Scarcity, Opportunity Costs, and the Production Possibilities ...

Scarcity, Opportunity Costs, and the Production Possibilities ...

Scarcity, Opportunity Costs, and the Production Possibilities Curve 1 Scarcity 2 Scarcity

Resources are scarce You cant always get what you want so everyone must make choices. Choices can be dependent on money but also time. Why do individuals have to make choices? BECAUSE RESOURCES ARE SCARCE 3 Scarcity

Resource is anything that can be used to produce something else lists of the economys resources: o land o labor (the time of workers) o capital (machinery, buildings, and other man-made productive assets) o human capital (the educational achievements and skills of workers) (your book calls this entrepreneurial ability) 4 Scarcity

A resource is scarce when theres not enough of the resource available to satisfy all the various ways a society wants to use it Examples are natural resource, human resources (labor, skill, intelligence) and even clean air and water The scarcity of resources means that society as a whole must make choices One way to make choices is to allow 5 Opportunity Costs

6 Opportunity Costs The real cost of an item is its opportunity cost what you give up in order to get it The concept of opportunity cost is crucial to understanding individual choice because, in

the end, all costs are opportunity costs. Every choice you make means forgoing some other alternative Some important decisions involve an either-or choice Example: You decide either to go to college or to begin working, you decide whether to take economics or to take something else 7 Opportunity Costs But other important decisions involve how much choices Example: you are taking

both AP Economics and AP Chemistry, you must decide how much time to spend studying for each 8 Opportunity Costs How Much decisions is a decision to make at the margin comparing the costs and benefits of doing a little bit more of an activity versus doing a little bit less known as marginal decisions and the study of which is known as Marginal analysis Usually in a decision made at the margin,

you decision is involving a trade-off which is a comparison of costs and benefits 9 Explicit Costs vs. Implicit Costs Opportunity Costs is the real cost of something you must give up to get it When making decisions, it is crucial to think in terms of opportunity cost, because the opportunity cost

of an action is often considerably more than the cost of any outlays of money Opportunity Costs can be broken into two parts: 10 Explicit Costs is a cost that requires an outlay of money Implicit Costs, does not involve an outlay of money; instead, it is measured by the value, in dollar terms, of the benefits that are

forgone Example: o EC: an additional year of college requires tuition o IC: an additional year of college 11 Opportunity Cost of an Additional Year of School 12 Production Possibilities Curve 13

To think about the trade-offs that face any economy (comparing the costs and benefits), economists use the Production Possibilities Curve The model is used to improve our understanding of trade-offs by considering a simplified economy that produces only two goods 14 The following graph is a hypothetical production possibilities curve for Tom, a castaway as seen in the movie Cast Away. He must make a trade-off between production of

fish and production of coconuts 15 The frontier the line in the What the maximum diagramis shows the maximum quantity ofof fish TomTom can catch quantity fish can during a week GIVEN the quantity catch if he also gathers

of coconuts he gathers, and vice 9, 15 or 30 coconuts? versa. Quantity of coconuts D 30 Feasible and efficient in production A 15 9

Not feasible Feasible but not efficient B C Production possibility frontier PPF 0 20 28

40 Quantity of fish Quantity of coconuts Points that lie outside Distinction between points INSIDE or ONPPC the PPC: the are shaded area hypothetical

points that points inside or on the frontier are not feasible is feasible D 30 Feasible and efficient in production A 15 9 Not feasible

Feasible but not efficient B C Production possibility frontier PPF 0 20 28 40

Quantity of fish Efficiency 18 Efficiency PPC illustrates the economic concept of efficiency (an economy is efficient if all opportunities to make some people better off without making other people worse off are taken) Key element of efficiency is that there are no missed opportunities in

production there is no way to produce more of one good without producing less of other goods As long as Tom is on the PPC frontier, his production is efficient 19 If an economy is producing at a point on its production possibility frontier, we say that the economy is efficient in production But. if Tom was at point C it would be a one-person economy and this is not efficient in production and would be inefficient

producing more of both goods Example in the economy is when people are involuntarily unemployed, they want to work but are unable to find jobs and this means the economy is not efficient in production because it could be producing more output is these people were employed 20 PPC helps to clarify what it means for an economy to be efficient in production BUT efficiency in production is only part of whats required for the

economy as a whole to be efficient Efficiency also requires that the economy allocates its resources so that consumers are as well off as possible efficiency in allocation Efficiency for the economy as a whole requires both efficiency in production and efficiency in allocation; to be efficient, an economy must produce as much of each good as it can given the production of other goods, and it must also produce the mix of goods that people wasnt to consume 21 Quantity of coconuts D 30 Feasible and

efficient in production A 15 9 Not feasible Feasible but not efficient B C Production possibility frontier

PPF 0 20 28 40 Quantity of fish How does unemployment, unused

production and economic downturns affect the PPC? Analysis and conclusion change because we cant assume that all available resources are fully employed Unemployment can change the PPC curve o Show graphically by placing points inside the original production possibilities curve 23 Opportunity Costs 24

PPC also shows that the true cost of any good is not just the amount of money it costs to buy, but everything else in addition to money that must be given up in order to get that good the opportunity cost The slope of a straight-line PPC is equal to the opportunity cost specifically, the opportunity cost for the good measured on the horizontal axis in terms of the good measured 25 on the vertical access

Law of increasing opportunity cost when the production of a particular good increases, the opportunity cost of producing an additional unit rises Increasing opportunity costs the more fish that Tom catches, the more coconuts he has to give up to catch an additional fish When opportunity costs are increasing rather than constant, the production possibilities frontier is a bowed-out curve rather than a straight line 26 Increasing Opportunity Cost Quantity of coconuts 35

