Rhetoric: Using the Power of Information To Persuade or Argue
Rhetoric: Using the Power of Information To Persuade or Argue Warm Up Follow and Ask yourself What is the editors (authors) purpose? Argumentative/Persuasive Text Argumentative or persuasive text looks just like
the informational text weve been reading Has all the same text structure possibilities Has all the same text feature/support possibilities The purpose of the piece is where the difference is Argumentative or persuasive text is not just giving the reader information. These try to convince you to believe something or act in a certain way to agree with a point of view to buy a certain product
How do you know: What is argument and what is persuasion? How does it differ from propaganda? readwritethink.org
Argumentative/Persuasive Text The key to understanding is analysislooking beneath the surface Lets practice with a little story. Once when I was six years old I saw a magnificent picture in a book,
called True Stories from Nature, about the primeval forest. It was a picture of a boa constrictor in the act of swallowing an animal. Here is a copy of the
drawing. In the book it said: "Boa constrictors swallow their prey whole, without chewing it. After that they are not able to move, and they sleep through the six months that they need for digestion."
I pondered deeply, then, over the adventures of the jungle. And after some work with a colored pencil I succeeded in making my first drawing. My Drawing Number One. It looked something like this: I showed my masterpiece to the grown-ups, and
asked them whether the drawing frightened them. But they answered: "Frighten? Why should any one be frightened by a hat?" My drawing was not a picture of a hat It was a picture of a boa constrictor digesting an elephant. But since the grown-ups were not able to understand it, I made another drawing: I drew the inside of
a boa constrictor, so that the grown-ups could see it clearly. They always need to have things explained. My Drawing Number Two looked like this: Knowing what to look for Why couldnt the adults see the elephant? They werent looking for it. If you know what to look for it is much easier to see things!
In order to understand argumentative reading you must first know what you are looking for. One thing to look for is what is fact, what is opinion and what is reasoned judgment. To see the elephant in argumentative reading you must be able to evaluate what the author says to determine if it is valid and reliable or just someones personal belief. Can you recognize a fact from an opinion? Look over the
examples below. Facts are things that are true or proven; and opinions are what someone believes or thinks, not necessarily truth. Fact Pilgrims sailed on the ship "Mayflower George Washington was the first U.S. President
There are other planets in our Solar System Opinion Everyone had an enjoyable voyage George Washington didn't smile because of his false teeth
Earth has the best atmosphere Look at this one Charles Lindbergh was brave to attempt to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. Many people thought Lindberghs attempt to fly nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean was foolhardy rather than brave. Although he was successful, calling him brave is a value judgment and more of
an opinion rather than a fact. However, considering the reasons above, this statement could be more accurately be described as reasoned judgment. Either way, it is not a fact. Now Lets Work on it with text Reread Yes, Virginia, There is a Santa Claus Underline facts
Circle Opinions. Is this piece persuasion or argument? How do you know? Review: Persuasion and argument differ slightly, but both attempt to convince people:
to buy a certain product to believe something or act in a certain way to agree with a point of view To do this writers use techniques just like players in a game Just like fact/opinion/reasoned
judgment these techniques are the elephant in the picture you will not see them if you do not know what you are looking for. Aristotle's Three Areas of Persuasion Examine/Discuss the Handout Persuasion is all around us.
Zaption Tour - http://zapt.io/tfynme7s View the tour discussing and answering questions as they appear within stopping points in the video. Looking for Appeal in Popular Ads Zaption Tour - http://zapt.io/tgcbgpth View the tour pausing between each commercial to allow students to identify the appeal they noticed. Then, discuss as
a class correct information. Examine this Ad. Can you see what is fact, or opinion? Who are they hoping to sell Proactive to? It is just like the elephant in the pictureif you know
what to look for, youll see it, and evaluate what the ad says! Advertisers hope you dont. Remember, persuasion relies more on emotion and opinion, so advertisers use several techniques to target specific audiences. Here
are a few:
Slogan Repetition Bandwagon Testimonial Emotional Appeal Expert Opinion Logical Appeal Slogan A catchy phrase or statement often used to
sell a service or a product Repetition: The name of a product is repeated many times HEAD ON Apply directly to the forehead HEAD ON Apply
directly to the forehead HEAD ON Apply directly to the forehead Bandwagon A statement suggesting that everyone is using a specific product, so you should too
Testimonial A well-known or knowledgeable person supports an idea, product or service Emotional Appeal A person is made to have strong feelings about a situation or product Expert opinion
Experts approve this product, so you should use it Four out of five dentists recommend sugarless gum for their patients who chew gum Logical Appeal Advertisers try to convince you to make the right decision, smart decision or best choice in purchasing their product
The standard 99 cent chicken sandwich. Wendys new 99 cent all-white meat crispy chicken sandwich. Do what tastes right.
