Reformation & Exploration

Reformation & Exploration Unit 2 Lecture Notes Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church Chapter 14 Catholic Church=One Church=Only Church=Church

Arguably the most momentous event of the early modern period Started as a reform movement within the Catholic Church Folks within the Church recognized the need for reform Objective (originally)purify the Catholic Church and renew Christian morals in European life

Somethings Rotten in the State of Christendom, or Abuses of the Church Central Church authority was weak; kings/nations assumed some of the Churchs rights Pluralism Lack of training among clergy Hierarchy of Church lived in luxury Immorality/sexual promiscuity among many clergy

Abuses of the Church, Continued Church services/care of church often neglected by clergy Pluralism Popes Pius II, Sixtus IV, Julius II, Leo X, and Innocent VIII (14501550) used their papal power and wealth to advance the material interests of their families Misused power (excommunication & indulgences) Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503)

Publically acknowledged having a mistress & children Family became the example of moral corruption Church insisted on exemptions from taxation Outside the church, continued Wyclif: Oxford theologian whose teaching inspired the Lollards in England Result: Lollardy became a capital offense in 1401

Hus: rector of the University of Prague, attacked the doctrine of transubstantiation, go vernacular bible Result: Declared a heretic at the Council of Constance, burned as a heretic, 1415 Savonarola: Florentine; shocked by the Borgia popes corruption and widespread secular interests of clergy, preached purification and repentance Result: hanged and burned as a heretic, 1498

The road to Martin Luther Spanish Cardinal Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros (1436-1517) Visited religious houses & set high standards for the training of clergy The Brethren of the Common Life, Holland 14th century Sought to make religion a personal experience (individuality) The Imitation of Christ by Tomas Kempis Live in the model of Christ, educate candidates for the priesthood, and seek perfection in simplicity Seen in the Netherlands, central Germany, and the Rhineland

Signs of vitality Pope Julius II summoned an ecumenical council in Rome (1512-1517) Goal to recommend higher standards for education of the clergy Eliminate bureaucratic corruption Suggested doctrinal reforms Martin Luther: Ninety-Five Theses Indulgences: to reconcile with God, a sinner must confess sins to a priest, and do the penance assigned.

Temporal (earthly) penance Do good works Martin Luthers Ninety-five Theses on the Power of Indulgences (1517): Believed people were ignorant to think that no further repentance was needed after purchasing indulgences. Undermines penance & importance of charity in Christian life Diet of Worms (1521)

H.R.E. Charles V summoned Luther to recant refused Declared Luther an outlaw (no legal protection) Protected by the Duke of Saxony Zwingli Ulrich Zwingli Swiss humanist (Zurich) Used Erasmuss New Testament, not required Church readings. Scriptures the center of Christian life Disagreed with Luther in terms of the Eucharist Lords Supper is a memorial only

The Colloquy of Marburg (1529) Meeting to solve dispute between Luther and Zwingli Goal to unite Protestants: non-Catholic Christians (originally Lutheran) Failed to resolve differences Social Impact Preacherships: Educated men who were required to deliver around 100 sermons a year.

Luthers ideas attracted many preachers became Protestant leaders Sermon, not the Eucharist, central part of the service German Peasant Revolts (1525) The Twelve Articles: condemned ecclesiastical lords & agrarian crisis Looked to Luther for support Luther initially supported Freedom from Church authority, not secular authority Revolts crushed by the nobility

The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty 1477: Marriage of Maximilian I (Habsburg) Mary of Burgundy Became international power Burgundy & Burgundian Netherlands Flanders Conflict between Austrian house of Habsburg and the kings of France France considered Burgundy to be French territory

Rise of Habsburgs continued Maximilian + Mary = Philip of Burgundy Philip marries Joanna of Castile (Ferdinand & Isabella) Philip + Joanna = Charles V Charles V: How does he gain international power? Mom: Inherits Spain, Spanish dominions of

Italy Sicily, and Sardinia. Dad: Inherits lands in Austria, southern Germany, the Low Countries, and FrancheComte (east-central France) Charles V Habsburg international interests > reform in Germany Charles V was a devote Catholic Lacked resources in Germany to suppress Protestant movement.

Peace of Augsburg (1555) Officially recognized Lutheranism in Germany territories Most north & central -> Lutheran. South -> R.C. No religious freedom = refugees Debrief German Peasant Revolts (1525) The Twelve Articles: condemned

ecclesiastical lords & agrarian crisis Looked to Luther for support Luther initially supported Freedom from Church authority, not secular authority Revolts crushed by the nobility Calvinism John Calvin (1509-1564) Assisted in the reformation in Geneva

model for Christian communities for 16th century Protestant reformers. The Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) 1. Absolute sovereignty of God 2. Predestination Question: Did John Calvin tolerate religious dissent?

Evangelical Reform The Anabaptists: believed that only adults could make a free choice about religious faith to baptize again = adult baptism Difference between Christian community & Christian state Religious tolerance Separation of church and state heavily persecuted for beliefs The English Reformation

The English Reformation Continued The Act in Restraint of Appeals (1533), The Act for the Submission of the Clergy (1534), and the Supremacy Act (1534) The Crown is the highest legal authority in the land The King is supreme head of the church of England Churchmen are not allowed to publish ecclesiastical laws without royal permission Question: Why did Henry VIII want to dissolve the monasteries in England?

