Romeo & Juliet -

Romeo & Juliet -

Macbeth By William Shakespeare Ye Olde Permission Forme for Studying Shakespeare As we explore the play, please remember that Shakespeare wrote Macbeth to be performed; he wrote each of his plays with the expectation that it would be brought to life on stage, to be enjoyed by an audience watching the performance. With this in mind, we will be reading the play (as a play) and watching the movie. And, most importantly, dont worry if you dont understand every single word (neither do I)!

Quick Write: Guilt & Greed This introductory activity to allow you to explore themes and ideas in Macbeth before we read the text. By having you think about your own situations where you have faced guilt, perhaps you will be able to relate to the play once Quick Write: Guilt & Greed

Write about whether or not you have ever gotten away with doing something wrong. Did you feel guilty about it? Would you rather have been caught? Elaborate on your response by thinking about how you felt, what you would do if you were in that situation again and whether or not Hail, thou wanton, shag-eared scullions! Thine eyes have not yet drunk a thousand words and yet thou knowest that thou art about to embark on a study of Macbeth!

But Seriously... Why is it that youve heard many of the plays more familiar lines? or example: Out damned spot Double, double, toil and trouble Fair is foul and foul is fair Why is it that the name Shakespeare strikes fear into the hearts of so many students? And why do so many other students love his plays? And (really this is the big question) why are we still studying Shakespeare more than 400 Act One:

Shakespeares Life For somebody so famous, we know relatively little little about Shakespeares life. We do, however, know a great deal about Shakespeare's work and the times in which he lived. Shakespeare : Brief and Naughty Video - youtube By the pricking of my thumbs, Something wicked this way comes. IV,i,44-45

Scene Summary Before each scene, I will give you a quick introduction to what will happen as well as one or two guiding questions. Use these questions to focus your reading. Sometimes, I will direct you to participate in some discussion about the scene. After each scene, you will take a quick quiz to check your understanding. If you want to, you can also check the more detailed scene summary. An Introduction In 1606 William Shakespeare, the

Bard of Avon, wrote a play which would go down in history as the cursed Scottish play after numerous mishaps during production. It was written for his new patron, James I (James VI of Scotland), following the death of Queen Elizabeth. James was interested in witchcraft and Scotland, and hence the themes in the play. Banquo is James's ancestor. The play itself tells the story of a man, urged by his wife and foretold by prophecy, who commits regicide in order to gain

Was there really a Macbeth? Yes! King Duncan and Macbeth interacted with each other in August 1040 Macbeth was a real king of eleventhcentury Scotland, whose history Shakespeare had read in several sources, principally the Chronicles of Holinshed, to which he referred for many of his other historical dramas. As for the personalities of the two main

characters, Duncan and Macbeth, Shakespeare's portrayal is not historically correct. However, it has to be asked - who would Refer to the play only as The Scottish Play Macbeth is surrounded with bad luck Many actors have been injured while playing Macbeth Could it be the witches? Thats what some believe! Just to be safe, refer to Macbeth only as The Scottish Play!

The Setting The general setting of Macbeth is tenth and eleventh century Scotland. Since the play was performed long ago in a simple open theater, backdrops were not used and there were only a few props. Most of the scenery had to be imagined by the audience. Since backdrops could not be used to create

mood and atmosphere, the atmosphere had to be created by the few props they used and by the acting of the actors. For The Characters As we learn about the characters from the play, you will be expected to complete a character profile on one of the characters from the play. I will provide you with a character analysis for each scene of the playyou may find this useful for your characterization. By using direct and indirect

characterization methods, describe characters traits using specific examples from the play. Remember to use quotations when taking lines from the play. 1. Note what type of character he/she is (ie, flat, round, stock) and why. Character Map: Macbeth Act One Scene One: ThisSetting opening scene the

not only Stage quickly captures our attention, but also sets the atmosphere of the play. The scene opens on a barren, deserted, and unspecified place. Amidst thunder, lightning, and fog, we are introduced to three supernatural creatures. They are referred to as Witches. The Witches plan to meet Macbeth when the hurlyburlys done, but their purpose remains unspoken, creating a sense of mystery and suspense. The last two lines of the scene, Fair is foul,

