Response to Intervention

Response to Intervention

LPLC Tier II Reading Intervention Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Evelyn Johnson, Ed.D. Margo Healy, M.Ed. Cristianne Lane, M.Ed. Lee Pesky Learning Center LPLC Agenda Benefits of Strong Tier 1 and Tier 2

Instruction Entry Criteria The Four BIG Questions Identifying the Issues English Language Learners The Journey! Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 What is at stake? LPLC What are the benefits to a student,

school or community when students are proficient readers? Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC From the first day of kindergarten to the last day of elementary school, children substantially define themselves as readers, and this has enormous influence on their development as learners and members of society. Those who succeed in becoming fluent, strategic, and joyful readers are not guaranteed success in school or in life, but they are well on their way. However, those who do not succeed in reading, or who become reluctant readers,

face long odds in achieving success in school and life Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Slavin, Lake, Chambers, Cheung & Davis, 2009 RTI RTI is a System of Instruction LPLC Tier I instruction is strong and comprehensive (80% proficient). Tier II interventions focus on specific

components of reading to respond to the specific needs of individual students. Students are usually taught in small groups, but identified individually by reliable formal and informal assessments. Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC The Simple View of Reading Reading comprehension is the product of decoding and listening comprehension.

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Gough and Tunmer Big Picture of Reading Cognition: Thinking Fluency LPLC Vocabulary Decoding: Reading Words Phonics Phonemic Awareness

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Oral Language Comprehension RTI Isolating the Reading Issues LPLC Going back to the simple definition of reading we can use a series of 4 questions to

group students and plan interventions. 1. 2. 3. 4. Can the student read grade-level text? Is there a decoding problem? Does the student comprehend text? What if the student is not making progress? Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Assessment

LPLC Question #1: Does the student read grade-level text? Screeners: ISAT reading scores ORF* measures IRI measures Oral reading fluency (also known as R-CBM) Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Reality Check!

LPLC What do you already know about these students (grades, etc.)? What information are you passing to the next grade? What is your system for collecting and sharing student level data? Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Normal Distribution Curve 10 Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011

25 50 AIMSweb LPLC AIMSweb National Norm Tables will translate an R-CBM score to a percentile rank. For example, a student scoring a 2 on the first grade fall IRI (LSF), could be anywhere from the 20th-48th percentile.

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Normal Distribution Curve 10 Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011

25 50 Decision Point AIMSweb Average = 26th-75th percentile LPLC Below Average = 11th-25th percentile High risk = Below the 11th percentile

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Take Aways... Regarding resources, our systems must be efficient and inform our decisions regarding who receives further testing and intervention services. Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Establish a Data Management System

At the district level At the school level At the classroom level Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Question #1: Can the student read grade level text?

LPLC What are you using for screeners? What is your criteria for determining which students need additional assessments? Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Process Question #1: Does the student read grade-level text? NO Is there a decoding problem?

LPLC YES Administer a decoding intervention. Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 YES Continue with core instruction. Tools Question #2: Is there a decoding problem?

LPLC Diagnostic Tools: ORF miscue analysis Phonics/decoding surveys (example: CORE*) San Diego Quick Phonological awareness tests (K-2...) Other (program placement tests, Words Their Way spelling inventories) *Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc. Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011

Big Picture of Reading Cognition: Thinking Fluency LPLC Vocabulary Decoding: Reading Words Phonics Phonemic Awareness Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Oral Language

Comprehension RTI Simulation #1 LPLC An oral reading fluency miscue analysis can help a teacher better understand a students decoding abilities and other skills as well. These can be quite informal... or formal.

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Tools Question #2: Is there a decoding problem? LPLC Diagnostic Tools:

ORF miscue analysis Phonics/decoding surveys (example: CORE) San Diego Quick CORE* phonological awareness tests (K-2...) Other (program placement tests, Word Their Way spelling inventories) *Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc. Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011

LPLC CORE Phonics Survey Part A: letter names (uppercase) Part B: letter names (lowercase) Part C: consonant sounds Part D: long and short vowel sounds Part E: short vowels Part F: consonant blends with short vowels Part G: short vowels, digraphs, trigraphs Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC

Part H: R-controlled vowels Part I: long vowel spellings Part J: variant vowels Part K: low frequency vowel and consonant spellings Part L: multisyllabic words Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Reality Check! LPLC Be efficient...

What do you already know about this student? What information do you need? Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Tools Question #2: Is there a decoding problem? LPLC Diagnostic Tools:

ORF miscue analysis Phonics/decoding surveys (example: CORE*) San Diego Quick Phonological awareness tests (K-2...) Other (program placement tests, Words Their Way spelling inventories) *Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc. Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011

Tools Question #2: Is there a decoding problem? LPLC Diagnostic Tools: ORF miscue analysis

Phonics/decoding surveys (example: CORE*) San Diego Quick Phonological awareness tests (K-2...) Other (program placement tests, Words Their Way spelling inventories) *Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc. Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Instruction Evidence-based Intervention Model LPLC

Direct, systematic, explicit decoding instruction What is the recipe? Resources: IES Practice Guides on Reading (WWC) CORE Manual Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Simulation #2 ## LPLC

) Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 ( * w Example LPLC Lesson Examples

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Progress Monitoring Definitions LPLC Progress monitoring (R-CBM) Progress monitoring is a scientifically based practice that is used to assess a students academic performance and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Progress monitoring can be used at the district, school, classroom and student level. Program measures are assessments that teachers use to assess skills

taught in the intervention program. Growth charts are graphs or charts that document progress relative to the exit criteria (the target). Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Question #2: Is there a decoding problem? LPLC What is your system for identifying students with decoding problems? What is the plan once students are identified?