The Tudor Dynasty Edward VI (r. 1547-1553) Protestant Mary (r. 1553-1558) Catholic Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) Protestant

How did the Catholic Church respond to the Protestant Reformation? Pope Paul III (1534-1549) Reforming the Church from within! Led the Counter, or Catholic Reformation Promoted reform-minded cardinals to the Curia

Had Church abuses catalogued Called the Council of Trent to deal with the growth of Protestantism Council of Trent (1545-1563) Reforming the Church from within! Defined Catholic beliefs and corrected abuses Sale of indulgences was prohibited Seminaries were established to train parish priests Monasteries and convents were to be cleansed of immoral clergy

Jesuits (1540) Tried to stop the spread of Protestantism! Disciplined and well-educated order of Catholic priests. Founded by Ignatius Loyola Won Poland and southern Germany back into Catholic faith Spread Catholic message across

Africa, Asia, and the Americas Roman Inquisition (1542) Tried to stop the spread of Protestantism! Church court designed to judge and convict heretics Imprisoned, exiled, or executed those with unorthodox views Index of Prohibited Books (1559) Tried to stop the spread of Protestantism! List of books which Catholics were forbidden to read

List included Protestant Bibles and some scientific writings Religious Wars In groups of 8, your task is to identify the causes, course, key figures, and outcome of one of the following religious conflicts:

French Wars Dutch Revolts England v. Spain Thirty Years War Debate: What played a more important role in these religious conflicts: religion or politics? Be ready to defend your response The Medieval Order began to deteriorate

with the Babylonian Captivity was disrupted by the Protestant Revolt completely ended with the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) longest peace negotiation in history, 1644-1648! BUT In the period between Luther and Westphalia, Habsburgs move to restore the Old Order, Protestants and Catholics in France resist this restoration, and push Europe toward a definition of sovereign states.

Thus Ended the Medieval concept of a universal church and a universal monarch at Westphalia. The need for Protestants and Catholics to tolerate each other was demonstrated because they couldnt kill each other. Sovereign states emerged. Balance of Power concept developed to preserve this sovereignty not to maintain the peace. The Age of Expansion

Chapter 15 Exploration & Conquest Vikings 9th & 10th centuries Greenland, eastern North America Settlements in Iceland, Ireland, England, Sicily, and Normandy Muslim Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in 1453 Early 16th century controlled eastern Mediterranean Seen as a threat by Western Europeans

Portugal (the man) Portugal takes over Ceuta, Morocco (1415) Beginning of European exploration and control of overseas territory Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) Established schools to study geography Sent annual expeditions down the west coast of Africa King John II (r. 1481-1495)

Set up ports in Guinea (West Africa) interior Search for Gold Lisbon becomes entrance point for Asian goods into Europe Motivations??? Mid-15th Century population revival Demand for luxury goods (spices) Ottomans control trade routes to the east (need alternatives) Religion

Reconquista in Portugal & Spain continue the Christian crusade. Ottoman Empire too strong to defeat convert new territories $$$ Conquistadors Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) Conquered the Aztec Empire (Mexico) Founded Mexico City as the capital of New Spain

Francisco Pizarro (1470-1541) Conquered the Inca Empire (western S. America) Established Peru What resource do they both tap into? Silver $$$$ Economic Effects Spain's population increase + Spanish colonies = increased demand for products

Best farmers & businessmen gone (Reconquista) cant meet demand Spanish products cant compete in the international market (too expensive to make) Prince Revolution: 1500-1600 was a period of high inflation across Europe No direct connection between import of silver & inflation Seen most in Spain, but present throughout Europe

Columbus Christopher Columbus (1451(ish)-1506) Genoa, Italy Believed he could sail across the Atlantic to Asia It cant be that far, right? Appealed to England & Portugal Spain agrees to finance (1492)

Reaches Hispaniola (Haiti) in October 1492 Believed hed reached the Indies Indians The Columbian Exchange 1. How did Columbus explain the success of his voyage? 2. What was Columbuss view of the native Americans he met? 3. Evaluate his statements that the Caribbean islands possessed gold, cotton, and spices. 4. Why did Columbus cling to the idea that he had reached Asia?

Research: Why might 1492 be the turning point in (European) history? The Columbian Exchange: Plants, Animals, and Disease between the Old and New Worlds Social Changes Women & Family Life Reformation periods emphasis on marriage & the role of spouses Husband provides for material welfare & protection Wife mature, faithful, and subservient.

Marriage Catholic sacramental union, cant be dissolved Protestant contract between partners. Divorce allowed Single Women Domestic servants, butchers, nurses, midwives, etc Protestant reformers favored closing womens religious houses marry Prostitution

Race & Ethnicity 1453 Ottoman capture of Constantinople cut off access to white slave trade from Black Sea & Balkans Aztecs & Inca not used to European slave labor Died quickly Charles V okays an end to Indian slavery and approves importing black Africans. European racial attitudes of blacks based on speculation & Arab ideas. Medieval Arabic literature emphasized blacks physical repulsiveness, mental inferiority, and primitivism.

Literature Development of the essay as a distinct literary genre. Mirror social and cultural conditions Michael de Montaigne (1533-1592) French humanist: the object of life is to know thyself Calm, patience, tolerance, and broad-mindedness On Cannibals (1580)

What is Montaignes thesis? Baroque Art & Music Baroque: style of artistic expression that is marked by use of complex forms, bold ornamentation, and the juxtaposition of contrasting elements often conveying a sense of drama, movement, and tension. 17th century Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Flemish Animated figures, melodramatic contrast, and size

Glorifying monarchs & Catholicism Fleshy, sensual nudes (goddesses)

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