Quantum Wave Model

Quantum Wave Model Electron Configuration 4 subshells S, P, D, F S Subshell

Spherical in Shape enables the electrons to surround the nucleus of the atom Lowest energy level 1 orbital (each orbital holds 2 e-) Holds 2 e- P Subshell

Dumbbell shaped and can be oriented in space in one of three ways. 3 orbitals (each orbital holds 2 e-) Holds up to 6e- D Subshell

Dumbbell shaped 5 orbitals (each orbital holds 2 e-) Holds 10 e- F Subshell

Dumbbell shaped Greatest energy 7 orbitals (each orbital holds 2 e-) Holds 14 e-

Orbital Diagrams Orbital Diagrams: Electrons enter the electron configuration (orbital diagram) pattern beginning at the lowest energy and filling the pattern to the highest energy.

Hunds Rule Hunds Rule: Electrons enter the each orbital individually until all orbitals are half filled before pairing with other electrons in the subshell. In other words one electron per orbital until all orbitals are filled, then 2nd electron can be

placed in each orbital. Pauli Exclusion Principle Pauli Exclusion Principle: an orbital can contain no more than two electrons and those two electrons must be paired, In other words, electrons must have opposite

spin (usually indicated by one up-arrow and one down-arrow). Since there are two spins, the maximum number of electrons in an orbital is 2 Aufbau Principle of Build Up Principle

Electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first In other words, electrons will enter the subshell 4s2 before subshell 3d10. Feeling Overwhelmed? "Teacher, may I be excused? My brain is full."

Modern Atomic Structure Brightstorm Link Lets Try it. Use Mrs. Edies chart __

1s __ / __ __ __ 2s 2p __ / __ __ __ 3s 3p

__ / __ __ __ 4s 4p __ / __ __ __ 5s 5p __ / __ __ __

6s 6p __ __ __ __ __ 3d __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 4d

4f __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 5d 5f __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 6d 6f

Lets take a short quiz Lets review together How many energy levels are there? 7

The ___ represents? The orbital What is the maximum number of electrons that can be held in one orbital 2

How many subshells are in the second energy level? 2 2s and 2p __ 1s

__ / __ __ __ 2s 2p How many electrons can occupy in the second energy level? 8

How many orbitals are in the f subshell? 7 __ 1s __ / __ __ __ 2s 2p

__ / __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 3s 3p 3d __ / __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 4s 4p

4d 4f How many electrons will the third energy level hold? 18 __

1s __ / __ __ __ 2s 2p __ / __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ (each orbital will hold 2 electrons) 3s 3p

3d What four letters represent the subshells?

S P D F 1s , 2s , 2p ,3s 3p

2 2 6 2

6 This is called the _________Configuration Electron What element does this electron configuration represent?

Argon The number 2 in 2p6 represents the Energy level The number 6 in 2p6 represents the number of

Valence Electrons What is the maximum number of electrons the 4d subshell can hold? 10 __ 1s

__ / __ __ __ 2s 2p __ / __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 3s 3p 3d

__ / __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 4s 4p 4d 4f What is an easy way to determine the

number of valence electrons? Look at the periodic table and determine the family the element is in. Family I 1 valence electron Family II 2 valence electrons Family III 3 valence electrons Family IV 4 valence electrons

Family V 5 valence electrons Family VI 6 valence electrons Family VII 7 valence electrons Family VIII 8 valence electrons Electron Configuration Polka

Song by Michael Offut Theres a little game thats as easy as can be, With numbers and letters and

lots of chemistry It comes from quantum theory and wave mechanics stuff, But for now just

learn the game and that will be enough. 1-S ONE 2-s two

2-p six 1-s one, 2-s two, then comes 2-p six, The electron configuration game is really slick,

From alkali to halogen and on to noble gas, Now you can understand the periodic law at last. Atoms have

orbitals where electrons like to play, And those electrons fill the orbitals in a special way.

Its a building up processyou can learn it in a second, And you can call it Aufbau if Deutsch is what you sprechen.

1-S ONE 2-s two 2-p six

1-s one, 2-s two, then comes 2-p six, The electron configuration game is really slick, From alkali to halogen and on to noble gas,

Now you can understand the periodic law at last. The outermost electrons in atoms have to be, The most important ones

for understanding chemistry. These valence electrons are shared, or lost, or gained,

In chemical reactions when atoms rearrange 1-S ONE 2-s two

2-p six 1-s one, 2-s two, then comes 2-p six, The electron configuration game is really slick,

From alkali to halogen and on to noble gas, Now you can understand the periodic law at last.

But the joy is that now. . . at this point in history, We can finally solve the periodic table mystery. !

Why do elements form families, what is the explanation? Their valence electrons have the same configuration 1-S ONE

2-s two 2-p six 1-s one, 2-s two, then comes 2-p six,

The electron configuration game is really slick, From alkali to halogen and on to noble gas, Now you can understand the periodic law

at last.

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