and foul is fair. Hover through the fog and Act One Scene One Guiding Question: What might the last two lines of this scene foreshadow? A barren, misty heath in Scotland Thunder and lightning Note of Interest Note that the last two lines are a

rhyming couplet. Most scenes in Shakespeares plays end this way. This serves a twofold purpose: first it acts as a signal that the scene is ending, and secondly, because the end rhymes are emphatic, it enables the scene to end on a climatic note. Purposes of Act I, Scene I 1. The presence of the supernaturalas symbolized by the witcheswould prove a thrilling interest to a

Shakespearean audience. The scene serves to attract and hold the attention of the audience 2. It mentions Macbeth and begins the dramatic build-up which prepares us for his arrival on the stage 3. It foretells the mood and strikes the Character Analysis Act I, Scene I 1. The witches are introduced associated with unwholesome objectsthe familiar or attendant spirit of the first witch

is a cat, of the second a toad, of the third an unknownpossibly Hecate 2. The number three plays an Act One Scene Two: Setting the Stage This scene gives a strong impression of Macbeths character. We learn, through reports of two different battles, that Macbeth is a bold and valiant general, relentless and ruthless in combat, and valued highly by his king and country. Macbeth obviously

has the potential for greatness. It is essential in a tragedy to establish the protagonist as a worthy hero. Otherwise, the death of the protagonist will not seem like a tragic loss. This scene also shows us Duncan, a king who has proven himself to be a poor judge of characterhe trusted Act One Scene Two: Purposes 1. It continues the dramatic build-up for Macbeth before he makes his

appearance on stage 2. In showing the unsettled and rebellious conditions in Scotland, it reveals Duncan as a mild and benevolent man, but a weak and unfit king. 3. It reveals the ability and the power of Macbeth and prepares us for his royal aspirations. 4. It reveals the association between Macbeth and Banquo 5. The gift of the Cawdor title serves as Act One Scene Two: Character

Analysis Duncan: A weak king; a mild and benevolent man; his generals make peace terms without consulting him Malcolm: Older son of the king; too young to fight, but had been in a position of some danger, fought gainst my captivity. Macbeth: Mentioned but does not appear in the scene(1) is brave (2) strong physically (3) inspiring leader and brilliant general (4) accustomed to assume authority since he has already made terms with Sweno,

King of Norway. Act One, Scene Two Guiding Question: This play has many words and phrases that echo throughout the various scenes. Look at the last line of this scene and find what it echoes in the first scene of this play.

Note of Interest Line 41: cannons In Macbeths day, cannons had not yet been invented. Shakespeare often includes details in his plays which are outside of their proper time period. For example, we have references to clocks in the Roman world of Julius Caesar. These errors in chronology are called anachronisms. (see your list of terminology) Act One, Scene Three:

Setting the Stage Act One, Scene Three: Setting the Stage The Weird Sisters open this scene by recounting what they have been doing since their meeting in scene one. It is obvious from their activities that they should not be trusted. Macbeths very first words in the play recall the Weird sisters closing lines in scene one. He receives fair prophecies from them, but responds with fear rather than joy. This might suggest that Macbeth had been plotting the assassination of Duncan well before the announcement of the

Weird Sisters. Macbeth puts aside the thought of murder. He hopes to become king without having to kill Duncan. Again, it is important for Shakespeare to Act One, Scene Three Guiding Questions: What supernatural powers do the Witches seem to have? What evidence is there in Macbeths speech (lines 139-154) that he has

entertained the thought of murder before Note of Interest Line 6, Aroint thee, witchthis scene contains the only reference in the text to a witch. Nowhere else are the three women referred to as witches except in the stage directions and the may not have been written by Shakespeare. Holingshed makes it clear that they are Fates or goddesses of destiny. In the play, they are referred to as the Weird Sisters.

