Radiation and Radioactivity

Radiation and Radioactivity

Radiation and Radioactivity Radiation: Energy in transit, either particulate or electromagnetic in nature Radioactivity: The characteristic of various materials to emit ionizing radiation Ionization: The removal of electrons from an atom. The essential characteristic of high The Atom Protons 11p (1.007276 amu) Electrons (0.0005486 amu) Neutrons 10n (1.008665 amu) Neon-20 2010Ne (19.992434 amu)

Alpha Decay Daughter Nucleus Np-237 Th-234 Ra-228 Rn-222 Parent Nucleus Am-241 U-238 Th-232 Ra-226

Alpha Particle (Helium Nucleus) (4.00147 amu) Beta (Negatron) Decay Daughter Nucleus Osmium-187 Calcium-40 Parent Nucleus Rhenium-187 Potassium-40 Antineutrino

Beta Particle (electron) Gamma-Ray Emission Gamma Ray Parent Nucleus Cesium-137 Molybdenum-99

Daughter Nucleus Barium-137m Technetium-99m Positron Decay Daughter Nucleus Boron-11 Carbon-13 Neutrino

+ Positron Particle Parent Nucleus (Positive electron) Carbon-11 Nitrogen-13 Annihilation Radiation - Electron Capture and Characteristic X-Rays Daughter Nucleus ron-57 Parent Atom Cobalt-57

Neutrino Characteristic X-Ray X-Ray Production (Bremsstrahlung) Electron X-Ray Target Nucleus Tungsten Anode (+) Cathode (-) X-Rays

Types of Radiation 1 Alpha Beta Paper Plastic Lead Concrete

Gamma and X-rays n Neutron 0 Measures of Radioactivity Activity: The quantity of radioactive material present at a given time: Curie (Ci) : disintegration per second (dps) milliCurie (mCi): dps microCurie (mCi): dps

3.7x1010 3.7x107 3.7x104 Half-Life 1200 1000 The time required for the amount of radioactive material to decrease by one-half 800 Activity600 400 200 0 New 1 Half- 2 Half- 3 Half- 4 HalfLife Lives Lives

Lives Radiation Detection Gas Filled Detectors ncident Ionizing Radiation Voltage Source + + + + + - - Anode + Cathode Air or Other Gas Electrica Current Measurin Device Radiation Detection

Scintillation Detectors cident Ionizing Radiation Photomultiplier Tube Light Photon Pulse Measuring Device - Sodium-Iodide Crystal Dynode Photocathode Optical Window Anode

Radiation and Radioactivity Radiation: Energy in transit, either as particles or electromagnetic waves Radioactivity: The characteristic of various materials to emit ionizing radiation Ionization: The removal of electrons from an atom. The essential characteristic of high Radiation Units Roentgen: A unit for measuring the amount of gamma or X rays in air Rad: A unit for measuring absorbed energy from radiation Rem: A unit for measuring biological damage from radiation Elements An element is the smallest amount

of a substance that still exhibits the properties of that substance. Elements are classified by the number of protons in each atom, and can be arranged in order in the Periodic Chart. Atoms Atoms are the building blocks of all matter, made up of protons and neutrons and electrons. Almost all atoms are very stable, but some may have too much energy and be radioactive. Molecules and Compounds Atoms group together or bond to each other forming molecules and compounds. Examples of these are water (2 hydrogen, 1 oxygen atoms) and sugar (6 carbon, 12 hydrogen and

6 oxygen atoms) Three States of Matter Solid: Solids are items don't change their shapes like rocks, wood and ice. Liquid: Liquids flow, like water, alcohol and glass Gas: Gases are free flowing, like air, oxygen and steam. The difference between each is the amount of energy the molecules Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic waves are energy waves, ranging from the low energy radio waves to the high energy gamma rays. They have a height (amplitude) and a length between wave peaks (wave length)

Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiations do not have enough energy to remove electrons from atoms, such as: Ultraviolet Radiation Light Infrared Radiation Microwaves Radio Waves Contamination vs Radiation Radiation and Contamination are often confused. Radiation is energy, while contamination is the physical presence of a radioactive material on something. So, you may have contamination on your shoe, but not radiation. Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiations do

have enough energy to remove electrons from atoms, such as: X-rays Gamma rays Units of Contamination Contamination, or the presence of radioactive material on something is measured as count on a detector per some time like a minute (cpm), or by the actual decay rate (dps). Radiation Effects and Risk Exposure: A measure of ionization in air from x-ray and gamma rays. Roentgens, or mR Dose: A measure of the energy absorbed in any material as a radiation passes through it. Rads or mrads, Gray or mGy. Dose equivalent: A measure of risk

