Respiratory System

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Lecture1 Dr.Zahoor Ali Shaikh 1 Anatomy Of Respiratory System

Nasal passages (Nose) Pharynx (Throat ) Larynx (Voice box)

Trachea Divides into Right main bronchus and Left main bronchus Bronchi Bronchioleslarge and small Terminal Bronchioles Respiratory Bronchioles Alveolar Duct Alveoli 2 3

4 Important Points Trachea divides into Right and Left Bronchi which enter Right and Left Lungs Within each lung, bronchi continue to branch into narrow (small diameter),shorter and more numerous airways like branching of a tree. Small braches are known as Bronchioleslastly Terminal bronchioles

5 Important Points [Cont] At the end of Terminal Bronchioles, are Respiratory Bronchioles , Alveolar duct, Alveoli. Tiny sacs(Alveoli) where gas exchange takes place between alveolar air and blood capillaries 6

Important Points [Cont] Trachea and large bronchi have cartilaginous rings that prevent these from compressing Very small bronchioles have no cartilage to hold them open. Their wall has smooth

muscle This smooth muscle is innervated by Autonomic Nervous System, and is also sensitive to some hormones and local chemicals, which affect the air flow in small bronchioles 7 FUNCTIONS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

1- Breathing Oxygen in, and breathing out Carbon dioxide 8 RESPIRATION TYPES -- Cellular Respiration ( Internal Respiration) --External Respiration Cellular Respiration

It refers to intracellular metabolic process in the Mitochondria, which uses O2 and produces CO2 and energy ATP from food. 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION 10

CELLULAR RESPIRATION (CONT) On a mixed diet ( Carbohydrate, Fat, Protein ) O2 used is 250 ml/min and CO2 produced is 200 ml/min. We use the Term Respiratory Quotient (RQ) CO2 produced = 200 RQ= O2 used = 250 - On a mixed diet RQ = O.8 -- RQ depends on the type of food used -- when Carbohydrate is used RQ= 1 -- when Fat is used RQ= 0.7

-- when Protein used RQ=0.8 11 EXTERNAL RESPIRATION

Exchange of O2and CO2 between External environment and cells of body. It has 4 steps. 1 Gas exchange between the atmosphere and alveoli. 2- Exchange of O2 and CO2 between air in the alveoli and blood in pulmonary capillaries. Transport of O2 and CO2 by the blood to the tissues.

4 Exchange of O2 and CO2 between system capillaries and tissue cells 12 13 Non Respiratory Functions of Respiratory System Helps in regulation of pH of blood (Acid base balance) , by adjusting the rate of removal of CO2. It is route for water loss and heat

elimination. Inspired air is humidified and warmed by the respiratory airways. Respiratory pump helps in venous return. It enables speech, singing . 14 Non Respiratory Functions of Respiratory System [cont] It defends against inhaled foreign material.

Prostaglandins are inactivated in the lungs. Conversion of angiotensinI to angiotensinII hormone, by ACE ( angiotensin converting enzyme ). Nose part of respiratory system , organ of smell. 15 Gas Exchange Between Alveoli & Pulmonary Capillaries

O2 and CO2 diffuse through alveoli. Rate of diffusion depends on thickness of alveolar membrane, surface area and partial pressure of O2 and CO2. Alveolar wall consists of single layer of alveolar cells [type 1]. 16 Gas Exchange Between Alveoli & Pulmonary Capillaries [cont]

Each alveolus is surrounded by a network of pulmonary capillaries, which is also single layer . The interstitial space between an alveolus and capillary is very thin 0.5 m which facilitates gas exchange. Respiratory Membrane [Alveolar wall and Capillary wall]. 17

Gas Exchange Between Alveoli & Pulmonary Capillaries [cont] Lungs contain about 500 million alveoli, each about 300 m in diameter [surface area exposed between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood is about 75 m2, size of tennis court]. In alveoli, there are Type II alveolar cells . They secrete Pulmonary Surfactant. Pulmonary Surfactant is a phospholipoprotein complex that helps in lung expansion.