Dramatic Irony Dramatic irony is created when the audience or the readers have knowledge of a characters present (or sometimes future) circumstances that the character does not. Throughout the play Macbeth, we in the audience are privy to information the characters in the play do not know. Take note of the

Purposes of Act 1, Scene 3 1. The greetings of the witches to Macbeth furnish a motivating force to the drama and mark the beginning of the complication of the play. 2. It introduces two of the major characters in the presence of Macbeth and Banquo 3. It reveals the connection between Macbeth and the witches 4. Macbeth, by his being startled, reveals that the witches had read his thoughts and that he already possessed ambitions to be king.

5. It contrasts the characters of Macbeth and Banquo, and reveals that Banquo, although loyal to King Duncan, is also loyal in some degree to Macbeth. This scene can be called Characterization 1. Macbeth: Ambition is the first quality revealed; he reveals the idea of the murder of Duncan has already occurred to himMy mind whose murder is but fantastical.; the witches are an embodiment of his own evil ambitions they startle him because they read his mind; He makes an effort to fight his

ambitions by trying to keep from believing the witches. 2. Banquo: Has some justification for being ambitious also, for this reason, he too sees the witches; his ambition is not as strong as Macbeths and he is Act One, Scene 4: Setting the Stage Upon hearing of the noble manner in which the traitor Cawdor faced his death, Duncan echoes the main theme of the play when he declares that Theres no art/To find the minds

construction in the face. This emphasizes Duncans greatest weaknesshis inability to judge character. Duncan then shows the generous side of his nature when he praises and rewards Macbeth and Banquo for their loyalty. Act 1, Scene 4 Guiding Questions: 1.Point out two examples of dramatic irony in this scene. 2.. Give examples to

show Duncans weakness and unfitness to be king. Note of Interest Line 46: Prince Cumberlandthe rule of succession had not yet been established by Macbeths time. Kings were elected in Scotland, and only the most powerful of persons could attain the throne. If a king felt that his will would be executed event after death, he could do so as Duncan

doesname his heir by declaring him Prince of Cumberland. Act 1, Scene 4: Purposes 1. In Duncans nomination of Malcolm as heir to the throne we have a way prepared for a line of action by Macbeth. That line, of course will lead Macbeth to murder. 2. We are preparing for the introduction of Lady Macbeth 3. It reveals further Duncans unsuitability for the kingship, and makes Macbeth stand out

favourably in contrast. 4. It reveals court life and Macbeths ease in courtly procedures. 5. There is dramatic irony in Duncans comment upon the impossibility of judging a Act 1, Scene 4: Characters 1. Duncan: Poor judge of character; over- emotional and too weak to be a capable king 2. Malcolm: Seems to be well-informed about what is going on; makes an intelligent and

clear report of Cawdors death 3. Macbeth: Is revealed here as the polished nobleman, skilled in the art of courtly talk; his elaborate language lacks the forthright sincerity of Banquos short remark; plays part of humble and loyal servant of king while confident in his mind that fate will give him the throne; quickly changes his Act One, Scene Five: Setting the Stage Scenes one and three involve the Witches, while Scenes two and four feature Duncan and Macbeth. If the pattern is to continue, this scene should involve

the Witches againand in a way it does. Lady Macbeths vocabulary and resolve (manner) clearly remind us of the Witches. Lady Macbeth fears that Macbeth is too full of the milk of human kindness to take the quickest route to acquiring the throne. This serves once again to reinforce that Macbeth is not yet a ruthless murderer. His wife takes it upon herself to persuade Macbeth to go through with the assassination of Duncan. Macbeth arrives and his wife assures him that This Act One Scene Five

Guiding Question 1. What characteristics are revealed about Macbeth and Lady Macbeth? Act One, Scene Five: Portraying Lady Macbeth There are different ways of interpreting Lady Macbeths character, but two portrayals have predominated. One view holds that she is like a fourth Witch, utterly evil and ruthless. She bullies and intimidates Macbeth until she gets what

she wants. The other view holds that she is able to influence Macbeth because of her beauty and seductive charm. While we read this scene, note what Lady Macbeths chief motivations seem Act One, Scene Five: Note of Interest Line 56, blanketperhaps a reference to a stage convention of the Elizabethan period. According to Clarendon, When tragedies were represented, the stage was hung with blackon the same occasion, the Heavens, or the Roof of the

stage underwent likewise some gloomy transformation. Act One, Scene Five: Purposes 1. Introduces Lady Macbeth and indicates at once her strength of character. 2. She reveals Macbeths basic weakness of character, and that is his inability to pursue a course of action if he allows his mind to concern itself too much with the thought of that action 3. In Lady Macbeths soliloquy, Shakespeare permits a passage of time to enable Macbeth to travel from the king to his castlethis is for dramatic credibility.