Activities or Effects of Radiation Dose Food Irradiation: 100000 rads Cancer Radiation Therapy: 6000 rads Lethal WB Dose to 50% of Population: 350 rads Increase risk of cancer by 1% 12.5 rem Maximum Annual Occupational Dose: Radiation Known to Occur at High Doses Non-Stochastic Effects: A health effect where the severity of the effect increases with dose: Cataracts Sterility Loss of Hair (Epilation) Skin Reddening (Erythema) Acute Radiation Syndrome

Cancer and Cancer Risk Each year 1,000,000 cancers are diagnosed in the U.S. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. Approximately 1 in 6 will die of cancer. Radiation exposure does not cause unique forms of cancer. The risk of cancer from radiation exposure is assumed to be linear with dose (ICRP Radiation and Risk Perceptions and Reality Public 1 2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Nuclear Power Motor Vehicles Handguns Smoking Motorcycles Alcoholic Beverages Private Aviation Police Work Pesticides Surgery Fire Fighting Large Construction

Hunting Spray Cans Mountain Climbing Radiation and Risk: Perceptions and Reality Public 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

30 Bicycles Commercial Aviation Electric Power Swimming Contraceptives Skiing X-Rays High School and College Football Railroads Food Preservatives Food Coloring Power Mowers Prescription Antibiotics Home Appliances Vaccinations Radiation and Risk: Perceptions and Reality Public

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Nuclear Power Motor Vehicles Handguns Smoking Motorcycles Alcoholic Beverages

Private Aviation Police Work Pesticides Surgery Fire Fighting Large Construction Hunting Spray Cans Mountain Climbing 20 1 4 2 6 3 12 17 8 5 18 13

23 26 29 Experts Radiation and Risk: Perceptions and Reality Public 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

28 29 30 Bicycles Commercial Aviation Electric Power Swimming Contraceptives Skiing X-Rays High School and College Football Railroads Food Preservatives Food Coloring Power Mowers Prescription Antibiotics Home Appliances Vaccinations 15 16

9 10 11 30 7 27 19 14 21 28 24 22 25 Experts Days of Life Lost from Various Risks Being an unmarried male Smoking cigarettes and male Heart disease Being an unmarried female

Being 30 percent overweight Cancer Being 20 percent overweight Having only an 8th grade education Smoking and being female Being poor Stroke Having a dangerous job Driving a car Pneumonia, Flu Alcohol Accidents in the home Suicide Diabetes 3,500 2,250 2,100 1,600 1,300 980 900

850 800 700 520 300 207 141 130 95 95 95 Days of Life Lost from Various Risks Being Murdered Having an average risk job Drowning Having a job with radiation exposure Falls Walking down the street Having a safe job Fires and burns

Using illegal drugs Poisoning Suffocation Natural Radiation Medical X-Rays Coffee Oral contraceptives Riding a bike Drinking Diet Sodas Radiation from Nuclear Industry 90 74 41 40 39 37 30 27 18 17 13

8 6 6 5 5 2 0.02 Activities which increase risk by 1 in a Million Smoking 1.4 Cigarettes Drinking 0.5 liter of wine Spending 1 hour in a coal mine Spending 3 hours in a coal mine Living two days in Boston or New York Traveling 10 miles by bicycle Traveling 150 miles by car Flying 1000 miles by jet Flying 6000 miles by jet Living two months in Denver Living two months in brick building One chest x-ray

Eating 40 Tablespoons of peanut butter Living 5 years at site boundary of a nuclear plant Eating 100 charcoal -broiled steaks Living within 5 miles of a nuclear reactor for 50 years Cancer, heart disease Cirrhosis of the liver Black lung disease Accident Air Pollution Accident Accident Accident Cancer caused by cosmic radiation Cancer caused by cosmic radiation Cancer caused by natural radiation Cancer caused by radiation Liver cancer caused by aflatoxin B Cancer caused by radiation Cancer from benzopyrene

Cancer caused by accidental radiation release Nuclear Power Fission Xenon-144 1 0 n 1 Neutron 1 0

n 0 n Uranium-235 Plutonium-239 Strontium-90 Fission Chain Reactions 1 0 n Neutron Uranium-235 Plutonium-239

Basic Design of a Reactor Core Pressurized Water Reactor Control Rods Steam Generator Turbine Generator Reactor Vessel Pump Condensor Cooling Water Pump Core

Pump Primary Containment Boiling Water Reactor Turbine Generator Reactor Vessel Pump Core Condensor Cooling Water Jet Pump Pump Control Rods Pump

Primary Containment Barriers Against Release of Radiation Steel Containment Concrete Shield Building Fuel Pellets Core Fuel Rods Steel Pressure Vessel A crayon* (without the tip) is about the size of five

uranium fuel pellets stacked together Source Energy Equivalents 15 Barrels of oil Five uranium fuel pellets .. 12 1/2 Tons of wood have as much energy available in todays nuclear power plants as... 5 Tons of coal 85,000 cu ft of natural gas IONIZING RADIATION

