Energy transfer, ionization, excitation, Bremsstrahlung, linear energy transfer, alpha, beta, gamma, range, Compton scattering, indirectly ionizing, pair production, neutron interactions, fission, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering, radiation shielding. Description Supporting Material Radiations Interaction with Matter 2 2
Energy Transfer Mechanisms Introduction All radiation possesses energy Inherent electromagnetic Kinetic particulate Interaction results in some or all of the energy being transferred to the surrounding medium Scattering Absorption 3
Energy Transfer Mechanisms Ionization Removing bound electron from an electrically neutral atom or molecule by adding sufficient energy to the electron, allowing it to overcome its BE Atom has net positive charge Creates ion pair consisting of negatively charged electron and positively charged atom or molecule 4 Energy Transfer Mechanisms Ionizing Particle
e-Negative Ion N P++ P++ Positive Ion N e-- 5 Energy Transfer Mechanisms
Excitation Process that adds sufficient energy to e- or molecule such that it occupies a higher energy state than its lowest bound energy state Electron remains bound to atom or molecule, but depending on role in bonds of the molecule, molecular break-up may occur No ions produced, atom remains neutral 6 Energy Transfer Mechanisms After excitation, excited atom eventually loses excess energy when e- in higher energy shell falls
into lower energy vacancy Excess energy liberated as X-ray, which may escape from the material, but usually undergoes other absorptive processes 7 Energy Transfer Mechanisms P + + P N
N +N N + P P e-- e-e-- + N + N N N + +
N e -- e-e-e-- 8 Energy Transfer Mechanisms Bremsstrahlung Radiative energy loss of moving charged particle as it interacts with matter through which it is moving Results from interaction of high-speed, charged
particle with nucleus of atom via electric force field With negatively charged electron, attractive force slows it down, deflecting from original path 9 Energy Transfer Mechanisms KE particle loses emitted as x-ray Production enhanced with high-Z materials (larger coulomb forces) and high-energy e- (more interactions occur before all energy is lost) 10
Energy Transfer Mechanisms e-- e-e -- e-- + N + N N N + + N
e -- e-e-e-- 11 Directly Ionizing Radiation Charged particles dont need physical contact with atom to interact Coulombic forces will act over a distance to cause ionization and excitation Strength of these forces depends on:
Particle energy (speed) Particle charge Absorber density and atomic number 12 Directly Ionizing Radiation Coulombic forces significant over distances > atomic dimensions For all but very low physical density materials, loss of KE for e- continuous because of Coulomb force As charged particle passes through absorber, energy loss can be measured several ways
13 Directly Ionizing Radiation Specific Ionization Number of ion pairs formed per unit path length Often used when energy loss is continuous and constant, such as with or - particles Number of pairs produced depends on ionizing particle type and material being ionized 80,000 ion pairs per cm travel in air 5,000 ion pairs per cm travel in air 14
Directly Ionizing Radiation Linear Energy Transfer Average energy a charged particle deposits in an absorber per unit distance of travel (e.g., keV/cm) Used to determine quality factors for calculating dose equivalence 15 Directly Ionizing Radiation Alpha Interactions Mass approximately 8K times > electron Travels approximately 1/20th speed of light
Because of mass, charge, and speed, has high probability of interaction Does not require particles touchingjust sufficiently close for Coulombic forces to interact 16 Directly Ionizing Radiation Energy gradually dissipated until captures two eand becomes a He atom from given nuclide emitted with same energy, consequently will have approximately same range in a given material 17
Directly Ionizing Radiation Calculating Range Approximate general formula for range in air in cm for E < 4 MeV for 4 < E < 8 MeV Where: E = Alpha energy 18 Directly Ionizing Radiation In other media, range in media (Rm in mg/cm2) Where: A = atomic mass of absorber
19 Directly Ionizing Radiation Sample Problem How far will a 2.75 MeV travel in air?travel travel in air?in travel in air?air? How far will that same travel in ? 20 Directly Ionizing Radiation Sample Problem How far will a 950 keV travel in air?travel travel in air?in travel in air?air?
