Raising students' intercultural competence through the ...
Conceptualisation of ECONOMY in the British and Romanian business press. A corpus-based approach Teodora Popescu University of Alba Iulia, Romania 26-28 May 2017, Osijek Introduction Main research project: Universals and variants of English and Romanian business metaphors. A corpus-based conceptual mapping of contemporary journalese (2015-2017, University of Alba Iulia, Romania)
The main tenet is that cognitive metaphors are instantiations of cultural categories manifested in the language spoken by the community that shares a common set of characteristics within a given cultural matrix. A grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-42785 business-metaphors.ro Introduction Economic discourse has abounded in figurative language from the beginnings of trade itself. The communicative function of metaphor in particular is selfevident in journal article titles, the financial press, headlines, marketing and advertising, etc.
The interrelatedness of semantic and social change of the language reflects different historical moments, marked by social and economic transformations. Introduction Besides its social, political and cognitive dimensions of the language used in the business domain, it also displays cultural underpinnings, pertaining to specific cultural concepts of one particular nation. Conceptualisations of culture, besides cognitive categories offer deeper insights into intercultural communication. An understanding of peoples metaphorical language can reveal deep meanings pertaining to different cultures.
Literature review Models of culture in relation to linguistic structures (Holland & Quinn 1987, Geertz 1973, Kachru & Kahane 1995; Palmer 1996; Jackendoff 2007). The study of the mental lexicon revealing the interrelations between cognition, knowledge organisation and communication (Aitchison 1994; Wierzbicka 1992, 1997, Libben et al. 2011). Cognitive metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson1980, Lakoff & Turner 1989, Goatly 1997) Metaphorical universality and variation (Kovecses 2005, 2010, 2014). Geert Hofstedes anthropological theory of cultural categories (1991), among others.
Literature review Beyond the static organisation of words in dictionaries, the mental lexicon of a language reveals the interrelatedness between cognition, knowledge organization and communication. (Aitchison 1994, Geertz 1973, Jackendoff 2007, Kachru & Kahane 1995, Wierzbicka 1992) Going further into analysing the relationship between language and culture, it is acknowledged that culture is intrinsically interspersed with linguistic structures. According to Geertz, culture denotes a historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which people communicate, perpetuate and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life (1973: 89).
Literature review Kvecses (2005: 64) argued that the cognitive view of metaphor can simultaneously account for both universality and diversity in metaphorical thought. He has proved that certain conceptual metaphors (for anger, time, event structure, and the self) are potentially universal or can be near-universal. He identified these as being simple or primary metaphors and/or complex metaphors based on universal human experiences. Charteris-Black (2004) Conceptual keys Conceptual metaphors
Keywords THE ECONOMY IS HUMAN (anthropomorphic and animate personification) e.g. MARKET TRADING IS A STATE OF MENTAL HEALTH MARKET TRADING IS PHYSICAL CONFLICT MARKET TRADING IS A STATE OF PHYSICAL HEALTH
-vulnerable, jitters, depress, etc. -health, recovery, paralysis -protect, battle, defend, rally, retreat, etc. ECONOMIC PROBLEMS ARE NATURAL DISASTERS (depersonification) e.g. DOWNWARD MARKET CHANGES ARE DISASTERS
THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE MARKET IS BEHAVIOUR OF GAS, etc. -collapse, damage, havoc, punctured, etc. -bubble, burst, volatile, etc. MARKET CHANGES ARE PHYSICAL MOVEMENTS (reification) e.g. MARKET CHANGES ARE WAYS OF
MOVING ON THE GROUND MARKET CHANGES ARE WAYS OF MOVING IN THE WATER -tumble, topple, stumble, lurch, etc. -plunge, float, the storm, etc. Research methodology The research hypothesis at the basis of this paper is that there are identifiable ways in which metaphors are ascribable to cultural differences in the Romanian and British languages, and these linguistic expressions are a reflection of cultural and social realities.
