S3690 The Biology of Cancer - MIT ESP - Home

S3690 The Biology of Cancer - MIT ESP - Home

Last Weeks Reading Assignments Review: Macromolecules, Cellular Components and RNA World Hypothesis, Read http://exploringorigins.org/

Preview: Central Dogma- Replication, Transcription and Translation. Structure of DNA, RNA and Protein The Lac Operon, Transcription factors. DNA wrapping, histone protein, DNA methylation, DNA acetylation

What is mutation and what causes it? How does the cell try to fix this? http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_methylation

S3690 The Biology of Cancer HSSP @ Harvard Fall 2010 Lecture 2: The Culprit Zhi Dong

Review Game! P53 Protein

Lecture Outline Question: Whats wrong with the cancer cell? Fundamentals of Biology Central Dogma DNA Replication

Transcription Translation Gene regulation The Lac Operon

Epigenetics (DNA wrapping, DNA methylation, DNA acetylation) Cancer Mutations

DNA repair mechanisms The Guardian of the Genome- p53 The Central Dogma

DNA Replication DNA Replication http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=teV62zrm2P0

The Trombone Model of DNA Replication http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-mtLXpgjHL0&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jtmOZaIvS0

DNA Replication Song! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIZpb93N Ylw

Transcription http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WsofH466lqk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=41_Ne5mS2ls

mRNA Processing- Cap and Tail 5 Modified Guanine Cap 3 Poly-A Tail http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YjWuVrzvZ

YA Introns vs. Exons

mRNA Processing- Splicing http://www.youtube.com/user/ndsuvirtualcell#p/u/9/FVuAwBGw_pQ Alternative Splicing

Translation http://www.youtube.com/wa tch?v=5bLEDd-PSTQ&feat ure=related

http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=41_Ne5mS2ls Translation

Protein Synthesis An epic on the cellular level! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9dhO0iC

Lww Putting everything together The proteins work like machines! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ygpqVr7_

xs Gene Regulation

The Lac Operon Lac Operon http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBwtxdI1zvk

Positive Control of Lac Operon Epigenetic Control Epigenetics is the study of inherited changes in

phenotype (appearance) or gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence, hence the name epi- (Greek: - over, above) -genetics.

These changes may remain through cell divisions for the remainder of the cell's life and may also last for multiple generations. However, there is no change in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism;[1] instead, non-genetic factors cause the

organism's genes to behave (or "express themselves") differently. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epigenetics

DNA Wrapping and Acetylation DNA Wrapping http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8NHcQesYl8&feature=relate d

DNA Acetylation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYrQ0EhVCYA DNA Methylation

DNA Methylation Does not change sequence of DNA Can be passed on after cell division DNA methylation pattern in human is set

early in development Can silence transcription by preventing TF binding Recruit additional protein (such as HAT and chromatin remodeling protein) to modify

histones Tutor suppressor can be methylated in cancer Cancer- Mutations

Discussion What are the different causes of mutation? Can mutation be beneficial?

DNA Mutation If the DNA were copied badly, we would have diseases such as cancer at a much higher frequency, and we would not get a faithful copy

of our parental inheritance. Our species would not be preserved, and we would not live long. If the DNA were copied perfectly, there would be no room for evolution, and the basis for creation of new species with better environmental

adaptation would have vanished long ago. The DNA repair system allows a happy medium. Dan Koshland former editor of Sciencemagazine. DNA Polymerase proofreads its work

Source of Mutation Not all replication errors are caught by proofreading

Chemical damage to DNA Water damage to DNA Ultraviolet light damage to DNA Radiation (such as X-Ray) cause break in DNA

How does the cell fix it? UV Radiation cause dimers to form

Breaks in DNA P53 Protein Tumor Suppressor protein Guardian of the Genome (Lane,

1992) Disruption of p53 is associated with 50-55% of human cancers Active DNA repair proteins when

DNA is damaged Induce growth arrest by stopping cell cycle at G1/S checkpoint if DNA is damaged Initiate apoptosis if DNA cannot

be fixed http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =n_VDMKpxaXw Discussion

What happens when P53 is mutated? Reading Assignments Review- Central Dogma, Gene regulation,

Mutation and Repair Check out the P53 website: http://p53.free.fr/index.html Preview: Cell cycle, stages of mitosis (study on your own)

Protein degradation, lysosome, proteosome, ubiquitination, ubiquitin. What are some common therapies that is used to treat cancer today? What is the Knudson Hypothesis?

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