4. It reveals the bonds of affection existing between husband and wifeIn that way the two are made plausibly human, and their crime becomes all the more dreadful because of that. These people are not monsters, they are human beings. Act One, Scene Five: Character Analysis 1. Lady Macbeth: Strong will and character; ambitiousbut for her husband, not for herself; knows her husbands character and is capable of dominating him; shows a hardness and cruelty; loves her husband and greets him proudly

2. Macbeth: Loves his wife; his character is revealed in Lady Macbeths soliloquy; he has aspects of nobility but is capable of crime for gain but does not want to be discovered; he is ambitious, but would like to achieve his Act One, Scene Six: Setting the Stage This is one of the few daylight scenes in the play. The day is fair, and Duncan expresses how much he likes the look of Dunsinane and its surroundings. Lady Macbeth plays the role of gracious host, and Duncan responds with additional

warm words. But we see the irony of the fair weather, the fair prospect, and the fair words, because we know that the Macbeths are planning a foul murder and Act One, Scene Six: Setting the Stage Guiding Question: Point out two instances of dramatic irony in this scene What qualities of character are revealed in this scene by Lady Macbeth and King Duncan?

Act One, Scene Six: Purposes 1. In the calmness of this scene we have a release from the nervous tension of the preceding scene and a slight pause before the tension of the scene which are to follow 2. Duncan is brought into the power of Macbeth and his wife. 3. It reveals a courtliness and graciousness of manner in Lady Macbeth that prepares us for her fine regal Act One, Scene Six:

Character Analysis Duncan: Once more reveals his weakness or unfitness to be king in his complete inability to suspect what is going on; for purposes of dramatic effectiveness his character must gain the sympathy of the audience so that the crime of his murder will seem greater; by the same token, Macbeth must begin to lose sympathy of the audience. Lady Macbeth: A polished and gracious host; possesses charm, dignity and potential human warmnessShakespeare has 2 reasons for showing this aspect of her character (a) by

Act One, Scene Seven: Setting the Stage In Macbeths first true soliloquy, he talks himself out of killing Duncan. He is not afraid of being damned, but he does worry that he will suffer the same fate as Duncan. He also admits that he is driven by ambition. This his

tragic flaw. When he informs his wife of his decision, she shames him into renewing his resolve to kill Duncan. She also reveals more details of her plot. This scene serves to emphasize once again that Macbeth is not unremittingly evil. He does not rush headlong into murder. He has Macbeths Soliloquy Soliloquy: A soliloquy is a speech made by a single character alone on stage. The character reveals his or

her thoughts, feelings and motivations in such a speech. Act One Scene Seven Guiding Question What reasons does Macbeth give for not continuing with the crime? Analyze Lady Macbeths method of winning back Macbeth to proceeding with Act One, Scene

Seven: It reveals oncePurposes more the weakness in Macbeths character that renders him incapable of action when his mind is preoccupied with thoughts of that action. It shows again Lady Macbeths strength of character and her understanding of her husbands weaknesses. Macbeths indecision adds an element of dramatic suspense. It wins even more of the sympathy of the audience for Duncan when it repeats his good

qualities, and in that way heightens the cruelty Act One, Scene Seven: Media Connection Roman Polanskis version of Macbeth: In Polanski view, Lady Macbeth uses her femininity to convince Macbeth to go through with the plot. However, this is not the decisive influence. In the movie, Malcolm gestures to Macbeth to pour wine for him. This indicates the role that Macbeth will have to play if he

does not kill Duncanhe will be Malcolms subject and servant. Macbeth: A Tragic Hero A tragic hero suffers his downfall as a result of hamartia or a tragic flaw. This is a flaw in his personality, some quality that in excess (too much pride, too much ambition, for example) leads to his own death and probably the deaths of many others. What do