Producing the first 20 fish . . . requires giving up 5 coconuts 30 25 A But producing 20 more fish . . . 20 15

requires giving up 25 more coconuts 10 When more of a good is produced, its 5 opportunity cost typically rises PPF because well-suited inputs are used 0 10 20 30 40 50 up and less adaptable inputs must be Quantity of fish used instead

Economic Growth on the PPC Curve 28 PPC can show economic growth Remember, economic growth is the growing ability of the economy to produce goods and services It literally means that the economy can produce more of everythingit is showed on a PPC as a point that lies outside the original frontier. On the PPC, growth is shown as an

outward shift of the frontier 29 What leads to this? 1. Increase in the economys factors of production (resources used to produce goods and services) o 2. includes land, labor, capital, entrepreneurial ability Increase in progress in technology (technical means for the production of goods and services)

o innovations in the techniques we use to produce goods and services have been a30 Economic Growth Quantity of coconuts Economic growth Production is initially The economy can results nowat in an outward shift

of the point A (20 fish 25 PPF produce more ofand because production coconuts), it can move everything. possibilities arefish expanded. to point E (25 and 30 coconuts).

35 E 30 A 25 20 15 10 5 Original PPF 0 10 20

25 30 40 New PPF 50 Quantity of fish Scarcity, Opportunity Costs, and the Production Possibilities Curve 32 Scarcity 33

Scarcity Resources are scarce Why do individuals have to make choices? BECAUSE RESOURCES ARE SCARCE 34 Scarcity Resource is anything that can be used to produce something else

lists of the economys resources: o land o labor o capital o human capital (your book calls this entrepreneurial ability) 35 Scarcity

A resource is scarce when theres not enough of the resource available to satisfy all the various ways a society wants to use it Examples are natural resource, human resources (labor, skill, intelligence) and even clean air and water One way to make choices is to 36 Opportunity Costs 37 Opportunity Costs

The real cost of an item is its opportunity cost what you give up in order to get it Some important decisions involve an either-or choice 38 Opportunity Costs But other important decisions involve how much choices

Example: you are taking both AP Economics and AP Chemistry, you must decide how much time to spend studying for each 39 Opportunity Costs How Much decisions is a decision to make at the margin comparing the costs and benefits of doing a little bit more of an activity versus doing a little bit less

A decision made at the margin, involves a trade-off which is a comparison of costs and benefits 40 Explicit Costs vs. Implicit Costs Decisions are made using the concept of opportunity cost, because the opportunity cost of an action is often considerably more than the cost of any outlays of money

Opportunity Costs can be broken into two parts: Explicit costs 41 Explicit Costs vs. Implicit Costs Explicit Costs is a cost that requires an outlay of money Implicit Costs, does not involve an outlay of money; instead, it is measured by the value, in dollar

terms, of the benefits that are forgone Example: o EC: an additional year of college requires tuition o IC: an additional year of college 42 Production Possibilities Curve 43 Production Possibilities Curve Used to show the trade-offs that face any economy, economists use

the Production Possibilities Curve The model is used to help understand trade-offs by considering a simplified economy that produces only two goods 44 The frontier the line in the diagram shows the maximum quantity of fish Tom can catch during a week GIVEN the quantity of coconuts he gathers, and vice versa. Quantity of coconuts

D 30 A 15 9 B C Production possibility frontier PPF 0 20

28 40 Quantity of fish Efficiency 46 Efficiency PPC illustrates the economic concept of efficiency Key element of efficiency is that there are no missed opportunities in

production there is no way to produce more of one good without producing less of other goods As long as Tom is on the PPC frontier, his production is efficient 47 Efficiency An efficient in production economy is producing at a point on its production possibility frontier

Example in the economy is when people are involuntarily unemployed, they want to work but are unable to find jobs and this means the economy is not efficient in production because it could be producing more output is these people were employed 48 Efficiency Efficiency also requires that the economy be efficient in allocation allocating its resources so that consumers are as well off as possible

Efficiency for the economy as a whole requires both efficiency in production and efficiency in allocation 49 Efficiency Quantity of coconuts D 30 A 15 9

B C Production possibility frontier PPF 0 20 28 40 Quantity of fish Efficiency

How does unemployment, unused production and economic downturns affect the PPC? It changes because we cant assume that all available resources are fully employed Unemployment can change the PPC curve o Show graphically by placing points inside the original production possibilities curve 51 Opportunity Costs 52 Opportunity Costs

PPC also shows opportunity costs The slope of a straight-line PPC is equal to the opportunity cost specifically, the opportunity cost for the good measured on the horizontal axis in terms of the good measured on the vertical access 53 Opportunity Costs

Law of increasing opportunity cost when the production of a particular good increases, the opportunity cost of producing an additional unit rises Increasing opportunity costs the more fish that Tom catches, the more coconuts he has to give up to catch an additional fish When opportunity costs are increasing rather than constant, the production possibilities frontier is a bowed-out curve rather than a straight line 54 Increasing Opportunity Cost Quantity of coconuts 35

30 A 25 20 15 10 5 PPF 0 10 20 30 40

50 Quantity of fish Economic Growth on the PPC Curve 56 Economic Growth on the PPC Curve PPC can show economic growth Remember, economic growth is the growing ability of the economy to produce goods and services

It literally means that the economy can produce more of everythingit is showed on a PPC as a point that lies outside the original frontier. o On the PPC, growth is shown as an outward shift of the frontier 57 Economic Growth on the PPC Curve What leads to this? 1. Increase in the economys factors of production (resources used to

produce goods and services) 2. Increase in progress in technology (technical means for the production of goods and services) 58 Economic Growth Quantity of coconuts 35 E 30 A 25 20 15

10 5 Original PPF 0 10 20 25 30 40 New

PPF 50 Quantity of fish

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