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Big Picture of Reading Cognition: Thinking Fluency LPLC Vocabulary Decoding: Reading Words Phonics Phonemic Awareness

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Oral Language Comprehension RTI Process 1. Can the student read grade-level text? NO 2. Is there a decoding problem? LPLC

YES Administer a decoding intervention. YES Continue with core instruction. NO 3. Does the student comprehend text? YES Administer fluency Intervention.

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 NO Administer comprehension/ vocabulary intervention. Assessment Question #3: Does the student comprehend the text? Possible indicators that students are struggling: LPLC

Miscue analysis/ errors when reading Low R-CBM and/or inaccurate R-CBM Low standardized test scores Poor ISAT reading scores Low grades Poor performance on assignments Observations Low language skills Misbehavior Low MAZE scores Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Example Simulation #3

LPLC How do you know when students cant comprehend? What dont/cant they do? Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Instruction Evidence-based Intervention Model LPLC

Direct, explicit instruction in vocabulary Direct, explicit instruction in comprehension strategies Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Vocabulary Recommendations Instruction (www.LPLearningCenter.org) 1. Select vocabulary wisely (Beck and McKeown) LPLC

2. Explicitly teach vocabulary (Beck, Marzano, CORE) 3. Teach students strategies for unlocking unfamiliar words (Graves) Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 The simple view of strategies! 1. Look within the word (word parts) LPLC 2. Look around the word (use context) 3. Look to what you already know (background knowledge)

4. Look for resources (people, resources) Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Instruction Instruction Reciprocal Teaching Model LPLC RT is widely used as a Tier I comprehension model.

It is also an effective, powerful instructional strategy for Tier II intervention with a strong evidence base (WWC). Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC

Model, Guided Practice, Independent Practice Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Video Clip: Middle School LPLC Video Clip: Summarization 6 Reciprocal Teaching Part 1 Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011

System LPLC Progress Monitoring Back to the indicators Program measures R-CBM (with high accuracy) Unprompted retells

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Question #3: Does the student comprehend? LPLC What is your system for identifying students with comprehension problems? What is the plan once students are identified? Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 RTI

Big Picture of Reading Fluency LPLC Comprehension Vocabulary Decoding: Reading Words Phonics Phonemic Awareness Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Oral Language

Cognition: Thinking Can the student read grade-level text? NO Is there a decoding problem? LPLC YES Administer a decoding intervention. YES Continue with core instruction.

NO Does the student comprehend text? YES Administer fluency intervention. Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 NO Administer comprehension/ vocabulary intervention. When ORF is low, also

administer fluency Intervention. Instruction Extra Time on Text LPLC If decoding, comprehension and vocabulary have been eliminated, then the student mostly likely needs fluency practice. Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011

Intervention Models Instruction Repeated readings (with comprehension checks) LPLC Partner reading (Timothy Rasinski) Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Progress Monitoring

R-CBM Rubrics Read at a good pace LPLC Made few mistakes Attended to punctuation Read smoothly Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Question #3, Part 2: Fluency Practice LPLC

What is your system for identifying students with fluency problems? What is the plan once students are identified? Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Process 1. Can the student read grade-level text? NO 2. Is there a decoding problem? LPLC

YES Administer a decoding intervention. YES Continue with core instruction. NO 3. Does the student comprehend text? YES Administer fluency intervention.

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 NO Administer comprehension/ vocabulary intervention. When ORF is low, also administer fluency Intervention. 4. What if the student is not making progress? LPLC Question #4: What if the student is not making progress?

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Question #4: What if the student is not making progress? Examine Tier I instruction Review the components of strong Tier 2 instruction (strong/weak chart from first training) Consider attendance Solicit help from parents Consider how peers are progressing Eliminate physical problems Document behaviors/strategies that may impact

progress Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Recommendations for English Language Learners Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 RTI Big Picture of Reading

Fluency LPLC Comprehension Vocabulary Decoding: Reading Words Phonics Phonemic Awareness Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Oral Language Cognition: Thinking

LPLC ELL Evidence-based Recommendations* Provide focused, intensive small-group interventions for English learners determined to be at risk for reading problems. Although the amount of time in small-group instruction and the intensity of this instruction should reflect the degree of risk, determined by reading assessment data and other indicators, the interventions should include the five core reading elements (phonological awareness, phonics, reading fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension). Explicit, direct instruction should be the primary means of instructional delivery. * IES Practice Guide (What Works Clearinghouse)

Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 LPLC Continued Provide high-quality vocabulary instruction throughout the day. Teach essential content words in depth. In addition, use instructional time to address the meanings of common words, phrases, and expressions not yet learned. Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011

LPLC Continued Ensure that teachers of English learners devote approximately 90 minutes a week to instructional activities in which pairs of students at different ability levels or different English language proficiencies work together on academic tasks in a structured fashion. These activities should practice and extend material already taught. Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011

Wrap-Up What did todays training validate for you? LPLC With your group, identify your next steps in this important journey... Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Thank You! Contact: LPLC

Dr. Evelyn Johnson [email protected] Cristianne Lane [email protected] Tier II Reading Intervention, Winter 2011 Statewide Special Education Technical Assistance (SESTA ) Gina Hopper, Director 208.426.4363 Katie Bubak, Statewide Consultant

208.426.3257 [email protected] gin[email protected] Training materials can be found at www.idahotc.com Project Sponsor Idaho Department of Education Special Education Division Richard Henderson, Director [email protected]

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