Flammable Liquids 1 Directorate of Training and Education Directorate of Training and Education Introduction The two primary hazards associated with flammable liquids are explosion and fire Safe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of approved
equipment and practices per OSHA standards 2 Directorate of Training and Education Flash Point Flash point means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. In general, the lower the flash point, the greater the hazard Flammable liquids have flash points at or below 199.4oF (93oC)
3 Directorate of Training and Education Program Components A good plan for safe use of flammable liquids contains at least these components: Control of ignition sources Proper storage
Fire control Safe handling 4 Directorate of Training and Education Categories of Flammable Liquids Boiling Point (oF) Directorate of Training and Education 5 Classes of Some Flammable
Liquids Common Name Flash Point (oF) Category 1 Ethyl Ether Category 2 Acetone 0
Category 3 m-xylene 82 CLASS IC Kerosene 140-162 -49 6
Directorate of Training and Education Sources of Ignition Must take adequate precautions to prevent ignition of flammable vapors. Some sources of ignition include: Open flames
Smoking Static electricity Cutting and welding Hot surfaces Electrical and mechanical sparks Lightning 7 Directorate of Training and Education Static Electricity Generated when a fluid flows through a pipe or from an opening into a tank Main hazards are fire and explosion from sparks containing enough energy
to ignite flammable vapors Bonding or grounding of flammable liquid containers is necessary to prevent static electricity from causing a spark 8 Directorate of Training and Education Bonding Physically connect two conductive objects together with a bond wire to eliminate a difference in static charge potential between them Must provide a bond wire between containers during
flammable liquid filling operations, unless a metallic path between them is otherwise present 9 Directorate of Training and Education Grounding Eliminates a difference in static charge potential between conductive objects and ground Although bonding will eliminate a difference in potential between objects, it will not eliminate a difference in potential between these objects and earth unless one of the objects is connected to earth with a ground wire
10 Directorate of Training and Education Ventilation Always provide adequate ventilation to reduce the potential for ignition of flammable vapors. 11 Directorate of Training and Education Storage Fundamentals
Identify incompatible chemicals check the Safety Data Sheets Isolate and separate incompatible materials Isolate by storing in another area or room Degree of isolation depends on quantities, chemical properties and packaging Separate by storing in same area or room, but apart from each other 12 Directorate of Training and Education Storage of Flammable Liquids Storage must not limit the use of exits,
stairways, or areas normally used for the safe egress of people In office occupancies: Storage prohibited except that which is required for maintenance and operation of equipment Storage must be in: closed metal containers inside a storage cabinet, or safety cans, or an inside storage room Inside storage room 13
Directorate of Training and Education Safety Cans for Storage and Transfer Approved container of not more than 5 gallons capacity Spring-closing lid and spout cover Safely relieves internal pressure when exposed to fire 14 Directorate of Training and Education Flame Arrester Screen Prevents fire flashback into can contents
Double wire-mesh construction Large surface area provides rapid dissipation of heat from fire so that vapor temperature inside can remains below ignition point 15 Directorate of Training and Education Storage Cabinets Not more than 60 gallons of Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids, nor more than 120 gallons of Category 4 flammable liquids may be stored in a storage cabinet.
Must be conspicuously labeled, Flammable - Keep Fire Away Doors on metal cabinets must have a three-point lock (top, side, and bottom), and the door sill must be raised at least 2 inches above the bottom of the cabinet Directorate of Training and Education 16 Fire Control Suitable fire control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers must be available where
flammable liquids are stored Open flames and smoking must not be permitted in these storage areas Materials which react with water must not be stored in the same room with flammable liquids 17 Directorate of Training and Education Transferring Flammable Liquids Since there is a sizeable risk whenever flammable liquids are handled, OSHA allows only four methods for transferring these materials:
Through a closed piping system From safety cans By gravity through an approved self-closing safety faucet By means of a safety pump 18 Directorate of Training and Education Self-Closing Safety Faucet
Bonding wire between drum and container Grounding wire between drum and ground Safety vent in drum22 19 OSHA Office of Training and Education Directorate of Training and Education Safety Pump Faster and safer than using a faucet
Spills less likely No separate safety vents in drum required Installed directly in drum bung opening Some pump hoses have integral bonding wires 20 Directorate of Training and Education Waste and Residue Flammable waste and residue must be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily.
Waste drum with disposal funnel Safety disposal can Oily-waste can (self-closing lid) 21 Directorate of Training and Education Safe Handling Fundamentals Carefully read the manufacturers label on the flammable liquid container before storing or using it
Practice good housekeeping in flammable liquid storage areas Clean up spills immediately, then place the cleanup rags in a covered metal container Only use approved metal safety containers or original manufacturers container to store flammable liquids Keep the containers closed when not in use and store away from exits or passageways Use flammable liquids only where there is plenty of ventilation Keep flammable liquids away from ignition sources such as open flames, sparks, smoking, cutting, welding, etc. 22 Directorate of Training and Education
Summary The two primary hazards associated with flammable liquids are explosion and fire Safe handling and storage of flammable liquids requires the use of approved equipment and practices per OSHA standards An excellent reference on this topic is National Fire Protection Association Standard No. 30, Flammable Liquids and Combustible Code 23 Directorate of Training and Education
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