Reconstruction (1865-1876)

Reconstruction (1865-1876)

DISCLAIMER The large bulk of this presentation was created by Susan Pojer. I have made some edits to her original slides, though most remain intact. Some original slides have been removed. Also, I have added a couple of slides of my own as well. Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY REBUILDING the South RESTORING the Union RESTRUCTURING Southern society Key Questions

1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?

3. How do we integrate and protect newlyemancipated black freedmen? With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nations wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.

Abraham Lincoln, President Lincolns Plan 10% Plan * Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863) * Replace majority rule with loyal rule in the South. *

He didnt consult Congress regarding Reconstruction. * Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers. * When 10% of a states voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized.

President Lincolns Plan 1864 Lincoln Governments formed in TN, LA, AR * loyal assemblies * They were weak and dependent on the

Northern army for their survival. Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Congress feared restoration of planter aristocracy & potential reenslavement Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH) Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an iron clad oath of

allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ). Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials. Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD) Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Iron-Clad Oath. State Suicide Theory [MA

Senator Charles Sumner] Conquered Provinces Position [PA Congressman Thaddeus Stevens Radicals] President President Lincoln Lincoln Pocket Veto Wade-Davis Wade-Davis Bill

13 th Amendment Ratified in December, 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. CONGRESS shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate

legislation. Freedmens Bureau (1865) Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen. Primitive welfare agency food, clothes, medical care Called carpetbaggers

by white southern Democrats. Freedmens Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do. Freedmens Bureau School Primary success is in education

President Andrew - A southerner who didnt Johnson understand the North, Jacksonian Democrat. - A Tennessean who had earned the distrust of the S, Anti-Aristocrat.

White - A D who had never been accepted by the Rs, Supremacist. -AAgreed P who hadwith never been elected Lincoln to office that states had - The

wrong man in the never wrong place at the wrong legally left the time. Union. President Johnsons Plan Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except (10%+) Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (but they could apply for pardon) Restored their property rights once pardon given In new constitutions, they must REPEAL ordinances of secession, REPUDIATE war debts, & RATIFY 13TH Amendment in order to be READMITTED.

Mentioned nothing about voting & rights of slaves Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions. EFFECTS? 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats, brought them back political power control state Republicans weretooutraged that planter elite

organizations. were back in power in the New South! Growing Northern Alarm!state Many Southern constitutions fell short of minimum requirements. Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons. Revival of southern defiance in the Post-war South. BLACK CODES

Slavery is Dead? Black Codes in the Post-war South Purpose: * Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. * Restore preemancipation system of race

relations. Forced many blacks to Tenancy & the Crop Lien Furnishing Merchant Tenant Farmer Landowner System Loan tools and seed up to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop.

Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on credit from merchant until the harvest. Merchant holds lien {mortgage} on part of tenants Plants crop, harvests in autumn.

Rents land to tenant in exchange for to of tenant farmers future Turns over up to crop. of crop to land owner as payment of rent. Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in payment of debt. Congress Breaks with the

President Congress bars newly-elected Southern Congressional delegates. Fear the power of a restored South. February, 1866 President vetoed bill to extend the life of the Freedmens Bureau. Congress passes Civil Rights bill in March, 1866 to grant citizenship to blacks Johnson vetoed it. Congress passed both bills Dead Dog

overof the White House 14th Amendment Ratified in July, 1868. 1. Provides a constitutional guarantee of the rights of citizenship & security of freed people. 2. Insures against neo-Confederate political power. 3.

Enshrines the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy. Southern states would be punished (representation reduced) for denying the right to vote to black citizens! The 1866 Congressional Elections A referendum on Radical Reconstruction. Johnson made an ill-conceived

propaganda tour around the country to push his plan. Republicans won a 3-1 veto-proof majority in both houses and gained control of every northern Johnsons Swing around the Circle Radical Plan for Radicals seek full & complete rights Readmission

for blacks with federal govt in control Moderates (majority in Congress) just trying to keep states from infringing basic rights of blacks. Required new state constitutions which included black suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments. By 1870 15th Amendment ratified. In March, 1867, Congress authorized the military to enroll eligible black Reconstruction Acts of

1867 Military Reconstruction Act * Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment. * Divide the 10 unreconstructed states into 5 military districts. * Each has military governor

