"Status and potential of locally-managed marine areas in the ...
Status and potential of locallymanaged marine areas in the South Pacific Island Region Hugh Govan LMMA Network Content Based on SPREP/WWF review of regional progress and LMMA annual reports Overview of history and status Characteristics Lessons and challenges Potential for CEAFM or EBM Evolution of LMMAs and objectives Traditional purposes / food allocation Conservation Fisheries management / Biodiversity PreLivelihoods 1900s Ceremonial or Kastom purposes Support agencies (Vanuatu, Fiji ) (up to 1990s) Harvest tabu area To protect the nesting when fish are plentiful Support agencies ground and rookery of
(Vanuatu) the Hawksbill and other (since 1990s) sea turtles in the To manage and protect Arnavon Islands. the inshore area to help (AMCA) increase the amount of resources (Tonga) Locally Managed Marine Areas SPECTRUM Local or internal Traditional purposes / food allocation OF OBJECTIVES Conservation Fisheries management / Livelihoods Ceremonial or Kastom purposes (Vanuatu, Fiji ) Biodiversity Support agencies (up to 1990s) Harvest tabu area Support agencies To protect the nesting
when fish are plentiful (since 1990s) ground and rookery of (Vanuatu) the Hawksbill and other To manage and protect sea turtles in the the inshore area to help Arnavon Islands. increase the amount of (AMCA) resources (Tonga) Locally Managed Marine Areas Global or external Courtesy of M. Mills, JCU Inventory of Marine Managed Areas in Pacific Countries EEZ Area (km) Territorial Waters Number of (TW) active (km) MMAs / tabus Cook Islands 1,830,000 31,314 Fiji
1,290,000 Papua New Guinea Active MMA coverage (km) % of EEZ under management % of TW under management 19 0.06 9.5 114,464 24 217 10,880 0.001 0.8 3,120,000 355,699
14,007 28 1,126 0.2 8 TOTAL 19,292,000 1,023,473 579 17,270 0.09 1.7 Samoa Solomon Islands Marshall Islands 76 *This estimation excludes the Phoenix Island Protected Area that comprises 408,250 km making 11% of the EEZ under management once the management plan and endowment will be finalized. Inventory of Marine Managed Areas in Pacific Territories
EEZ Area (km) Territorial Waters (TW) (km) Number of MMAs Active MMA coverage % of EEZ under management % of TW under management American Samoa 390,000 9,910 19 174 0.04 1.8 French
New Caledonia * Including World Heritage core marine areas declared in 2008 comprising 15,743 km and excluding the buffer zone of 12,871 km. What are these marine managed areas like? Roviana, Solomon Islands Most are community conserved areas or LMMAS Fishing reserve (tabu), Solomon Islands Community planning, Tuvalu Sa - (No-take zones) in Safata MPA, Samoa Traditional declaration of a tabu in Vanuatu (with pig killing) Many are performing adaptive management in which communities identify problems, examine options, implement actions and evaluate The same adaptive management process can be use for integrated management, disaster preparedness, adaptation and other community development purposes Paunagisu, Marou and Anelgehaut in Vanuatu have watershed and development plans integrated in their MPA plan No-take zones or tabus are small e.g. Solomon Islands What are the sizes of tabu? (n=78) 30 27
0.1 > Km2 and the tabus may be periodically opened. Importance of social networks Traditional ties and neighbouring communities (trickle down) Government sponsored e.g. Fisheries or Environment department in Samoa Provincial or district (e.g. Kadavu, GERUSA) National multi-stakeholder e.g. FLMMA, SILMMA, PNG-LMMA Regional NGOs e.g. WWF, TNC, FSPI Regional mixed e.g. LMMA network, PIMPAC, MIC The Locally Managed Marine Area Network (LMMA) LMMA Network Members LMMA Country Networks PLMMA ILMMA PNGCLMA SILMMA FLMMA Site members of the LMMA Network 2009 Tool/ MPA
Area (sq. km) # of Manage -ment Plans Legally Gazette d 10,74 5 467 208 1 16 696.9 8 34 16 8 11 7