you think Macbeths Act Two: Tragedy, Comedy & Historical Plays Shakespeares plays fall into a number of categories, including tragedy, comedy and history, as well as the problem plays (considered problems because they dont fit into one of the first three categories!). Many of Shakespeares best known plays, including Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth and Romeo and Juliet, are tragedies. In a tragedy, the main character undergoes a reversal of fortune due in large part to his tragic flaw, a flaw in

hischaracter thatcomedy, leads him into misery. Shakespearean Shakespearean on the other hand, is characterized by end a humourous mix ups

and mistaken tragedies tend to with a great number of dead identity, and stage. ends happily, with weddings instead of bodies on the dead bodies. A Midsummer Nights Dream and Much Ado About Nothing are good examples of Shakespearean comedies.

The history plays are based on the lives of English kings. Lets watch a short clip about tragedy. Act Two Act Two : Scene One Act Two, Scene One: Setting the Stage Macbeth, still playing the part of the gracious host, speaks with Banquo before

bidding him goodnight, mentioning that he would like Banquo to join him in some exploit. Banquo replies that he will consier it as long as he can retain a clear conscience. It is interesting that in Holinsheds Chronicles, Banquo does indeed help Macbeth murder Duncan. Macbeth hears the all-clear signal and proceeds towards Duncans chamber. One of Macbeths greatest weaknesses is his vivid imagination. His vision of a dagger floating in the air raises a difficult question: Act Two, Scene One:

Temporary Insanity? Some murderers talk to themselves about the crime they are planning to commit or claim to hear voices or see visions spurring them on. Do you think Macbeth might have been temporarily insane when he Poetry inspired by Macbeth, page

150 Questions to consider: 1.What metaphor does Newall develop in her poem? Metaphor: A direct comparison between two unlike things. An extended metaphor is a comparison which is drawn out or is central to a poem. Simile and personification are types of metaphors. 2.Does the shape of Newalls poem relate to its content in any way?

Act Two, Scene Two: Setting the Stage The kings guards are stupefied with drink, but Lady Macbeth claims that the liquor has only made her bolder. Her bravado is immediately shown to be hollow, however, when the shrieking of an owl deeply startles her. This reaction foreshadows her breakdown later in the play. She reiterates that she would have killed Duncan herself if he had not looked so much like her father. Macbeth appears and is even more shaken

that his wife. He is convinced that he has murdered sleep (his peace of mind) by Act Two, Scene Two: Setting the Stage Lady Macbeth berates her husband for not leaving the daggers at the scene of the murder. Because Macbeth is unwilling and unable to return the daggers, Lady Macbeth herself takes them to Duncans chambers, at the same time smearing the faces of the guards with Duncans blood. Macbeth hyperbolically claims that his bloody hands could turn all the seas read. Lady

Macbeth, using understatement that will prove to be ironic, maintains that a little water will be sufficient to was away the deed. The sound of knocking at the gate reminds them Act Two, Scene Two: Prediction Question: How does Macbeth and Lady Macbeth feel about Duncans murder immediately after it has been committed? Predict how these characters might behave, what attitudes they might have,

and what choices they might face throughout the play, based on their guilt or lack of guilt. Act Two, Scene Three: Setting the Stage The knocking heard in the previous scene continues into this scene as the Porter makes his way towards the gate of Macbeths castle. During the Elizabethan period, the Porter would have been played by the clown in the acting company. In a tragedy such as Macbeth, the clowns role was to

provide comic relief, but the clowns speeches would usually contribute to the theme of the play as well. In this case the Porter focuses on equivocation Act Two, Scene Three: Setting the Stage Macduff and Lennox enter and are soon joined by Macbeth. Their conversation about Duncans intention to depart and the unruly night is evidence that Shakespeare was a master of understatement and dramatic irony. Duncans body is discovered by