How travel in air?far travel in air?will travel in air?it travel in air?travel travel in air?in travel in air? travel in air?? 21 Directly Ionizing Radiation What is a beta? An unbound electron with KE. Its rest mass and charge are the same as that of an orbital electron. 22
Directly Ionizing Radiation Beta Interactions Interaction between - or + and an orbital e- is interaction between 2 charged particles of similar mass s of either charge lose energy in large number of ionization and/or excitation events, similar to Due to smaller size/charge, lower probability of interaction in given medium; consequently, range is >> of comparable energy 23 Directly Ionizing Radiation
Because s mass is small compared with that of nucleus Large deflections can occur, particularly when low-energy s scattered by high-Z elements (high positive charge on the nucleus) Consequently, usually travels tortuous, winding path in an absorbing medium may have Bremsstrahlung interaction resulting in X-rays 24 Directly Ionizing Radiation
Calculating Range (mg/cm2) for 0.01 < E < 2.5 MeV for E > 2.5 MeV Where: E = Beta energy 25 Directly Ionizing Radiation Sample Problem How far will a 90Sr - travel in air? 26
Directly Ionizing Radiation Sample Problem How far will a 133Xe - travel in air? 27 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation No charge travel in air?and n
No Coulomb force field Must come sufficiently close for physical dimensions to contact particles to interact Small probability of interacting with matter 28 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Dont continuously lose energy by constantly interacting with absorber May move through many atoms or molecules before contacting electron or nucleus Probability of interaction depends on its energy and absorbers density and atomic number
When interactions occur, produces directly ionizing particles that cause secondary ionizations 29 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Gamma absorption and x-rays differ only in origin Name used to indicate different source s originate in nucleuss originate in nucleus X-rays are extra-nuclear (electron cloud) Both have 0 rest mass, 0 net electrical charge, and travel at speed of light
Both lose energy by interacting with matter via one of three major mechanisms 30 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Photoelectric Effect All energy is lost happens or doesnt Photon imparts all its energy to orbital e Because pure energy, photon vanishes Probable only for photon energies < 1 MeV Energy imparted to orbital e- in form of KE, overcoming attractive force of nucleus, usually causing e- to leave orbit with great velocity
31 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation High-velocity e-, called photoelectron Directly ionizing particle Typically has sufficient energy to cause secondary ionizations Most photoelectrons inner-shell (K) electrons 32 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Probability of interaction per gram of absorber ())
Directly proportional to cube of atomic number (Z) Inversely proportional to cube of photon energy (E) Where: Z = Absorber atomic number E = Photon energy 33 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation When calculating ) for absorber with >1 element, must use Zeff a1 and a2 are the fraction of total electrons in the compound For water (H2O) = 10 electrons total
H = 2/10 = 0.2 O = 8/10 = 0.8 34 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Sample Problem What is the probability of a 661 keV photon interacting with a water molecule? 35 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation
Sample Problem contd 36 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Sample Problem What is the probability of a 2.4 MeV photon interacting with a molecule of BF 3? 37 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation e
-- Gamma Photon Photoelectro n e-- (< 1 MeV) e-+ N + N N N +
+ N e -- e-e-e-- 38 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Compton Scattering Partial energy loss for the incoming photon Dominant interaction for most materials for photon
energies 200 keV-5 MeV Photon continues with less energy in different direction to conserve momentum Probability of Compton interaction with distance from nucleus most Compton electrons are valence electrons 39 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Beam of photons may be randomized in direction and energy, so that scattered radiation may appear around corners and behind shields where there is no direct line of sight to the source
Probability of Compton interaction with distance from nucleus most Compton electrons are valence electrons Difficult to represent probability mathematically 40 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation e-Compton Electron Gamma Photon
e-- (200 keV < E < 5 MeV) e-+ N + N N N + + N e --
e-Reduced e-- energy (scattered photon) e-- 41 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation
Pair Production Occurs when all photon energy is converted to mass (occurs only in presence of strong electric field, which can be viewed as catalyst) Strong electric fields found near nucleus and are stronger for high-Z materials disappears in vicinity of nucleus and -- travel in air?+ pair appears 42 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Will not occur unless > 1.022 MeV Any energy > 1.022 MeV shared between the --+ travel in air?
