Quality Management in Construction Projects 2 Dr. Nabil El Sawalhi 1 Quality Gurus The TQM approach was developed immediately
after World War II. There are prominent researchers and practitioners whose work has dominated this movement. Their ideas, concepts, and approaches in addressing specific quality issues have become part of the accepted wisdom in TQM, resulting in a major and lasting impact within the field. 2
These persons known as quality gurus. They all emphasize involvement of organizational management in the quality efforts. These philosophers are 1. Philip B. Crosby 2. W. Edwards Deming 3. Armand V. Feigenbaum
3 4. Kaoru Ishikawa 5. Joseph M. Juran 6. John S. Oakland 7. Shigeo Shingo 8. Genichi Taguchi 4
Philip B. Crosby He introduced five Absolute Truths of Quality Management. 1. Quality is defined as conformance to requirement, not as goodness or elegance. 2. There is no such thing as a quality problem. 3. It is always cheaper to do it right the first time. 4. The only performance measurement is the cost of
quality. 5. The only performance standard is zero defects 5 Crosbys perspective on quality has three essential beliefs: 1. A belief in qualification 2. Management leadership 3. Prevention rather than cure
6 7 W. Edwards Deming Is considered Quality founding father. His philosophy is based on four principal methods:
1. The PlanDoCheckAct (PDCA) Cycle 2. Statistical process control 3. The 14 principles of transformation 4. The seven-point action plan 8 PDCA Cycle The PDCA or PDSA cycle consists of a four-step model for carrying out change.
Just as a circle has no end, the PDCA cycle should be repeated again and again for continuous improvement. PDCA is a basic model that can be compared to the continuous improvement process, which can be applied on a small scale. 9 10
When to use PDCA As a model for continuous improvement When starting a new improvement project When developing a new or improved design of process, product, or service When defining a repetitive work process When planning data collection and analysis in order to verify and prioritize problems or root
causes When implementing any change 11 Procedure For PDCA 1. Plan. Recognize an opportunity and plan the change. 2. Do. Test the change; carry out a small-scale study.
3. Check. Review the test, analyze the results, and identify learning's. 4. Act. Take action based on what you learned in the study step. 12 If the change did not work, go through the cycle again with a different plan. If you were successful, incorporate the
learning from the test into wider changes. Use what you learned to plan new improvements, beginning the cycle again. 13 The PDCA in Construction when PDCA used as a process improvement tool for design improvement/ design conformance in
construction projects to meet owners requirements, shall indicate the following actions: Plan: Establish scope. Do: Develop design. Check: Review and compare. Act: Implement comments, take corrective action, and/ or release contract documents to construct/build the project/facility. 14
15 Statistical Process Control Statistical Process Control (SPC) is a quantitative approach based on the measurement of process control. Deming believed in the use of SPC charts as the key method for identifying special and common
causes and assisting diagnosis of quality problems. His aim was to remove outliers, that is, quality problems relating to the special causes of failure. 16 This was achieved through training, improved machinery and equipment, and so on. SPC enabled the production process to be
brought under control. The remaining quality problems were considered to be related to common causes, that is, they were inherent in the design of the production process. 17 14 Principles for Transformation Demings 14 principles for transformation are
listed in Table 1.6. The Seven-Point Action Plan In order to implement the 14 principles, Deming proposed a seven-point action plan. These are listed in Figure 1.17 18 19
20 The Seven-Point Action Plan In order to implement the 14 principles, Deming proposed a seven-point action plan. These are listed in Figure 1.17. 21
22 Armand V. Feigenbaum Feigenbaum defines quality as best for the customer use and selling price, and quality control as an effective method for cocoordinating the quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts at the various groups in an organization, so as to enable
production at the most economical levels that allow for full customer satisfaction. 23 A rmand V. Feigenbaum Feigenbaums philosophy of quality has a four-step approach. These are: Step 1. Set quality standards Step 2. Appraise conformance to standards
Step 3. Act when standards are not met Step 4. Plan to make improvements Figure 1.18 illustrates Feigenbaums technology triangle, relating the engineering technologies to the overall field of total quality control. 24 25
Kaoru Ishikawa The founding philosophy of Ishikawa approach is companywide quality control. He has identified 15 effects of companywide quality control. Ishikawas approach deals with organizational aspects and is supported by the quality circles technique and the seven tools of quality control.
26 Quality circles are Ishikawas principal method for achieving participation, composed of 5 to 15 workers from the same area of achieving, and led by a foreman or supervisor who acts as a group leader to liaison between the workers and the management.