Macduff. The alarm is sounded, and the news of Duncans murder is made public. Macbeth visits the scene of the crime. When he Act Two, Scene Four: Setting the Stage Several days have passed since the murder of Duncan. Ross converses with an old man about the unnatural events that occurred on the same night that Duncan was assassinated. The Elizabethans believed that any serious disruption of the natural order of

the universe would lead to an outbreak of disturbing and unnatural occurrences, such as those described by Ross and the Old Man. Macduff appears and he mentions that Malcolm and Donalbain have been accused of hiring the guards to murder the king. Macduff also reports that Macbeth has been named the new king. The Imagery of Macbeth Imagery: Vivid descriptions that appeal to the sensessensory or image-rich

language. The yellow moon hung in the black sky is an example of visual imagery. Read : The Imagery of Macbeth Complete the review questions (Imagery & Macbeth) & activity Act One: The Language of Shakespeare The hardest thing about reading Shakespeare is the language. In the more than 400 years since Macbeth was written, the English language has evolved, so that many words used in Elizabethan time have fallen out of usage and are now

unfamiliar to us. In addition, much of Shakespeares work is written in blank or rhymed verse, adding an extra level of difficulty. Just remember that you want to get a good sense of what is happening and if you dont understand Lets watch a short video about every word, its okay!

And, if its any consolation, The Language of Shakespeare. Act Three Quotable Quote: Avaunt, and quit my sight! Let the earth hide thee? Thy bones are marrowless, thy blood is cold; Thou has no speculation in those

eyes Which thou dost glare with. Act Three, Scene One If your remember, at the end of Act II, Banquo vowed that he would fight against treasonous malice. That fact that the had done nothing since then does not speak well for his character. In this scene, Banquo, in his only soliloquy, expresses his suspicions

about Macbeth, but remembers that the Witches prophesized that he, not Macbeth, would father a line of kings. It now seems that he is more concerned with what the Witches promised him Act Three, Scene One Macbeth appears and reminds Banquo not to miss that evenings banquet. Through a series of not-so-subtle questions, Macbeth learns what Banquo plans to do during the day.

When he is finally alone, Macbeth reveals in another soliloquy that he has not gained anything by killing Duncan. Macbeth feas Banquo and believes that he has destroyed his own peace of mind for the sake of Banquos children. To remedy the situation, he has convinced two Murderers to kill Act Three, Scene Two Lady Macbeths boast that A little water clears us of this deed takes on ironic overtones in her Naughts had, alls spent

soliloquy. Her eventual demise is foreshadowed in this scene; she says that death would be better than a life plagued by doubtful joy. Macbeth appears and hints of a dreadful deed that is to be done. It is obvious that she has had nothing to do with the planning of Banquos murder. From here on in the play, Macbeth will act alone. He no longer needs Act Three, Scene Three A third Murderer joins the other two and they all wait for Banquo. When

Banquo and Fleance arrive, the Murderers attack, succeeding in killing Banquo, Fleance flees unharmed. This scene is a turning point for Macbeth. We know that he will not take well the news of Fleances escape. Act Three, Scene Three Macbeth as the Third Murderer. Who was the third murderer? Read Harold C. Goddards literary conjecture on page 136 of the text.

Act Three, Scene Fourof this The joviality of the beginning banquet scene serves as a strong contrast to the violence and bloodshed of the previous scene. Macbeth leaves the festivities and learns from the Murderer that Banquo is dead but Fleance has escaped. This marks the beginning of Macbeths downfall. He is now aware that he has not been

able to thwart the prophecies of the Witches concerning Banquo. It is at Act Three, Four Once Scene the guests leave, the Macbeths discuss Macduffs refusal to attend the banquet. It is significant that Macduff is mentioned in this crucial scene because he will eventually be Macbeths nemesis. Macbeth announces a the end of the scene that

he intends to seek out the Weird Sisters to get more information from them, another indication of his continuing degeneration. At the Act Three, Scene This scene adds little Five to the plot development of the play. Its sole purpose is to give Hecate, the queen of the Witches, the opportunity of foreshadowing how the instruments

of darkness will destroy Macbeth by filling him with over-confidence. In Hecates words, security/Is mortals chiefest enemy. Most scholars agree that this scene was likely not written by Shakespeare. Its Act Three, Scene Six Act III ends with a short scene that summarizes much of the action that

has occurred in the play. Lennox, in his conversation with an unnamed Lord, gives us a sense of how Macbeth is now regarded by his subjects. Lennoxs speech is characterized by unrestrained sarcasm. We also learn that Macduff is in disgrace and has taken refuge in England. There he hopes to help Malcolm raise Act Three, To Note:Scene Six In this scene it is not clear that Macbeth knows that Macduff has fled to