School Presentation What Will You Learn Today? Identify natural background and manufactured sources of radiation. Learn how radiation affects living things. Learn how radiation is detected using radiation survey meters The three basic particles of the atom are PROTONS, NEUTRONS AND ELECTRONS proton electron neutron There are stable and unstable atoms UNSTABLE atoms emit energy

RF wave infrared visible uv x-ray -ray cosmic low energy non-ionizing high energy ionizing radiation Non-Ionizing Radiation Does not have enough energy to remove electrons from surrounding atoms Ionizing Radiation can deposit energy in neighboring atoms resulting in the removal of electrons. Alpha Radiation is only a hazard when inside your body (internal hazard) skin will stop it

cantYour penetrate skin internal hazard stopped by paper found in soil, radon and other radioactive materials Beta Radiation is a Skin, Eye and Internal Hazard skin, eye and internal hazard stopped by plastic found in natural food, air and water X and gamma radiation are penetrating radiation and an EXTERNAL HAZARD.

stopped by lead naturally present in soil and cosmic radiation found in medical uses Neutron particles have no charge and can penetrate deep into the body Radiation Versus Radioactive Contamination Radiation is particles or waves of energy emitted from unstable atoms. Radioactive Contamination is radioactive material usually in any location you do not want it. Background and Manufactured Radiation In the U.S. Contributes 360 mrem per Year

radon - 200 cosmic - 28 diet - 40 terrestrial - 28 Manufactured sources of radiation contribute an average of 60 mrem/year cigarette smoking - 1300 mrem medical - 53 mrem building materials - 3.6 mrem smoke detectors - 0.0001 mrem fallout < 1 mrem round trip US by air 5 mrem per trip Biological Effects of Radiation Early scientists determined that

radiation was a useful tool but it could hurt you. Radiation can cause burns and cellular damage. Biological Effects of Radiation The principle hazard from radiation exposure is an increase in the risk of cancer induction. SIGNS ARE REQUIRED TO NOTIFY EVERYONE OF THE PRESENCE OF RADIATION MONITORING RADIATION EXPOSURE Radiation dosimeters measures radiation dose to people. Minimize Dose By Good Practices TIME - reduce time of exposure DISTANCE - increase distance SHIELDING - use shielding

Radiation is detected with survey meters Alpha Survey Meter 20 60 ||||||| || COUNTS/MI G GENERAL N E ELECTRIC 0 x100 x1K x10K 40

80 10 0 ON x10 AUDIO BATT OFF RESET ALPHA SURVEY METER LEA75-1854 SER.NO. Beta, Gamma & X-ray

Survey Meter Solar Radiation Cosmic Rays Radiation and Life Nuclear Medicine X-Rays Radon Consumer Products Each Other Radioactive Waste

Nuclear Power Terrestrial Radiation Food & Drink Milk Contribution of Various Sources of Radiation to Average Annual Medical Nuclear Dose X-Rays Medicine Internal 11% Terrestrial 8%

11% 4% Consumer Products (3%) Other (<1%) Occupational 0.3% Fallout <0.3% Nuclear Fuel Cycle 0.1% Miscellaneous 0.1% Cosmic 8% Radon 55% Average Annual Effective Dose

in Natural Sources U.S. Population, (1980-82) 200 mrem 200 mrem Radon Cosmic Cosmogenic Terrestrial In the Body 27 27mrem mrem 10 10mrem mrem 28

28mrem mrem 39 39mrem mrem 0.9 0.9mrem mrem 0.05 0.05mrem mrem Occupational ------ Nuclear Fuel Cycle 55--13 13mrem mrem Consumer Products Tobacco Other

39 39mrem mrem 14 14mrem mrem Total Annual Dose = 360 mrem Upto 16 rem to Bronchial epithelium (Lung lining) Early Uses of Radioactivity

Radiation Therapy Welsbach Thorium Gas Mantles Uranium Ceramic Glazes Anna Glass (Uranium Nitrate) Luminous Dials (Radium) Patent Radium Therapies Radithor Radium Poultices Radon Spas and Mineral Waters Modern Uses of Small Amounts of Radioactive Material or

Radiation Ophthalmic Glass Aerosol (Smoke) Detectors Airport Inspection Systems Lantern Mantles Fluorescent Lamp Starters Welding Rods Fluid Guages Check Sources Modern Uses of Large Amounts of Radioactive Materials or Radiation

Nuclear Power Nuclear Propulsion Nuclear Weapons Food and Medical Supply Irradiation Industrial Radiography Scientific Research Medical X-Rays Nuclear Medicine Services RADON and Life Uranium Decay Series Uranium-238 Uranium-238 4.5E9 4.5E9yy Uranium-234 Uranium-234