* 20,000 troops * TN was first Southern state back in 1866 & thus escaped military reconstruction Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Command of the Army Act *

The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military. Tenure of Office Act * The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senates consent, if the position originally required Senate approval. Designed to protect radical members of Lincolns

government. A question of the Edwin Stanton, Sec. of War President Johnsons Impeachment Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868. Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction. The House impeached him on February 24 before even

drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 47! The Senate Trial 11 week trial. Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3 vote). Limitations of Radical Reconstruction No land or education was

guaranteed to freedmen Belief that creating an electorate would be enough to protect freedmens rights. Questionable legality of military rule: Ex parte Milligan Supreme Court had ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians even during wartime if civil courts were open. Black Reconstruction Only one state legislature (SC) elected a majority of blacks in its lower house No state senates had black

majorities No black governors elected Most black officials that were elected were capable, educated, free-born 2 US Senators elected from MS Black Senate & House Delegates Black & White Political Participation Blacks in Southern Politics Core voters were black veterans. Blacks were politically unprepared.

Blacks could register and vote in states since 1867. The 15th Amendment guaranteed federal voting. Establishment of Historically Black Colleges in the South Education

By 1870, some 4,000 schools & 9,000 teachers taught 200,000 formerly enslaved people Freedmen of all ages were being taught By 1876, about 40% of African American children attended school African American colleges & universities were established Churches Religion had always been a major part of the lives of African Americans Became the center of many African American communities Acted as unofficial courts The 1868 Republican Ticket The 1868

Democratic Ticket 1868 Presidential Election Grants popular vote low-won due to black vote. 3 Southern state votes not even counted MS, TX, V Ulysses S. Grant Elected in 1868  1872 Civil war hero who saved the Union! TERRIBLE PRESIDENT Believed presidents role was to carry out the laws &

leave policy making to Congress Massive corruption during his administration William Belknap bribes Whiskey Ring Corruption in Business & Government Gold Market Jay Gould & James Fisk, with the help of Grants brotherin-law devised a scheme to corner the gold market Treasury Dept. broke the scheme, but not before Gould made a huge profit Credit Mobilier Affair Insiders gave stock to influential members of Congress

Avoiding investigation of the profits they were making off of govt subsidies for the transcontinental railroad Whiskey Ring Federal revenue agents conspired w/ the liquor industry to defraud the govt of millions in taxes Transcontinental Railroad Shortly before the Civil War, enthusiasm mounted for a transcontinental line Federal govt would provided subsidies to fund the project largest in history! Railway Act of 1862 Union Pacific Employed Irish Americans & African American workers

Central Pacific Tough time finding workers Chinese men Burlingame Treaty Right to work in America does not guarantee citizenship Will later lead to anti-Chinese sentiment Transcontinental Railroad 1869, Promontory Point, Utah Hammer a ceremonial golden spike Other transcontinental railroads will be built w/out the fanfare Will become Americas first

big business Require huge amounts of capital Will increase economic power of banks Stimulated expansion of in the production of coal, iron, stone, & lumber The Election of 1872 Rumors of corruption during Grants first term discredit Republicans. Though Grant never

personally profited from the scandals, his loyalty to dishonest men around him badly tarnished his presidency Horace Greeley runs as a Democrat/Liberal Republican candidate. Greeley attacked as a fool and a crank. 1872 Presidential Election The Panic of 1873

In 1873, overspeculation by financers & overbuilding by industry & railroads led to widespread business failures & depression Debtors required greenbacks in repayment of debts requested more greenbacks be Grant will veto a bill calling for more greenbacks produced & support a stable money supply backed by gold

Northern Support Wanes Grantism & corruption. Panic of 1873 [6-year depression]. Concern over westward expansion and Indian wars. Key monetary issues: * should the government retire $432m worth of greenbacks issued during the Civil War? *

should war bonds be paid back in specie or greenbacks? The End of Reconstruction With Radical Republicanism on the wane, southern conservatives, southern conservatives took control of the govt Known as Redeemers Had different social & economic backgrounds, but agreed on their political program States rights, reduced taxes, reduced spending on social programs, & white supremacy Southern Resentment &

Resistance Scalawags and Carpetbaggers Accusations of corruption Ku Klux Klan, TN, 1866 Terrorists that targeted blacks, carpetbaggers, teachers in black schools, Radical Republicans Main goal is disenfranchisement of blacks Congress passes Force