Quick Review of Techniques
Slogan Repetition Bandwagon Testimonial Emotional Appeal Expert Opinion Logical Appeal Technique Support Emotional/Loaded Words
Figures and Statistics Audience Needs and Bias Emotional/Loaded Words Words such as luxury, beautiful, paradise, and economical are used to evoke positive feelings in the viewer. Figures & Statistics An advertisement might read, This
product kills 99% of your germs. Surveys may be conducted and the results graphed to show peoples opinions. Recognizing BIAS Bias occurs when someone has an opinion or preference to the object being judged. For example: A students parents would
not be the best judge for the talent show their child is in. They may show bias for their child. Recognizing Audience Consider who the audience is? This is very important! Who needs or wants to hear this? What do they already know or need to know?
Advertisers know how to target their audiences use appropriate persuasive technique Practice Can you identify Whether Ethos, Pathos, or Logos are used and
the intended audience of the following ads and examples? Audience Middle Aged Women Logos Audience
Young Adults Logos Young people interested in fashion/ class Pathos Teens
Pathos & Logos Did you know? Ads are often hiddenfind the ad in this game Taco Bell made a "promotional partnership" deal with X-Box video games. That means
that you see Taco Bell ads in X-Box games, and X-Box promotions in Taco Bell stores Why hide ads in video games? Who are the ads targeting? Can you find the ad in this picture? SAFECO, an insurance
and investment company, is paying $40 million over 20 years to get the Seattle Mariners' baseball stadium named SAFECO Field. Buying the name of a sports arena is one way for companies to make their name known.
Again, why put an ad here? Can you see that ads really are all around us? As you have seen with Ads, there are many reasons people try to persuade others: Companies use advertisements to persuade consumers to purchase their products. However, people often want to convince
others to share their ideas when they feel strongly about something and they want others to agree. This is when we turn to argument For example, Editorials, Letters & Speeches These involve more writing/reasoning than ads which = argument Argument in Text Other than Ads Argument in paragraph form is harder to
detect. As you read you have to focus on the author's purpose and point of view to see it. Remember Argument uses more fact and hard evidence than persuasion -think like a lawyer! To Provide Support in Argument Writers Use Evidence: Facts & statistics
Quotes Reasons Examples Explanation of benefits, advantages, and consequences Personal experience/story Facts & statistics Relevant information that supports your position
Our animal shelter needs to reduce its number by 75% to make room for more animals. If these animals are not adopted, they will be put to sleep. Can you help? Quotes An explanation of what others have said or thought that supports your position The director stated I am sure if the public
understands how serious overpopulation at our shelter is, they will come to our rescue. So if you are looking for a dog or a cat, have you thought about going to the animal shelter? Reasons A statement of reasons and explanation of why they should be accepted
Adopting a pet from the animal shelter is so much better than buying one from a pet store because adopting means saving an animals life. Also adopting does not cost as much. Examples
Important examples that help your audience see your point of view For example, you can expect to pay around $400 for a normal cross-breed, from $550 to $700 for a pure breed and around $800 for a designer breed. In contrast, it only costs about $50 for an adoption fee. Explanation of benefits,
advantages, and consequences An explanation of what others stand to gain from agreeing with you and the consequences if they dont Even if you are not able to adopt an animal, you could help by volunteering at our local animal shelter. And if you are not able to do that, please spread the word that our animal shelter needs help. By taking action, you will feel good yourself. If you do nothing,
many animals will suffer. Personal experience/story An explanation of a relevant personal experience that helps support your opinion When I visited the animal shelter, looking into the eyes of those poor dogs made me feel very sad, but I was excited to think that I could make the difference in
the life of one of them. I hope you can make a difference too. Your Turn... As you the read Are You a Loser debate use text coding to look for and label any examples of: Facts & statistics Quotes Reasons Examples
Explanation of benefits, advantages, and consequences Personal experience/story Resources The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupry Jennifer Bernhard, Literacy Specialist Clark County Schools, [email protected]
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