Vanuatu 26 27 18 290 1 5 1 Total No. of LMM As No. of Villag es No. of Tools/ MPAs 250 388 235 16
11 Palau 5 Pohnpei Country Fiji Indonesia LMMA Area (sq km) Courtesy of M. Mills, JCU Kadavu Yaubula Management Support Team A. Tawake Kadavu Yaubula Management Support Team A. Tawake What are some of the reported benefits? Biodiversity (increases in tabu areas)
Increased resource harvests (harder to measure) Biodiversity (increases in tabu Information, awareness and capacity Food security predictable supply areas) Governance and conflict management Community organization Resilience and adaptation harvests (harder Increased resource Health to measure) Strengthen resource rights, respect, tenure Cultural recovery/survival Integrated resource management An excellent basis for Integrated Island Management / ICZM?? Some key issues Define new roles: Government/external agencies role is support, coordination and technical advice rather than command and control define new governance roles and multi-sector partnerships. NGOs..? Go to scale and beyond MPAs: Huge potential of tenure systems for integrated or ecosystem based management owing to land and sea tenure building block of resource management Long term sustainability: External costs kept very low as community provides main inputs beware incentives sustainable use is the key
driver The potential is very good AND little alternative approaches demonstrated Support costs can be low (yearly avg) Country Site/project Cost/site Cost/km2 Cost/km2 No TakeZone Samoa Village Fisheries Management Programme (VFMP) 1,344 1,862 5,795 Samoa Aleipata MPA 6,500 - 16,000 179 360 2,339 8,394 Samoa
Safata MPA 6,500 - 19,000 179 534 2,339 4,471 Solomon Islands WFC, Isabel and Western Province 3,000 ~100 3,500 Solomon Islands WWF, Western Province 16,000/MPA 5,000/ NTZ 2,900 Solomon Islands FSPI, Malaita, Gela, Guadalcanal 1,851 - 2,569 4,634 - 6,432 Solomon Islands
125 12,000 Major costs are staff and transport e.g. FSPI Solomon Islands National network support Government support Personnel External Technical support Communications Office/field equipment and admin Workshops/Training Travel Potential for taking these experiences forward as a national approach would depend on being: Designed to fully integrate into government functions over the medium term (applies to Melanesia), Decentralized into logistically functional management areas (provinces or similar), Cost effectiveness to improve the likelihood of sustainable financing within government budgets or from donors / all of government approach (DRM, CCA, ICM) Phased or cumulative approach optimizing trickle down or snowballing effects. 1000s of communities.. Simple but strategic overview and non-burdensome data collection to enable the ongoing identification of gaps (objectives, species, habitats, coverage and so on). Sources and reference:
Govan et al*. 2009. Status and potential of locally-managed marine areas in the Pacific Island Region. SPREP/WWF/ Reefbase/CRISP LMMA annual reports www.lmmanetwork.org * Et al. = Contributions from Alifereti Tawake, Kesaia Tabunakawai, Aaron Jenkins, Antoine Lasgorceix, Ann-Maree Schwarz, Bill Aalbersberg, Bruno Manele, Caroline Vieux, Dan Afzal, Delvene Notere, Erika Techera, Eroni Tulala Rasalato, Helen Sykes, Hugh Walton, Hugo Tafea, Isoa Korovulavula, James Comley, Jeff Kinch, Jess Feehely, Julie Petit, Louise Heaps, Paul Anderson, Pip Cohen, Pulea Ifopo, Ron Vave, Roy Hills, Seini Tawakelevu, Semese Alefaio, Semese Meo, Shauna Troniak, Suzie Kukuian, Sylvia George, Tevi Maltali. Munda, Solomon Islands
7 CFR Parts 15 a-c. Gives USDA agencies authority to develop civil rights requirements. 7 CFR Part 16 . Equal opportunity for religious organizations. 7 CFR Part 210. NSLP regulations. 7 CFR Parts 215 . SMP regulations
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