2.5E5 2.5E5yy Protactinium-234m Protactinium-234m 1.2 1.2m m Thorium-234 Thorium-234 24 24dd Thorium-230 Thorium-230 7.5E4 7.5E4yy Radium-226 Radium-226

1600 1600yy Radon-222 Radon-222 3.825 3.825dd Polonium-218 Polonium-218 3.1 3.1m m(RaA) (RaA) Polonium-214 Polonium-214 163.7 163.7us us(RaC) (RaC)

Bismuth-214 Bismuth-214 19.9 19.9m m(RaC) (RaC) Beta Decay Alpha Decay Lead-214 Lead-214 27 27m m(RaB) (RaB) Polonium-210 Polonium-210 138 138dd(RaF) (RaF)

Bismuth-210 Bismuth-210 55dd(RaE) (RaE) Lead-210 Lead-210 22.3 22.3yy(RaD) (RaD) Lead-206 Lead-206 Stable Stable Uranium Decay Series Uranium-238 Uranium-238 4.5E9 4.5E9yy

Radium-226 Radium-226 1600 1600yy Radon-222 Radon-222 3.825 3.825dd Polonium-218 Polonium-218 3.1 3.1m m(RaA) (RaA) Polonium-214 Polonium-214 163.7 163.7us us(RaC)

(RaC) Bismuth-214 Bismuth-214 19.9 19.9m m(RaC) (RaC) Lead-214 Lead-214 27 27m m(RaB) (RaB) Lead-210 Lead-210 22.3 22.3yy(RaD) (RaD)

How Does Radon Get in the 1. Cracks in Solid Floors Home? 2. Construction Joints 7. 6. 3. Cracks in Walls 4. Gaps in Floors 5. Gaps around Pipes 6. Cavities in Walls 4. 5. 7. The Water Supply

2. 1. 3. How is Radon Detected Charcoal Canisters Alpha Track Detectors Electret Monitors Radon Sniffers Cancer Death Estimates for Radon 60000 55350 Deaths per 50000 Year

Between 7,000 and 30,000 Deaths 40000 30000 20000 14000 7380 10000 0 Motor Vehicle Accidents RADON Drownings

7380 Fires 2255 Firearm Accidents Radon Risk If You Smoke... Radon Level 20 pCi/l 10 pCi/l 8 pCi/l 4 pCi/l 2 pCi/l 1.3 pCi/l 0.4 pCi/l If 1,000 people who smoked were exposed to this level over their

lifetime.. About 135 people could get lung cancer About 71 people could get lung cancer About 57 people could get lung cancer About 29 people could get lung cancer About 15 people could get lung cancer About 9 people could get lung cancer About 3 people could get lung The risk of cancer exposure compares to.. 100 times the risk of drowning 100 times the risk of dying in a home fire

100 times the risk of dying in an air plane crash 2 times the risk of dying in a car crash (Average indoor radon level) (Average outdoor radon level) Radon Risk If Youve Never Smoked If 1,000 people who The risk of cancer Radon Level 20 pCi/l 10 pCi/l

8 pCi/l 4 pCi/l 2 pCi/l 1.3 pCi/l 0.4 pCi/l smoked were exposed to this level over their lifetime.. About 8 people could get lung cancer About 4 people could get lung cancer About 3 people could get lung cancer About 2 people could get lung cancer About 1 person could get lung cancer Less than 1person could get lung cancer

Less than 1 person could get lung cancer exposure compares to.. Risk of being killed in a violent crime 10 times the risk of dying an an airplane crash The risk of drowning The risk of dying in a home fire (Average indoor radon level) (Average outdoor radon level) Radiation and Risk How Risky is it Really??

Years from Your Life 10.96 Alcoholic 10.00 Poverty 6.16 Smoking-Male No Friends 4.50 Heart Disease 4.40 3.42

Cancer 3.15 High Risk Job 2.85 20% Overweight 2.33 H.S. Drop-Out 2.20 Orphan 0.57 Car Accidents

0 2 4 6 Years 8 10 12 Days from Your Life 207 Car Accidents 130

Alcohol 115 Suicide 93 Murder 77 Air Pollution 55 50 50 AIDS Energy Conservation Spouse Smoking

30 24 23 22 20 Radon Drowning Radiation Worker Drinking Water Fire, Burns 9.3 7 Natural Radiation Natural Hazards 0 50

100 150 Days 200 250 Hours from Your Life 168 Natural Hazards 148.8 144 Bicycles 108 60

Hazardous Waste Anti-Nukes 48 24 21.6 Peanut Butter Live Near Nuc Plant 8 Nuclear Power 3 1.2 0 Government

20 40 60 80 100 Hours 120 140 160 180

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