Our analysis is based on two corpora (British and Romanian), consisting of articles from general audience and financial broadsheets, written during 20122016. The newspapers used for this study are: The Economist, The Guardian, The New York Times and The Telegraph for the English corpus; and Adevrul, Jurnalul Naional, Cotidianul, Capital, and Ziarul Financiar for the Romanian corpus. Research methodology Identification of metaphor entails identification of ideational meaning, by which one has to establish whether metaphors can be identified in a text and if there is some tension between a literal source domain and a
metaphorical target domain (Charteris-Black 2004: 35). Research methodology According to Stefanowitsch (2006) there exist three main strategies for extracting linguistic expressions (as cited in Chapeton 2010): a) The first strategy is based on searching for source domain vocabulary. This entails selecting a potential source domain and then searching for individual lexical items from this domain using concordancers. b) The second one resorts to searching for target domain vocabulary. An analysis based exclusively on these two methods will only identify a subset of metaphorical expressions, namely those which contain specific vocabulary belonging to the source or target domain.
c) The third strategy used in the extraction of metaphorical expressions is manual coding. The drawback to this method is that it limits the potential size of the corpus, as the researcher has to carefully read throughout the whole corpus. Moreover, this strategy involves manual annotation, a very time-consuming and painstaking process. Research methodology = a combined method for the identification of metaphorical linguistic expressions, based on keywords belonging to the target domain and a manual search inside the corpus, starting from headwords from the target domain and manual search throughout the corpus. The methods employed were: quantitative analysis, based on
statistical data starting from headwords and collocations frequently identified in the corpus and qualitative analysis, in which we analysed the metaphors found from the perspective of universality and cultural variation. Results and interpretation The results of the investigation revealed once again (Popescu 2012, 2015a, 2015b) that metaphors clustered in cognitive categories can account for cultural categories, both in terms of conceptual universals and variants, resulting in a complex mapping of interrelated crossconnections. Cultural conceptualisations are found in linguistic conceptualisations, and what is more, there are universal
concepts that all humans share, while there exist cultural determinations which would in turn shape behaviours and communication patterns. Results and interpretation Several conceptual metaphors were identified, which appeared with more or less frequency in both languages, according to the cultural determinations of the two nations: the economy is a moving object, the economy is human (a human body) > the economy is a thinking entity, economic transactions are physical conflicts, the economy is a machine, the economy is a container for money. THE ECONOMY IS A MOVING OBJECT/ENTITY British corpus
1) That is because China is in the midst of two tricky transitions: from an investment-led economy to a consumption-driven one 2) the ECBs unconventional policies over the past 18 months had been the dominant force in spurring the euro-zone economy 3) it could give the world economy a boost 4) a falling real may help to shift Brazils economy away from import-driven consumption and towards investment THE ECONOMY IS A MOVING OBJECT British corpus 5) Reformists hope the plenum will begin to steer the economy away from what might be called the Beidaihe
model 6) pilots are squabbling over the controls while the economy hurtles towards disaster 7) squeeze of 5% of GDP, easily enough to push the economy into recession 8) easing fears that the worlds second-biggest economy was heading for a slump THE ECONOMY IS A MOVING OBJECT Romanian corpus 1) care nu au neles ncotro se ndreapta economia, who did not understand the direction in which the economy was heading
2) Mare parte din economia subteran a ieit la lumin. A large part of the subterranean / black economy emerged to light 3) nc o ocazie bun pentru a da un brnci n sus economiei. another good occasion to push the economy upward 4) economia care se chinuie s reintre pe o traiectorie de cretere the economy which is struggling to get back on an ascending track. THE ECONOMY IS A MOVING OBJECT Romanian corpus 5) cnd economia era n picaj liber when the economy was in free fall
6) Investiiile publice pot juca un rol foarte important n repornirea economiei Public investment can play a very important role in relaunching / restarting the economy 7) o ncetinire a economiei chineze era de ateptat a slowdown in Chinese economy was to be expected 8) avansul economiei se bazeaz pe exporturi the advancement of the economy is based on exports THE ECONOMY IS A MOVING OBJECT Romanian corpus 9) experimentele de pn acum sunt toxice i foreaz economia s bat pasul pe loc. (to beat the step
on place) the experiments so far are toxic and are forcing the economy to tread water = to be active but without making progress or falling further behind (The Cambridge Dictionary) (in the original Romanian idiom there is no reference to water) as compared to the following example (settled economies), LACK OF MOVEMENT IS LACK OF PROGRESS THE ECONOMY IS A MOVING OBJECT Romanian corpus 10) Statul bag bee fiscale n roatele economiei The state is putting fiscal needles in the tyres of the economy. (original Romanian idiom: a bga bee-n roate; approx.
