River Valley Civilizations Chapter 2 I. The Fertile Crescent A. Geography 1. 2. 3. 4. Dominated by desert Locates between the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea Most important are called Mesopotamia (Land between the Rivers) located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Rivers flood once a year between April and June A.
B. Leave rich soil called silt Provides water for irrigation~ I. The Fertile Crescent B. People Move In A. First People start to settle around 7000 BC 1. They were farmers a. Advantages of Mesopotamia 1. the rich soil 2. Flat land 3. Abundance of water 4. Warm temperatures b. Disadvantages 1. Unpredictable flooding 2. Land dried quickly 3. Small land area
4. No natural protection 5. Few natural resources~ I. The Fertile Crescent c. Solutions to disadvantages C. 1. irrigation system used to bring water to crops and collect water to hold for watering 2. trade with the people that lived in the Mountain to the north for natural resources trades cloth, grain, and crafted tools for stone, metal and wood The Sumerians 1. Mysterious people - no one knows their origin (maybe from the Caspian Sea region) 2. Moved to Mesopotamia around 4000 BC 3. By 3800 BC their advanced irrigation technology allowed
them to dominate the people already living in the area 4. They improved farming techniques, built better roads, and used boat technology~ I. The Fertile Crescent C. The Sumerians (cont.) 1. City-States a. b. c. d. e. City-states created around 3000 BC 4 biggest were Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagash Ur (at its height) contained about 30,000 people All city-states built with a ziggurat (walled temple) at its center Around the cities 1.
2. 3. Large farms for growing food Hearding lands for animals Large orchards~ I. The Fertile Crescent 2. Government 1. When the city-states first started forming (3000 BC), priests (called A) controlled the government 1. 2. 3. 2. 3.
4. controlled the military administered trade Ran the court system During a time of war, a general took control of the government Eventually the city-states will always be at war and the priests lost their power Later city-states controlled by a monarch (king)~ I. The Fertile Crescent 1. Religion 1. Basic beliefs 1. 2. 3. 4.
5. Polytheistic Important to the city-states Contained hundreds of gods based in nature Each city-state worshiped unique gods All city-states worshipped four main gods 1. 2. 3. 4. Nammu Creator of all An male god of the heavens Ki female god of the earth Enlil son of the above, controlled night and day~ I. The Fertile Crescent 1. Religion (cont.) 1.
Religious officials 1. 2. Each city-state had priests Duties 1. 2. 3. 3. Mediator between the people and gods Performed sacrifices and religious rituals Controlled and maintained the irrigation systems For their efforts priests received a portion of the crop grown each year as payment~ I. The Fertile Crescent Religion (cont.) 1.
1. Doctrine 1. Importance of the gods 1. Crops grew in the wet months because the An and Ki mated (married) 2. During the dry months the crops died because An and Ki died 3. Blooming signified the resurrection of the gods 2. Over all belief humanity was put on earth to serve the gods 3. When people died they returned to the heavens to serve the gods 4. Believed in sin explained peoples hardships and blessings 5. Education was unimportant, because the gods would put knowledge in the peoples brains so they could overcome a hardship 6.
Religion was harsh and unsupportive~ I. The Fertile Crescent 2. Culture 1. 2. 3. 80% of the people were farmers They had the concept of land ownership After 2300 BC had established money 1. 2. 3. Polished pieces of metal Value based on weight Caused 1. 2.
Banks to be created for borrowing money People sought wealth wanted to make money~ I. The Fertile Crescent 1. Culture (cont.) 5. Had 5 social classes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Kings and Nobles wealthy, literate, most powerful Priests wealthy, literate, powerful Wealthy Merchants wealthy, illiterate, little power Framers poor, illiterate, powerless Slaves poor, uneducated, powerless
Society 1. 2. Male dominated Women 1. 2. 3. Little protection under law Main role domestication (child bearers, house work, ect.) Harsh life for women~ I. The Fertile Crescent 3. Education 1. Priests were educators 2. Education took place in the temples 3. Only upper class families were educated in the temples had to pay
4. All other education was done in the home 4. Law 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Created by the central government Originally laws not written down Victim had to bring the suspect to court Presided over by the king Hammurabi's Code created 1792 BC 1. Babylonian king 2. First written law code 3. Eye for and Eye~ I. The Fertile Crescent 3.
Science and Technology 1. 2. 3. 4. Invented the plow, sail, wheel, bronze technology, and the pyramid First to use arches, columns, and ramps Had a calendar based on moon cycles Writing 1. 2. 3. 4. Started as pictures Evolved into symbols Cuneiform oldest writing system developed in Sumar Used to keep religious records, historical info, and trade records~
I. The Fertile Crescent 4. Empires Appear 1. 2. 4. City-states will weaken because of constant warfare Invaders will also cause problems Sargon of Akkad 9city-state north of Sumar) 4. 5. 6. 5. 2350 BC he has taken over most of the Mesopotamian city-states Created the first empire Control lasted 200 years (2150 BC) fell due to famine, civil war and invasions
Babylonian Empire 4. 5. 6. Invade in 2000 BC took over after the Akkadians Peak of the empire is during King Hammurabis reign By 1550 BC empire falls~ I. The Fertile Crescent 5. The Assyrian Empire 1. After the fall of the Babylonians, the Fertile Crescent will be open to many other invaders the Assyrians, Phoenicians, and Hebrews 2. Military Might 1. 850 BC the Assyrians were the most dominate empire controlled through SW Asia, the Middle East, and Egypt
2. Able to accomplish dominance by creating a highly advanced and organized military~ I. The Fertile Crescent 3. 4. Beginnings 1. Came from the northern part of Mesopotamia 2. Their flat homeland made Assyria open to invaders 3. Forced to develop a strong military and warlike behavior to combat invaders Military Organization 1. Weapons and Equipment 1. Used iron works to make weapons 2. Wore armor made of iron and stiff leather 3. Wore iron helmets and leather shirts fashioned with iron scales
4. Fought with iron swords and iron pointed spears~ I. The Fertile Crescent 2. Tactics 1. They built bridges to cross bodies of water 2. Before attacking a city they dug out around the city walls to weaken them 3. Foot soldiers would then attack, marching shoulder to shoulder and shoot wave after wave of arrows 4. Battering rams would than knock down the city gates 5. Once inside the Assyrian Army would kill or enslave all inside~ I. The Fertile Crescent 5. Empire Expansion 1. Between 850-650 BC they defeated Syria, Palestine, and
Babylonia also made their way into Egypt 2. Peak of power came around 650 BC 3. Rule 1. The central government controlled the lands closest to the Assyrian heartland 2. Outlying lands were controlled with puppet governments 3. System 1. Local governments controlled by governors reported back to the king responsible for collecting taxes 2. Central government controlled by the king also contained the Assyrian nobles~ Mesopotamia Hammurabi Chart Problems
Effect Effect Floods Rich Soil Large crops Long periods without rain Crops failed to grow No natural defenses Few natural resources Built irrigation
system No protection Built walls from invaders around city Did not have materials to build houses Made bricks and traded with other
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