Rhetorical Images Visual Methodologies for Teaching Race and Ethnicity Barthes and the rhetoric of the image Using Images Barthes concept of 'rhetoric of the image'
Images as complex conventional codes Rhetoric is often contrasted with rationality and allied with radical relativism or nihilism but... All discourse is unavoidably rhetorical This presentation illustrates the power of images to condition our thinking
The Elements of Myth Denotative Level black cadet salutes flag Connotative Level French empire, patriotism, colonial
values to be saluted, paternalism of French state etc Myth - Third level sign Nation, Citizenship, Identity Available Discourses
Racist Romantic Anthropological Literary
Tourist Romanticism Nature in the raw primeval
the ruthless struggle for survival ancient ceremonies Rock tree and man
are one in the Aborigines hearts and have been since the beginning Conditions at One Mile Dam
Drinking The Northern Territory's alcohol consumption is one of the highest in the world, and certainly the highest in
Australia. In 2001 the alcohol consumption rate was estimated at 1120 standard drinks per person per year. Beer Can Regatta
Law & Order SHANE STONE, FORMER CHIEF MINISTER: People who are out there causing havoc on our streets, who are defecating in our car parks and our shopping centres,
deserve to be monstered and stomped on. Australias eugenic policy The Circuit of Culture
Production campaigns, intentions Regulation hegemony and social control
Consumption desire economy - distinction Identity constant negotiation Representation political, basis for social meanings, regimes of thought, discourses eg tourism, law and order, anthropological etc.. Critical Visual Methods
myth of objectivity Ethical concerns exploitation or collaboration? Obtrusiveness of video recording Immediacy and complexity of the material gathered 'the study and use of visual images is only of use within broader sociological research
enterprises, rather than as ends in themselves. (Bank, M 2001: 178) Consider the Image no one-way visual method or perspective we dont see, we perceive the visual, as objects and images, exists
materially in the world but gain meaning from humans. all images are regarded as polysemic images can be researcher found (generated by others) or researcher generated (created by the researcher). Photographs or film cannot be equated with
truth or reality Conclusions How to address issues in a relevant way? Allows focus on how social meanings are formed and circulate Visual material drawn from a variety of sources
is immediate and interactive Needs backing up with reading Less can be more small interactive nuggets which when unpacked can really stimulate discussion and understanding Potential for use in virtual learning environments Images
Baron Cuvier's Natural History (1890) Landseer's plates Mongols, Negros Lambe, Mick Hammerton, Sir J. (circa 1933) Peoples of All Nations, Amalgamated Press, London
'Black Australia has had enough' photograph from PARIAH website - reproduced with permission of Mick Lambe
'Negro Women' at work in sugar cane field Vol 1 p203, - Photo Service (untraceablele) 'Bejewelled Beauty of the Kabyle' Crete, (Vol 2, facing page 28) 'Fleeting Glimpses of Feminine Charms' (Vol. 1, p441)
Metropolitan Police Nucolorvue Postcard
Australian Aborigines - - NCV 12972 11SZ132. Northern Territory News,
Anti-Terrorism poster -
'Go Home', Headline April 2003 Permits for Aborigines March 4th 2003 Black v White, April 26 2003 Gang of 30 Bashes 3 Teens, April 16th 2003 Spencer, S
'John Bull Anti-Euro Protestor' (2005) Defaced Statue of Queen Victoria (Victoria) Georgetowm, Guyana Didgeridoos on sale at Darwin's Mindil Beach Market* Detail of 'boat' at Darwin's Beer Can Regatta and 'tinnies' from One Mile Dam* David Timber, Coordinator of One Mile Dam community Scared' CRE poster, Authors picture but permission granted from CRE Louis Mackay 19th January 2005
All other stills from author's short film Framing the Fringe Dwellers (2005)
Spooner John cartoon 'Sorry' in The Age Newspaper, Melbourne Wheeler, H, ed. (1935?) 'Peoples of the World in Pictures' Woodrow Ross of University of Newcastle NSW
People of the Desert - Australian National Travel Association Caricatures of Aboriginal people from Queensland Figaro 1887 Bibliography
Banks, M (1995) Visual research methods Social Research Update Department of Sociology, University of Surrey, Winter 1995 Banks, M (2000) Visual Methods in Social Research, Sage Barthes, R (1984) Camera Lucida, Flamingo
Barthes, R, (1982) Image, Music,Text, Flamingo Barthes, R, (1972) Mythologies, Paladin Critcher, 2002 Hall, S. et al 1978, Hall, Stuart, ed. (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, Sage Kumbutjil Association (One Mile Dam Community) onemiledam.org Muecke, S. (1982) Available Discourses in Botsman, P. d (1982) Theoretical Strategies, Sydney, Local Consumption Press. PARIAH website (People Against Racism In Australian Homelands) managed by Mick Lambe (Better a Pariah than a Liar)
http://www.country-liberal-party.com/pages/incarc_p5.htm W.J.T. Mitchell (1994:13) Picture Theory. Essays on Verbal and Visual Representation University of Chicago Press. Rose (2001) Visual Methodologies, Sage Said, E (1978) Orientalism, Penguin Spencer, S (due 2005) A Dream Deferred: Ethnic Conflict in Guyana, Dido Press Spencer, S (2005) Contested Homelands: Darwin's 'itinerant problem' in Pacific Journalism Review, Auckland University: New Zealand
Also Available Online http://onemiledam.org/pages/Framing_the_Fringe_Dwellers.htm Spencer, S (2005) 'Framing the Fringe Dwellers': Visual Methods for Research & Teaching Race & Ethnicity: A Sample Case Study, in CSAP Monograph Spencer, S & Todd, M (2005) Reflecting on Practice: teaching and learning issues in race and ethnicity, C-SAP Monograph, University of Birmingham Woodlock, R. (2002) Muslim Feminists and the Veil: To veil or not to veil - is that the question? http://www.islamfortoday.com/feminists_veil.htm Woodward, K (1997) Identity & Difference, Sage
Yegenoglu M (1998) Colonial Fantasies: Towards a Feminist Reading of Orientalism Cambridge Univ Press Sonia Smallacombe(July 2004) Chas Critcher interview (June 2004) Steel Bands +
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The other new 'story' was modern world history in the twentieth century - essentially the two world wars with the interwar depression and diplomacy, followed by the conflicts of the post-war period between the super-powers - the Cold War, Korea,...
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