translation to upset the apple cart (= to cause trouble, especially by spoiling someone's plans, creatively adapted to pinpoint the detrimental state interference with economic affairs) THE ECONOMY IS A MOVING OBJECT / HUMAN Sir George Iacobescu (69 de ani) ntruchipeaz generaia emigranilor din perioada dictaturii lui Nicolae Ceausescu, oameni care au cutat mai degrab s i continue specialitile n rile europene de adopie, economii aezate, dominate de marile corporaii i mai degrab nchise, greu accesibile antreprenorilor. (Adevrul financiar, 10 March 2015) (transl.) Sir George Iacobescu (69 years old) embodies the generation of immigrants during Nicolae Ceausescus dictatorship, people who had rather sought to continue in their area of expertise in their European countries of
adoption, with settled economies, dominated by the great corporations and rather closed / confined, hardly accessible to entrepreneurs. Interpretation a se aeza = to sit down (refl. v.), from Latin assedere, French sassoir to settle down = to start living in a place where you intend to stay for a long time, usually with your partner (Cambridge Dictionary) o economie aezat / a settled economy = a stable economy, an economy that is no longer on the move humans settle down an economy without fluctuations is a safe, stable one.
THE ECONOMY IS A HUMAN BODY British corpus 1) The first is that a limping economy is struggling to provide good jobs 2) credit crunch of the kind that crippled Americas economy 3) The tax does not seem to have harmed the provincial economy 4) sanctions relief will not transform the ailing economy
5) is still an impressive figure for a once-moribund economy 6) the deteriorating economy 7) from an economy addicted to rapidly rising credit to one that is more self-sustaining 8) the central banks actions would revive the economy THE ECONOMY IS A HUMAN BODY Romanian corpus 1) O maladie o cerere insuficient pentru bunuri i servicii s-a abtut de mult timp asupra economiei mondiale. A malady an insufficient demand for goods and services long ago fell upon the world economy. 2) [Economia] Mergea foarte prost, tocmai din cauz c preferinele publicului
erau amputate. [The economy] It was going very badly, particularly because the preferences of the public were amputated. 3) relaia dintre sntatea economiei i mediul politic the relationship between the health of the economy and the political environment THE ECONOMY IS A HUMAN BODY Romanian corpus 4) imaginea unei economii care ncepe s-i recapete din suflu. the image of an economy that is starting to regain its health (lit. breath) 5) Cum economia d semne de stabilizare As the economy is giving signs of stabilisation
6) ceea ce transmite un semnal descurajator privind revigorarea economiei which sends out a disheartening signal regarding the reinvigoration of the economy THE ECONOMY IS A HUMAN BODY Romanian corpus 7) Economia a fost mcinat dup Revoluie de privatizri euate i falimentri. The economy was gnawed at after the Revolution by unsuccessful privatisation and bankruptcies. 8) dup ce au administrat economiei mondiale drogul banilor ieftini n doze din ce n ce mai mari
after administering to the world economy the drug of cheap money in ever increasing doses THE ECONOMY IS A HUMAN BODY Romanian corpus 7) pentru ca economia bolnav a Frantei s nu i afecteze businessul. so that Frances sick economy would not affect his business. 8) Economiile din Polonia si Romnia au o recuperare ampl The economies of Poland and Romania have a strong (lit. ample) recovery.
THE ECONOMY IS A THINKING ENTITY Romanian corpus 1) Economia s-a ncptnat, ns, s nu se conformeze regulii de trei simpl, artnd c este influentat de mecanisme mai complexe dect pot concepe planificatorii centrali ai finantelor. However, the economy became obstinate about not conforming to the direct proportionality rule, showing that it is influenced by more complex mechanisms than the central financial planners can think of. THE ECONOMY IS A MACHINE British corpus 1) can create the conditions for a functioning economy 2) His most urgent task is to fix the economy.