Acts of 1870 & 1871 White Supremacy & The KKK Groups of southern whites organized various secret societies to intimidate blacks & white reformers Most prominent was the Ku Klux Klan Founded in 1867 by ex-Confederate general Nathaniel Bedford Forrest invisible empire burned black-owned buildings, flogged & murdered freedmen to keep them from voting, chased carpetbaggers & scalawags out of the south

Amnesty Act of 1872 Seven years after Lees surrender, many northerners were ready to put hatred of the Confederacy behind them Congress passed a general amnesty act that removed the last of the restrictions on ex-Confederates, except for top leaders Political Consequence: allowed southern conservatives to vote for Democrats to retake control of state govts Legal Challenges The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) 1st test case of the 14th amendment.

LA legislature granted a 25-year monopoly to a slaughterhouse in New Orleans in 1869 (to protect the people's health). Other slaughterhouse operators brought suit - deprived of their property without due process of law in violation of the 14 th Am. The U.S. Supreme Court decided against the slaughterhouse operators, holding that the 14th Am. had to be considered in light of the original purpose of its framers, i.e., to guarantee the freedom of former black slaves. Although the amendment could not be construed to refer only to black slavery, its scope as originally planned did not include rights such as those in question. The restraint placed by the Louisiana legislators on the slaughterhouse operators was declared not to deprive them of their property without due process. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 Crime for any individual to deny full &

equal use of public conveyances and public places. (Last attempt of Radicals) Prohibited discrimination in jury selection. Shortcoming lacked a strong enforcement mechanism. No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years! 1876 Election Election of 1876 Republicans wanted Grant to run for 3rd term, but too much

scandal Tilden (D) has more popular votes than Hayes (R) & is only short 1 electoral vote, but disputed votes come in from FL, SC, LA 1876 Election Results Hayes Prevails Sammy TildenBoo-Hoo! Ruthy Hayess got my Presidency, and he wont give

it to me! A Political Crisis: The Compromise of 1877 Hayes, R gets the P Troops to be withdrawn from S Southerner will become Postmaster General Republicans promise federal $ for internal improvements in S RECONSTRUCTION

ENDS! 15th Amendment Ratified in 1870. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Womens rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote! The Failure of Federal Enforcement Enforcement

Acts of 1870 & 1871 [to stop the lynchings - also known as the KKK Act]. The Lost Cause. The rise of the Bourbons. Conservative, probusiness Democrats Redeemers (prewar Democrats and Union Whigs) Wanted to oust freedmen, THE NEW SOUTH

After abandonment of Republican Reconstruction, blacks were left friendless in South White Ds resume power (the Redeemers) Political Subjugation: Legal codes of segregation appear Jim Crow laws Also disenfranchisement through voterregistration laws, poll taxes, grandfather clauses, etc. Souths segregation validated by Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 Separate but equal doctrine separate, but equal, schools/facilities are constitutional Economic Subjugation: Blacks forced into sharecropping/tenant farming Record #s of blacks lynched to ensure Souths new political & economic order

JIM CROW Jim Crow - not actually a person, but the subject of a song performed by Thomas Dartmouth Daddy Rice. Rice was a white man who performed in blackface. Rice denigrated Blacks through his music, his stereotypical behavior, and his rude jokes. Jump Jim Crow was a bonafide hit among Caucasian Americans in the early 19th century. The lyrics express

several racist sentiments. First, Jim Crow is satisfied with his lot as a slave. He is sexually promiscuous. He is also ignorant, and the song is usually sung in supposed slave dialect. Jim Crow laws refer to the segregation laws in the South RECONSTRUCTION A FAILURE OR A SUCCESS? Traditional view has been a failure: The Tragic Era The Blackout of Honest Government Justify these 3 reasons given by historians

for the failure of Reconstruction to help freedmen find their place in American life: 1.Confused priorities 2.Opposition from Southern whites 3.Federal govts unwillingness to go the distance to accomplish its goals Reconstruction a Success? Black Reconstruction is how revisionist historians view the era A more positive characterization? What evidence is there that goals of education, economic development & establishing a sense of community were achieved?

How did Black Reconstruction pave the way for the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s?

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