Results from 10 yr and 5 yr surveys - UW College of Education
American Sociological Association 2008 Annual Meeting, Boston , MA August 4, 2008 Are Sociologists Different? Findings from Social Science PhDs- 5+ Year Out: A National Study of PhDs in Six Social Science Fields Panel: Satisfaction with work in Sociology 4/6/2006 Center for Innovation and Research in Graduate Education Emory Morrison Maresi Nerad Elizabeth Rudd University of Washington, Seattle, Graduate School College of Education 1 CIRGE National PhD Career Path and Program Evaluation Studies 1. PhDsTen Years Later  5,864 PhDs from 1983-1985 cohort: 66% response rate Bio-Chemistry, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, English, Mathematics, Political Science 61 doctoral granting institutions 2. PhDs in Art HistoryOver a Decade Later 
792 PhDs from 1985- 1991 cohort: 70% response rate All 54 doctoral programs 3. Social Science PhDsFive+ Years Out  8,716 PhDs from 1995-1999 cohort: 45% response rate Anthropology, Communication, Geography, History, Political Science, Sociology 65 doctoral granting institutions Source: CIRGE, University of Washington, ASA 2008 Annual Meeting, August 4, 2008 2 Sociology in Comparison 1. Do career outcomes of sociology PhDs differ from those of other social science fields? 2. How well does sociology prepare doctoral students for fulfilling careers that make use of their graduate education? 3. Is there a gender difference in career outcome? If so, how can we explain it? Experience in graduate school Marital and parental status 3 Social Science PhDsFive+ Years Ford Foundation Funded Survey Sample N
(% women) Anthropology Communication Geography History Political Science Sociology 432 343 164 839 701 546 (56.5) (52.2) (32.3) (43.4) (35.9) (59.2) Total 3025 (46.8) 4 Social Sciences PhDs 5+ Years Out Job Types at Survey 100% Business Gov't Non-profit Acad. Other NTT Ten track Tenured
80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Anth Comm Geog Hist Poli Sci Soc 5 Job Satisfaction Ratings of Intrinsic Job Dimensions Sociology vs other 5 SS Fields 100 50 25 Intellectual Challenge of Work Autonomy of Level of Contribution Work Responsibility to Society Very Satisfied
Somewhat Satisfied Use of Doctoral Education 5 SS Fields Sociology 5 SS Fields Sociology 5 SS Fields Sociology 5 SS Fields Sociology 5 SS Fields Sociology 5 SS Fields 0 Sociology Percent 75
Fit With Abilities and Interests Somewhat Dissatisfied 6 Career Trajectory Years from PhD Completion to Stable Employment Sample with Professorial Career Goal (78%): Sociology vs other 5 SS Fields 1 Cumulative Proportion 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Years From PhD To Stable Emp. (5 SS Fields) To Stable Emp. (Sociology) To Ladder Faculty (5 SS Fields) To Ladder Faculty (Sociology) 7 Question 2 How well does sociology prepare doctoral students for fulfilling careers that make use of their graduate education? 8 Importance of Skill at Current Job versus Quality of Training* in this Skill during PhD Studies Academic Research Skills: Sociology 100 Percent 75 50 25 0 Thinking critically Analyzing/synthesizing data
Writing/publishing reports Very Important Research design Writing proposals for funding Excellent Quality 9 Importance of Skill at Current Job versus Quality of Training* in this Skill during PhD Studies Transferable Skills: Sociology 100 Percent 75 50 25 0 Presentation skills Working w/ diversity Very Important Working in Working Managing interdisciplinary collaboratively people/budgets context
Excellent Quality 10 Question 3 Is there a gender difference in career outcome? If so, how can we explain it? Experience in graduate school Marital and parental status 11 Employment Outcomes by Gender at , 2, 4, and 6 Year post-PhD: Sociology vs. 5 SS Fields 100 90 80 60 50 40 30 20 10 Sociology 5 SS Fields 6 months Sociology 5 SS Fields
2 years Ladder Faculty Sociology 5 SS Fields Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women 0