3) she has been unable to get the spending cuts and fiscal reforms needed to repair the economy THE ECONOMY IS A MACHINE Romanian corpus 1) modul n care funcioneaz o economie the way in which an economy functions 2) nc un motor al economiei mondiale s-a defectat. Another engine of the world economy has broken down. 3) Cum rmne cu supranclzirea economiei, accelerarea consumului How about the overheating of the economy, the acceleration of consumption
THE ECONOMY IS A CONTAINER FOR MONEY (MONEY IS LIQUID/SOLID) 1) improve the distribution of liquidity in the economy 2) the flow of funds in the economy 1) Combinatul Sidex Galai era vzut n 2000 ca o gaur neagr a economiei din cauza pierderilor masive. Sidex Galati Plant was seen in 2000 as a black hole of the Romanian economy, because of massive losses. 2) continuarea programului de injectie de moned n economia european continuing the programme of currency injection in the European economy Conclusions Basically, the same conceptual metaphors were identified in
both corpora, which accounts for the fact that these are in general primary metaphors, born out of our experience of the world. Nevertheless, there exist cultural variations, embodied in various linguistic expressions of the same conceptual metaphor, or different meaning broadening of the same words. Conclusions Apparently conflicting concepts coexist in the Romanian language (a static, but stable economy vs an economy in movement entails both a need for stability and desire for progress) The ECONOMY is A MACHINE metaphor in English displays linguistic
expressions that are more general (a functioning economy, to fix the economy, to repair the economy), whereas in Romanian one can identify more technical terms, such as the engine of the economy broke down, overheating of the economy, which may reveal a preference for a mechanicist approach to the economy, and in general, a pervasive need for control (see Hofstedes high UAI for the Romanian people). Conclusions Derived from THE ECONOMY IS HUMAN metaphor, the conceptualisation of the ECONOMY as a THINKING ENTITY (with a will of its own) was only found in the Romanian corpus. References Aitchison, J. (1994). Words in the mind. An introduction to the mental lexicon (2nd edition), Oxford: Blackwell.
Conceptual Metaphor Home Page (1994). Retrieved 12 February, 2016, from http://www.lang.osaka-u.ac.jp/~sugimoto/MasterMetaphorList/index.html. Goatly, A. (1997). The language of metaphors. New York: Routledge Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: selected essays. New York: Basic Books. Goddard, C., & Wierrzbicka, A. (1994). Semantic and lexical universals: theory and empirical findings. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins. Herteg, C., & Popescu, T. (2013). Developing Business Students Linguistic and Intercultural Competence through the Understanding of Business Metaphors. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 93, 21 October 2013, Pages 10801084. Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 1st edition, McGraw-Hill USA. Jackendoff, R. (2007). Language, Consciousness, Culture: Essays on Mental Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Kachru B.B., & Kachane. H. (1995). Cultures, Ideologies, and the Dictionary: Studies in Honour of Ladislav Zgusta. Tubingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
Kvecses, Z. (2014). Where metaphors come from: Reconsidering context in metaphor. Oxford: Oxford University Press. References Kvecses, Z. (2010). Metaphor: a practical introduction. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kvecses, Z. (2005). Metaphor in Culture. Universality and variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lakoff, G., & Turner, M. (1989). More than cool reason: a field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Popescu, T. (2012). Business Metaphors: A case study of Peugeot advertisements in different languages. Journal of Linguistic and Intercultural Education - JoLIE, 5/2012, 109-124. Popescu, T. (2011). The Role of Culture in Business Communication. In L. Dragolea, M.I. Achim & J. Grabara, (Eds.), Business Negotiation and Communication: Monograph (pp. 82-97). Czestochowa University of Technology Faculty of Management, Czestochowa. The Hofstede Centre . What about Romania? Retrieved 8 May, 2016, from https://geert-hofstede.com/romania.html. Wierzbicka, A. (1992). Semantics, culture and cognition: universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wierzbicka, A. (1997). Understanding cultures through their key words: English, Russian, Polish, German, and Japanese. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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