18 19 20 Gas Exchange Between Alveoli & Pulmonary Capillaries [cont] Also in alveolar lumen, present are alveolar macrophages which help in defense

[Phagocytosis]. Pore of Kohn are present between adjacent alveoli. Their presence permits air flow between adjacent alveoli. This process is called Collateral Ventilation. 21 Lungs & Thoracic Cavity Two lungs - Right lung is divided into 3 lobes [upper,

middle, lower] by oblique and transverse fissure. - Left lung is divided into 2 lobes [upper, lower and has lingula] by oblique fissure. Lung has alveoli, blood vessels and large quantities of elastic connective tissues. Changes in lung volume and alveolar volume are brought about through changes in dimensions of thoracic cavity. 22

Lungs & Thoracic Cavity [cont] The outer chest [Thorax] is formed by 12 pairs of curved ribs, which join the sternum anteriorly and thoracic vertebrae posteriorly. Diaphragm forms floor of thoracic cavity. Diaphragm is sheet of skeletal muscle that separates thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity. It is penetrated by esophagus and blood vessels. In the lung and chest wall, there is

considerable amount of elastic connective tissue. 23 Lungs & Thoracic Cavity [cont] Pleura separates each lung from the thoracic wall. Pleura which surround each lung has two layers Visceral Pleura [inner layer] which surrounds the lung and Parietal Pleura [outer layer] which is under thorax.

Interior of pleural sac(space between parietal and visceral pleura) is known as Pleural Cavity. Surfaces of pleura secrete intrapleural fluid which lubricates surfaces as they slide on each other during respiratory movements. Clinical application pleurisy [inflammation of pleura]. It causes pain during inspiration and expiration, and friction rub. 24

25 Respiratory Mechanics Ventilation - air flow into and out of lungs. We will consider 1. Atmospheric [barometric] pressure 2. Intra-alveolar pressure or Intra-pulmonary pressure 3. Intra-pleural pressure 26

Atmospheric or Barometric Pressure It is pressure exerted by weight of air in the atmosphere on objects on Earth, as Earth surface. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 760mmHg. Atmospheric [Barometric] pressure decreases at high altitude as layers of air decrease in thickness.

27 Intra-Alveolar Pressure It is pressure within alveoli. It is 760mmHg. It decreases slightly during inspiration and increases during expiration. Intra-Pleural Pressure or Intra-thoracic Pressure

It is pressure within pleural sac. It is pressure exerted from outside the lungs within thoracic cavity. Intra-pleural pressure is -4 mmHg [756mmHg which is 4mmHg less than atmospheric pressure of 760mmHg] 28 29

Flow of Air Into & Out Of the Lungs Flow of air into and out off lung occurs due to cyclic changes in intra-alveolar pressure. Intra-alveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure during inspiration. Intra-alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure during expiration. 30

31 Respiratory Mechanics When thorax expands, the lungs also expand that is lungs follow the movements of chest wall. Transmural Pressure Gradient It is the pressure difference between alveolar pressure and intra-pleural pressure in the lungs. Intra-alveolar pressure equals to atmospheric pressure of 760mmHg. Intra-pleural pressure is 756mmHg. So there is greater pressure in the lungs as compared to

pleura. This Transmural pressure of +4mmHg causes stretching or opening of alveoli ,therefore lungs are always forced to expand. 32 Applied Aspect Pneumothorax air in the pleural cavity. If there is chest injury, air rushes into the pleural cavity from high atmospheric

pressure when chest is punctured e.g. broken rib or stab wound. In Pneumothorax, pressure in the pleural cavity increases and causes the collapse of the lung. Pleural Effusion Abnormal collection fluid in the pleural cavity e.g. Tuberculosis 33 What You Should Know From

This Lecture

Functional Anatomy of Respiratory System Functions of Respiratory System External and Cellular Respiration Non-respiratory functions of respiratory system Gas Exchange between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries Respiratory membrane (Alveolar wall & capillary wall) Lungs and Thoracic Cavity Visceral, Parietal Pleura and Pleura Cavity Atmospheric pressure, Intra-alveolar pressure and Intrapleural pressure Transmural Pressure and its importance

Applied Aspects Pleurisy, Pneumothorax, pleural- effusion 34 THANK YOU 35

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