England. Why then is Macbeth surprised a the end of the next scene when he is informed that Macduff has gone? This inconsistency may be evidence that the play was hastily and carelessly edited before it was printed in 1623 Act Four Something way comes

wicked this Act Four, Scene One This scene opens with the Witches performing a ritual around a boiling cauldron. Something wicked this way comes, they say when Macbeth approaches, a further indication of his corruption. Macbeth demands to know the answers to his questions, and the Witches summon their masters to respond. First

Macbeth is warned to beware Macduff. But then he is informed that no one Act Four, Scene One The last two predictions fill him with confidence and hope. Macbeth is still anxious to know if Banquos children will become kings. A line of eight kings appears, with Banquo at the rear of the procession. The Witches disappear after performing a dance, leaving the dismayed Macbeth alone.

Lennox appears and announces that Macduff has fled to England. This surprises Macbeth, and he vows to have Act Four, Scene One: Double Meanings Earlier in the play, Banquo warned Macbeth that the instruments of darknessWin us with honest trifles, to betray us/In deepest consequence. This suggest that we should not take at face value anything that the Witches

say. On the surface, the two prophecies offer Macbeth assurance of invulnerability. How else might have the prophecies be interpreted? What Act Four, Scene Two Ross attempts to comfort Lady Macduff, whose husband has fled to England, in effect abandoning his family. When Ross leaves, we are treated to a tender family scene involving Lady Macduff and her young son. But this brief

moment of humour is followed by shocking brutality. A Messenger arrives to warn Lady Macduff of approaching danger. The warning comes too late. Act Four, Scene Two: Prose vs. Poetry The dialogue between Lady Macduff and her son is written in prose vs. blank verse. Why might have Shakespeare opted for prose? What effect has it created?

Act Four, Scene Two: The Role of Ross The Role of Ross: Moments after Ross leaves, the Murderers arrive. In Polanskis film version of this scene, Ross is shown letting the Murderers in. Polanski also has Ross appear as the Third Murderer (Act III). Is there anything in the text that supports this treatment of Ross?

Act Four, Scene Three In this, the longest scene of the play, several very important purposes are accomplished. First, Malcolm is established as worthy of being King of Scotland. By testing Macduffs loyalty, Malcolm proves that he will not be deceived by appearances as his father was. Shrewdly, Malcolm withholds his military plans until he is sure he can trust Macduff.

Act Four, Scene Three The ever-present Ross once again appears and informs Macduff that his family has been slaughtered. Malcolm encourages Macduff to seek revenge against Macbeth. Macduffs vow of vengeance makes it clear that he has become Macbeths nemesis. Why would Shakespeare have Macduff appear in a scene immediately after his wife and children have been killed.

Act Four, Scene Three: Memory Challenge Can your remember who has spoken the following lines from the play? Who is being spoken about? 1. By the pricking of my thumbs Something wicked this way comes. 2. What haste looks through his eyes! So should he look that seems to speak things strange. Act Four, Scene

Three: Memory Challenge 3. Nothing in his life became him Like the leaving it. He died As one that had been studied in his death 4. Had he not resembled My father as he slept, I had done it. 5. There is none but he Whose being I do fear Act Four, Scene Three: Memory

Challenge 6. He needs not our mistrust, since he delivers Our offices and what we have to do To the direction just 7. The worm thats fled Hath nature that in time will venom breed, Macbeth: Act Five

Act Five, Scene One Guiding Question for Act V: SleepwalkingWhat experiences have you had with sleepwalking, if any? Is it Act Five, Scene One Setting the Stage Immediately after the murder of Duncan, Lady Macbeth seemed to believe she would be impervious (resistant/not influenced) to remorse, but

this scene shows that she is racked with guilt and can get no rest. Sound familiarMacbeth too is unable to sleep The Doctor and the Gentlewoman (Lady Macbeths attendant) observe Lady Macbeth as she walks and talks in her sleep. It is obvious to the Doctor that Act Five, Scene Two Setting the Stage This scene tells us that forces (military) are rallying against Macbeth. An English army, led by Malcolm and Old Siward, has arrived in Scotland and is near.