27 The function of quality circles is to identify local problems and recommend the solutions. The aim of quality circles is to: Contribute to the improvement and development the enterprise Respect human relations and build a happy workshop offering job satisfaction
Deploy human capabilities fully and draw out infinite potential 28 Four Points for Formation of Quality Circles: Kaoru Ishikawa Kaoru Ishikawa 1. Voluntarism: Circles are to be created on voluntary basis, and not by a command from above. Begin circle
activities with people who wish to participate. 2. Self-development: Circle members must be willing to study. 3. Mutual development: Circle members must aspire to expand their horizons and cooperate with other circles. 4. Eventual total participation: Circles must establish their ultimate goal of full participation of all workers in the same workplace. 29
The quantitative techniques of the Ishikawa approach are referred as Ishikawas Seven Tools of Quality Control, listed in Figure 1.19. The approach includes both quantitative and qualitative aspects, which, taken together, focus on achieving companywide quality. 30
31 cause-and-effect analysis There are six steps that are used to perform a cause-andeffect analysis. These are Step 1. Identify the problem to analyze its technical cause. Step 2. Select an interdisciplinary brainstorm team. Step 3. Draw a problem box and prime arrows. Step 4. Specify major categories contributing to the
problem. Step 5. Identify a defect cause. Step 6. Identify corrective action and perform the analysis in the same manner as for the cause and effect analysis. 32 fishbone Description The Fishbone Diagram identifies many possible causes for an effect or
problem. It can be used to structure a brainstorming session. It immediately sorts ideas into useful categories. When to use When identifying possible causes of a problem When the teams thinking tends to fall into ruts Procedure 1. Agree on a problem statement (effect). Write it at the center right of the flipchart or whiteboard. Draw a box around it and draw a horizontal arrow running to it.
2. Brainstorm the major categories of causes of the problem. If there is difficulty here, use generic headings: method, machines (equipment), people (manpower), materials, measurement, and environment. Write the categories of causes as branches from the main arrow. 33 3. Brainstorm all the possible causes of the problem. Ask Why does this happen? As each idea is given, the
facilitator writes it as a branch from the appropriate category. Causes can be written in several places if they relate to several categories or multiple relationships. 4. Ask again, Why does this happen? about each cause. Write Sub causes branching off the causes. Continue to ask Why and generate deeper levels of causes. Layers of branches indicate causal relationships. 5. When the team runs out of ideas, focus attention on places on the fishbone where ideas are few.
34 Joseph M. Juran Jurans philosophy is perhaps best summed as Quality does not happen by accident; it has to be planned. Jurans definition of quality is Fitness for use or purpose. His thinking on quality is an operational framework of three quality processes.
These are 1. Quality planning 2. Quality control 3. Quality improvement 35 Jurans quality trilogy of planning control and improvement offers the guidelines for his approach.
Figure 1.21 summarizes his steps on quality planning. Figure 1.22 illustrates the quality control procedure, whereas Table 1.8 summarizes Jurans steps for continuous quality improvement 36 37
38 39 John S. Oakland Oaklands philosophy of quality is We cannot avoid seeing how quality has developed into the most important
competitive weapon, and many organizations have realized that TQM is the way of managing for the future (Oakland, 1993, Preface). 40 He gives absolute importance to the pursuit of quality as the cornerstone of organizational success.
Oaklands view is that quality starts at the top, with quality parameters inherent in every organizational decision. 41 He offers his own overarching approach for TQM on the many well-established methods, tools, and techniques for achieving quality, and some new
insight. The overarching method is his Ten Points for Senior Management. Figure 1.23 illustrates this. Figure 1.24 illustrates Oaklands major features in his Total Quality Management model. 42 43
44 Shigeo Shingo Shingos early philosophy embraced the scientific management ideas originated by Fredrick Taylor in the early part of the 20th century. Shingo believed that statistical methods detect
error too late in the manufacturing process. He suggested that, instead of detecting errors, it was better to engage in preventative measures aimed at eliminating error sources 45 Shigeo Shingo Shingo continues to believe in mechanizing the monitoring of error, considering that human
assessment was inconsistent and prone to error and introduction of controls within a process. He used people to identify underlying causes and produce preventative solutions. Shingo has a clear belief, like Crosby, in a zero defects approach. 46
His approach emphasizes zero defects through good engineering and process investigation and rectification. Shingo is strongly associated with the Just-inTime manufacturing philosophy. He was the inventor of the Single-Minute Exchange of Die (SMDE) system that drastically reduced the equipment setup time from hours to minutes. 47
Genichi Taguchi Taguchis two founding ideas of quality work are essentially quantitative. The first is a statistical method to identify and eradicate quality problems. The second rests on designing products and processes to build in quality right from the outset
48 Based on these, the common features of their philosophies can be summarized as follows: 1. Quality is conformance to the customers defined needs. 2. Senior management is responsible for quality.
3. Institute continuous improvement of process, product, and services through the application of various tools and procedures to achieve higher level of quality. 49 4. Establish performance measurement standards to avoid defects. 5. Take a team approach by involving every member of
the organization. 6. Provide training and education to everyone in the organization. 7. Establish leadership to help employees perform a better job. Thus, their concept of quality forms the basic tenets of TQM. 50
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