a sentence is not capitalized and has no end mark. Brackets Brackets look like this: [ ] Y. Use brackets to enclose an explanation added to material already in quotation marks or
parentheses. Elena said, I am honored by this [the award], and I thank you. The council approved the petition. (See next page for a map [Diagram A] of the proposed area.) Parenthetical expressions A parenthetical expression is a word, phrase, or sentence that breaks into the main thought of a sentence. These are usually set off with
commas or parentheses. Grandma Moses, for example, started painting in her seventies. In the first act of the play, the butler (Theo Karras) was the detectives prime suspect. Dashes Sometimes stronger emphasis is called for, and this is where we use a dash. A dash looks like this: Z. Use a dash to indicate an abrupt
break into thought or speech. The right thing to doI know it will be hard to dois to apologize. Do you think Anne will mindmind very much, I meanif I borrow her sunglasses? asked Melody. FIN
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