pair as KE Probability < photoelectric and Compton interactions because photon must be close to the nucleus 43 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Electron e-Gamma Photon -e e-e++
+ N + N N N + + N (E > 1.022 MeV) e -- e-Positron
e-- e-e-- 0.511 MeV Photons 44 Absorption and Attenuation To describe energy loss and photon beam intensity penetrating absorber, need to know absorption and attenuation coefficient of absorbing medium.
Represents probability or cross-section for interaction. Represented by 45 Absorption and Attenuation Represents the sum of the individual probabilities Because each reaction is energy dependent, is energy dependent too 46
Absorption and Attenuation Curve has three distinct regions Curve makes more sense when individual contributions are shown 47 Absorption and Attenuation Dividing line between low and medium occurs at energy where PE and CS are equally likely Intersection of two dashed lines 48
Absorption and Attenuation Energy dependent Tissue 25 keV Al and Bone 50 keV Pb 700 keV 49 Absorption and Attenuation = fraction of photons in beam that interact per unit distance of travel If expressed in per cm units (cm-1), then numerically equal to fraction of interactions, by any process, in
an absorber of 1 cm thickness depends on number of electrons in path, so is proportional to density While the same substance, ice, water, and steam all have different s at any given energy 50 Absorption and Attenuation To eliminate this annoyance, is divided by the absorber density () Gives new coefficient, called the total mass attenuation coefficient (/) / represents the probability of interaction per unit density of material
Expressed in units of cm2/gm 51 Absorption and Attenuation Theory of photon interactions predicts that attenuation beam intensity exponentially with distance into the absorber Written in equation form as To use this equation, / is taken from a plot of / vs. energy, such as
52 Absorption and Attenuation Linear Attenuatio n Coefficient of Water 53 Absorption and Attenuation Example: 1 MeV s originate in nucleuss are emitted by an underwater source.
What effect would 2 cm of water have on the intensity of the beam. = 0.07/cm for 1 MeV photons =0 0 = 0
= 0.07 ( ( 2 ) ) = 0 0.14 = 0
=0.87 0 54 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Neutron Interactions Free, unbound 0n1 unstable and disintegrate by emission with half-life of 10.6 minutes Resultant decay product is 1p0, which eventually combines with free e- to become H atom 0n1 interactions energy dependent, so classified based on KE
55 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Neutron Interactions Free, unbound 0n1 unstable and disintegrate by emission with half-life of 10.6 minutes Resultant decay product is 1p0, which eventually combines with free e- to become H atom 0n1 interactions energy dependent, so classified based on KE 56 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Most probable velocity of free 0n1 in various
substances at room temperature 2.2 kps Classification used for 0n1 tissue interaction important in radiation dosimetry Category Energy Range Thermal ~ 0.025 eV (< 0.5 eV) Intermediate 0.5 eV10 keV
Fast 10 keV20 MeV Relativistic > 20 MeV 57 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Classifying according to KE important from two standpoints:
Interaction with the nucleus differs with 0n1 energy Method of detecting and shielding against various classes are different 58 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation 0n1 detection relatively difficult due to: Lack of ionization along their paths Negligible response to externally applied electric, magnetic, or gravitational fields Interact primarily with atomic nuclei, which are extremely small
59 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Probability of interaction inversely proportional to square root of energy. 60 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Example: Determine the chance of a fast neutron interacting as it slows from 1 MeV to 200 keV. 61
Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Slow Neutron Interactions Radiative Capture Radiative capture with emission most common for slow 1 n 0 Reaction often results in radioactive nuclei 59 27 1 0
60 27 Co n Co Process is called neutron activation 62 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Charged Particle Emission Target atom absorbs a slow 0n1, which its mass and internal energy Charged particle then emitted to release excess mass and energy
Typical examples include (n,p), (n,d), and (n,). For example 10 5 1 0 7 3 4 2
B n Li 63 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Fission Typically occurs following slow 0n1 absorption by several of the very heavy elements Nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei, called primary fission products or fission fragments Fission fragments usually undergo radioactive decay to form secondary fission product nuclei There are some 30 different ways fission may take place with the production of about 60 primary fission
fragments 64 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Fast Neutron Interactions Scattering the term generally used when the original free 0n1 continues to be a free 0n1 following the interaction The dominant process for fast 0n1 Probability of interaction inversely proportional to square root of energy. 65
Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Fast Neutron Interactions Scattering the term generally used when the original free 0n1 continues to be a free 0n1 following the interaction The dominant process for fast 0n1 Probability of interaction inversely proportional to square root of energy. 66 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Elastic Scattering Typically occurs when neutron strikes nucleus of approx.
