9.3.2 Distinguish between pollination, fertilization, and seed dispersal. Pollination Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma by wind, insect etc. Fertilization
the sperm entering the egg Seed Dispersal Seed = plant embryo + food reserves +testa Seed being moved from mother plant via explosion, wind, consumption, or animal
Germination the seed absorbing water and beginning to grow and develop What is pollination? Transfer of pollen from one anther of one flower to the stigma of another. Can happen on the same flower: self-pollination
What is fertilization? Sperm entering the egg 9.3 Reproduction in Angiospermophytes 9.3.3 Dicot seed structure The IB calls the seed coat a testa Seed dispersal Seeds are dispersed in various manners:
Wind Water Animals The structure of seeds indicates their dispersal type 9.3.4 Germination of Seeds Conditions required: Moisture Needed so that metabolic action can take place
Temperature Oxygen A period of dormancy Some conditions differ depending on seed and its environment 9.3.4 Explain the conditions needed for the germination of a typical seed. Conditions vary among species Depth of soil Consumption by animals
-- Seed is excreted in fertilizer Germination often follows Fire, drought or flood Water****** most important Most species require an increase in moisture Temperature Some species require intense heat (fire)
Some species require a cold season followed by warmth 9.3.5 Outline the metabolic processes during germination of a starchy seed. Water enters through the micropyle Gibberellin (a plant hormone) is produced in the cotyledon Gibberellin stimulates the production of the amylase. Amylase catalyses the breakdown
of starch into maltose Maltose diffuses to the embryo for energy release and growth. Germination of a dicot seed Water is absorbed by the seed, kickstarting the formation of the hormone gibberellin Gibberellin
forms here Water enters Germination of a dicot seed Gibberellin stimulates production of the enzyme amylase, which digests the starch in the seed into maltose Gibberellin
Stimulates production of Amylase 9.3.6 Explain how flowering is controlled in long and short day plants, including the role of phytochrome. The seasonal change in the length of the period of daylight or the period of darkness can control flowering. Long-day plants flower in the summer ,when nights have become short enough. Short day plants flower in the autumn, when the nights have become long enough.
9.3.6 Explain how flowering is controlled in long and short day plants, including the role of phytochrome. Phytochromea plant pigment that receives red light, used to measure day length by plants. When phytochrome receives red light after a dark period (night), it can signal that night is over. If the dark period was short enough, this causes a long day plant to flower. When phytochrome receives a red light during a dark period (night) it can signal that night is over. This inhibits a short day plant from flowering, because the night was not long enough. A flash of red light signals the end of the dark period. A flash
of far-red light cancels the effect of the red flash. 2 forms of Phytochrome PR --Phytochrome that receives red light PFR --Phytochrome that receives far red light When PR receives red light, it switches to PFR . When PFR receives far red light, it switches to PR . In darkness, PFR converts to PR because it is the more stable
form. Phytochrome Long-day plants flower in the summer, when nights have become short enough. Because the night is so short, enough PFR remains to signal the transcription of genes controlling flowering when the dawn breaks, and PFR receives the dawns far red light. Long-day plants have a master gene that initiates flowering when switched on by PFR
Short-day plants flower in the autumn, when the nights have become long enough. PFR inhibits flowering, but breaks down before the long night is over. The dawns early light is received by the plant, and with no PFR, the plant begins the flowering process. Short-day plants have a master flowering gene that is switched off by PFR
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