The four lords in this scene will join their troops with Malcolms . The meeting place is close to Birnam Woodthe very place mentioned to Macbeth in one of the prophecies. The next four short scenes give us the impression that events are moving swiftly and that Macbeths Act Five, Scene Three Setting the Stage This scene marks Macbeths first appearance since Act 4, scene 1, when he visited the Witches. Previous to that scene Macbeth was uncertain and

distracted, but the prophecies gave him a sense of security that is most evident in this scene. He scoffs at reports that the thanes are deserting him. He does not feel threatened when he hears that ten thousand English soldiers are approaching. He believes the prophecies implicitly (completely); he Act Five, Scene Three Setting the Stage Beneath his confidence there is another continued

element to his characteran ennui, a heart sickness. He realizes that he can never be happy and have all those things that usually are associated with old age, honour, love, obedience, troops of friends. Instead he is cursed and given only token respect. Macbeth tells the Doctor to cure his wifes malady( illness). The Doctor replies that she Act Five, Scene Three Shakespeares Insults

This scene features quite a number of insults. Using the handout, compose your own invective (abuse/attack/criticism). You should have a specific target, either a character from the play or some well known celebrity. When completed, you Act Five, Scene Four Setting the Stage The English forces have arrived near Birnam Wood. Malcolm orders that each soldier

should cut down a bough from a tree and carry it as camouflage. We now see that what seemed a fair prophecy for Macbeth is in fact not so fair. Whats fair is foul and whats foul is fair Birnan Wood is indeed coming to Dunisinane. Act Five, Scene Five Setting the Stage Macbeth is filled with bravado (boldness, daring). He knows that his well-fortified castle can survive a long siege. In no time at

all, however, his world begins to crumble. He learns that his wife is dead. He responds with one of the more memorable speeches in the Shakespeare canon (tenet, principles), a speech that eloquently captures Macbeths Act Five, Scene Five Setting the Stage Hecontinued then hears that Birnam Wood is coming to Dunsinane. He abandons his plan of remaining safe behind the

castle walls and chooses instead to face his enemies in open battle. Act Five, Scene Five Note of Interest: Line 25. It is not unlikely that Macbeths Tomorrow and tomorrow speech has as one of its sources a Biblical reference (allusion). In Proverbs xxiv, 20, we find the following: the candles of the wicked shall be put out.

Act Five, Scene Six Setting the Stage army arrives at Malcolms Macbeths castle. The soldiers are told to throw down their camouflage (the branches) and show their strength. Malcolm then orders Siward and his son to lead the attack, with

Act Five, Scene Seven Setting the Stage Macbeth feels concerned. He cannot escape, but he remains confident because of the second prophecyno one born of a woman can harm him. Young Siward challenges him and is killed. Macbeth takes this as a confirmation of the prophecy. He exits. Act Five, Scene

Seven Setting the Stage, continued Macduff appears, frantically searching for Macbeth. Siward tells Macduff that the castle has been taken with minimal resistance and that the battle will soon be over. Act Five, Scene Eight Setting the

Stage Macbeth, refusing to give up while ther are lieves athat he can take, finally faces Macduff. They fight and Macduff appears to be losing. Macbeth brags that he cannot be vanquished by one of woman born and offers to let Macduff go unharmed. It is at this point that Macduff announces that he was untimely ripped from his Act Five, Scene Eight Setting the

Stage, continued When Macbeth hears this, he refuses to resume the fight with Macduff. He soon changes his mind when he realizes what his fate will be if he were to be taken alive. Macduff kills Macbeth and drags his body off stage. Malcolm and Siward appear and the latter learns that his son has been killed. Macduff then enters with Macbeths severed head.

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