same mass Depending on size of nucleus, neutron can xfer much of its KE to that nucleus, which recoils off with energy lost by 0n1 During elastic scattering, no emitted by nucleus Recoil nucleus can be knocked away from its electrons and, being (+) charged, can cause ionization and excitation 67 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation e-- N
P++ N 68 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Inelastic Scattering Occurs when 0n1 strikes large nucleus 0n1 penetrates nucleus for short period of time Xfers energy to nucleon in nucleus Exits with small decrease in energy Nucleus left in excited state, emitting radiation, which
can cause ionization and/or excitation 69 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation e-- e-N P++ N
P++ P++ N N N e-- e-- 70
Indirectly Ionizing Radiation Reactions in Biological Systems Fast 0n1 lose energy in soft tissue largely by repeated scattering interactions with H nuclei Slow 0n1 captured in soft tissue and release energy in one of two principal mechanisms: 1 0 1 1 2
1 n H H (2.2 MeV) and 1 0 14 7 14 6 1
1 n N C p (0.66 MeV) 71 Indirectly Ionizing Radiation and 1p0 energies may be absorbed in tissue and cause damage that can result in harmful effects 72 Radiation Shielding Radiation Shielding Principles applicable to all radiation types,
regardless of energy Application varies quantitatively, depending on source type, intensity and energy Directly ionizing particles reduces personnel exposure to 0 Indirectly ionizing exposure can be minimized consistent with ALARA philosophy 73 Radiation Shielding Shielding Gammas and X-Rays Photons removed from incoming beam on basis of probability of interaction such as photoelectric
effect, Compton scattering, or pair production Process called attenuation Intensity is exponentially with shielding thickness and only approaches 0 for large thicknesses, but never actually = 0 74 Radiation Shielding Important shielding considerations Shielding present does not imply adequate protection Wall or partition not necessarily "safe" shield for individuals on the other side In effect, radiation can be deflected around corners (i.e.,
can be scattered) 75 Radiation Shielding Shielding Betas Relatively little shielding required to completely absorb s Absorbing large intensities results in Bremsstrahlung, particularly in high-Z materials To effectively shield , use low-Z material (such as plastic) and then to shield Bremsstrahlung X-rays, use suitable material, such as Pb on the downstream side of the plastic
76 Radiation Shielding Shielding Neutrons Most materials will not absorb fast 0n1 merely scatter them through the material To efficiently shield fast 0n1, must first be slowed down and then exposed to an absorber Greatest energy xfer takes place in collisions between particles of equal mass, hydrogenous materials most effective for thermalizing Water, paraffin, and concrete all rich in hydrogen and excellent neutron shields
77 Radiation Shielding Shielding Alphas Because of relatively large mass and charge, have minimal penetrating power and are easily shielded by thin materials Primarily an external contamination problem not an external dose problem 78
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