"Notes: Bone Types and Structure"

"Notes: Bone Types and Structure"

Notes: Bone Types and Structure (1) What are the Bone Regions? Axial Down the center of body Skull, vertebral column, rib cage, center pelvis

Appendicular Off the sides of body Upper and lower limbs, shoulder and hip bones (2) What are the types of Bones?

Long Short Flat Irregular

(3) Long Bones

Longer than they are wide Has a shaft and 2 ends Weight bearing bones (like steel beams) Provide the greatest structure and support Examples: All limb bones

Except. Kneecap, Wrist and Ankle bones (4) Short Bones Cube Shaped Allow for wider range of movement Examples: Wrist

Ankle (5) Flat Bones Thin, flat and curved Protect soft tissue (like plates of armor) Examples: Sternum

Shoulder blades Ribs Skull bones (6) Irregular Bones Complicated, unusual shapes Muscles, tendons, ligaments usually

attach to these Examples: Vertebrae Hip bones (8) Bone Structure Unique based on location + bone type.

Compact Bone (Outer Layer): Dense Smooth and Solid to naked eye Spongy Bone (Inner Layer): Hole-y (like a honeycomb) Made of small needle-like, flat pieces called trabeculae

Open spaces between trabeculae are filled with red or yellow bone marrow (9) Structure of a Long Bone Diaphysis: Center, main shaft Long part of bone

Made of very thick compact bone surrounding a central marrow cavity Epiphysis:

Ends of bone Wider than diaphysis Made of compact bone which surrounds spongy bone. Joint surface of each epiphysis is covered with hyaline cartilage

Epiphyseal Line: Remnant of Epiphyseal Plate Found in adult bones Shows amount of cartilage growth during adolescence

Membranes: Periosteum = Around the outside Richly supplied with nerve fibers, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels Provides anchoring points for tendons and ligaments Endosteum = Around the inside

Surrounds the spongy bone (12) Chemical Composition of Bone Contains organic & inorganic components Organic: Cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts) Osteoid

Made of glycoproteins and collagen fibers Secreted by osteoblasts filler matrix around cells Contribute to flexibility and tensile strength Inorganic:

Mineral Salts (calcium phosphates) Contribute to hardness of bone (allowing for compression resistance)

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