Men Percent 70 Sociology 5 SS Fields 4 years 6 years Stable Secure Non-Ladder 12 Sociology Faculty: Prestige* of Institutions of Employment by Gender *Measure derived from U.S. News and World Report Data, 2005 13 Sociologists Likelihood of Rating Quality of Training Excellent or being Very Satisfied with Mentoring by Gender (Based on Ordinal Logistic Regression Controlling for 12 Individual-level Traits) 100% 75% 50% 74.9% 78.1% 53.7% 25%
45.2% 40.8% 38.9% 33.4% 25.3% 0% Writing and Publishing Reports and Articles Thinking Critically Men Socializing Students Into an Academic Community Overall Mentoring Women 14 Marital Status and Education of Spouse/Partner at Time of PhD: Sociology vs. 5 SS Fields 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% Men
Women Sociology Men . Women 5 SS Fields Married/Partnered -- Spouse PhD JD MD MBA Married/Partnered -- Spouse MA or Less Single 15 Likelihood of Being Ladder Faculty at 2 Years PostPhD by Gender, Marital, and Parental Status Sociology (Model With 12 Controls) 100 75 50 25 0 No Child Fathers Men No Child Mothers Women Single Married/Partnered -- Spouse MA or Less Married/Partnered -- Spouse PhD JD MD MBA
16 Sociologists Likelihood of Being Very Satisfied with Fit of Job With Abilities and Interests by Gender and Evaluation of Quality of Training in Publishing Based on Ordinal Logistic Regression Controlling for 15 Individual Level Traits 100% 75% 50% 67.5% 58.1% 25% 48.0% 59.3% 49.3% 39.3% 0% Poor Adequate Excellent Training in Writing for Publication Men Women 17 Thank you!
CIRGE website http:// www.cirge.washington.edu 4/6/2006 18 Career Goal at PhD Completion and % Tenured or Tenure-Track 5+ Years Later Anthropology Communication Geography History Political Sc. Sociology 4/6/2006 (1) % Wanted to Be Professor (2) % Tenured + TT of (1) (3) %Tenured+TT of All PhDs N of All PhDs 72 75 65 84 76 75
64 52 71 53 66 66 63 (407) 84 74 76 80 78 (319) (155) (789) Source: CIRGE, University of Washington, ASA 2008 Annual Meeting, August 4, 2008 (674) (521) 19 The Context PhD Careers Gender & Family- Program Evaluation 1. We . . . conclude that students, professors, and mentors lack of accurate, timely, and accessible data on employment trends, careers and sources of student support is a serious flaw in our education system. (COSEPUP, 1995. page vi) 2. Marriage and family are the most important factors differentiating the labor force participation of male and female scientists and
engineers. (From Scarcity to Visibility, 2001. page 4) 3. The NRC doctoral program evaluations include flawed measures of educational quality. (page 1) Universities should track career the career outcomes of PhD recipients both directly upon program completion and at least 5-7 years following degree completion. (page 34) (Committee to Examine the Methodology to Assess Research Doctoral Programs, 2003) Source: CIRGE, University of Washington, ASA 2008 Annual Meeting, August 4, 2008 20 a to n at Ti m Fi e nd W or k pt io C N ec ar es ee
r O sar y pp C re or D de tu es ni nt ire tie ia to l s I H n Ne av Fi el w e d Im D ev pa el ct op In m th en e I
t nt sFi Fo en -E el rT d s x e c he ite In C m te ha en re En lle st t ng in co e Fi ur (O el a En ge d w n m
co Sa en ur tF ke ag ) ro em m en Fa tf m ro ily m an U ng d. .. ra du at e. .. It W as bl e st O Un a
Be Percent Agree that Item Is a Crucial Consideration in Decision to Pursue a PhD 100 75 50 25 0 Sociology All Other Fields 21 Geographic Mobility of Respondents and Spouses for Career Reasons by Educational Level of Spouse: Sociology 100% Percent 75% 50% 25% 0% Moved For Spouse Spouse Moved For Respondent
Moved For Spouse Ever Partnered . Men Spouse Moved For Respondent Ever Partnered With PhD Spouse Women 22 Sociology Respondents Women 59.2% Minority 10.0% U.S. Citizen/Permanent Res. 95.5% Younger than 30 Yrs. at PhD 22.5% Older than 40 Yrs. at PhD 21.9%
Married/Partnered at PhD 68.8% Married/Partnered at Survey 76.1% Parent at PhD 28.3% Parent at Survey 63.6% NRC (1995) Program Faculty Scholarly Reputation > 4 (Strong) 33.0% NRC (1995) Program Faculty Scholarly Reputation < 3 (Good) 41.8% Source: CIRGE, University of Washington, ASA 2008 Annual Meeting, August 4, 2008 23
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