Second Target Station: A Next- Generation Neutron Source at ORNL

Second Target Station: A Next- Generation Neutron Source at ORNL

Introduction to Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Ken Herwig Instrument and Source Division Neutron Sciences Directorate Oak Ridge National Laboratory August 13, 2016 ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the US Department of Energy OUTLINE

Background the incoherent scattering cross section of H Neutrons and QENS Experiment Design Connection to Molecular Dynamics Simulations The Elastic Incoherent Structure Factor (EISF) The Role of Instrumentation Restricted Diffusion Example Tethered Molecules References and Summary 2 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 Incoherent and Coherent Scattering Origin incoherent scattering arises when there is a random variability in the scattering lengths of atoms in your sample can arise from the presence of different isotopes or from isotopes with non-zero nuclear spin combined with variation in the relative orientation of the neutron spin with the nuclear spin of the scattering center Coherent scattering gives information on spatial correlations and collective motion. Elastic: Where are the atoms? What are the shape of objects? Inelastic: What is the excitation spectrum in crystalline materials e.g. phonons?

Incoherent scattering gives information on single-particles. Elastic: Debye-Waller factor, # H-atoms in sample, Elastic Incoherent Structure Factor geometry of diffusive motion (continuous, jump, rotations) Inelastic: diffusive dynamics, diffusion coefficients. Good basic discussion: Methods of x-ray and neutron scattering in polymer science, R.-J. Roe, Oxford University Press. (available) Theory of Thermal Neutron Scattering, W. Marshall and S. W. Lovesey, Oxford University Press (1971). (out of print) Neutron Properties H is our friend! Isotopic sensitivity of H H (nuclear spin ) has a large incoherent neutron scattering cross-section H and D have opposite signed scattering lengths D has a much smaller cross section The signal from samples with H are often dominated by the incoherent scattering from H The Q and w ranges probed in QENS experiments is well-suited to the self part of the dynamic structure factor

Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering Why Should I Care? Applicable to wide range of science areas Biology water-solvent mediated dynamics Chemistry complex fluids, ionic liquids, porous media, surface interactions, water at interfaces, clays Materials science hydrogen storage, fuel cells, polymers, proton conductors Probes true diffusive motions Analytic models Useful for systematic comparisons Close ties to theory particularly Molecular Dynamics simulations Complementary Light spectroscopy, NMR, dielectric relaxation Unique Answers questions you cannot address with other methods

A Neutron Experiment scattered neutron kf 2 k ki incident neutron detector Energy E sample w = 0 elastic w near 0 quasielastic 6 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017

2mn Q ki k f Energy Transfer w Ei E f Measure scattered neutrons as a function of Q and w S(Q,S(Q,w). w 0 inelastic k 2 Q 1 Q Length 1 w

Time Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Neutron exchanges small amount of energy with atoms in the sample Harmonic motions look like flat background Vibrations are often treated as Inelastic Debye-Waller Factor Maximum of intensity is always at w = 0 Samples the component of motion along Q Low-Q typically less than 5 -1 kf ki Experiment Design s is the microscopic cross section (bn/atom) 10-24 cm2/atom S(Q,n is the number density (atom/cm3) S is the macroscopic cross-section (cm-1) S ns

The transmission, T, depends on sample thickness, t, as: T exp St Good rule of thumb is T = 0.9 5 S(Q, S(Q,15 S(Q,mmole S(Q,H-atoms S(Q,for S(Q,10 S(Q,cm2 S(Q,beam S(Q, (BaSiS, S(Q,HFBS, S(Q,CNCS, S(Q,DCS) 8 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 An Example Water 1 gm 1 mole 6.02 10 23 3.34 10 22 n 3 cm 18gm mole cm 3 s 2 80 10 24 cm2 Ignore the oxygen

contribution 5.34 S sn cm ln 0.9 sample thickness t 0.2 mm 5.34 Samples with a lot of hydrogen must be thin 9 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 QENS Spectra (broadened by instrument resolution) Slowest Time is set by the width of the instrument resolution Fastest Time is set by the dynamic range of the instrument (wmax)

Incoherent Intermediate Scattering Function, S(Q,w), and Molecular Dynamics Simulations TOOLS Intermediate Scattering Function nMOLDYN: http://dirac.cnrs-orleans.fr/plone SASSENA: http://www.sassena.org time dependent correlation function incoherent scattering > no pair correlations, self-correlation function calculable from atomic coordinates in a Molecular Dynamics Simulation 1 I inc Q, t N

exp iQ R i t exp iQ R i 0 i Sinc(Q,w) the Fourier transform 1 of Iinc(Q,t) Sinc Q, w I inc Q, t ) exp iwt dt 2 11 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 QENS and Molecular Dynamics Simulations Same atomic coordinates used in classical MD are all that is needed to calculate Iinc(Q,t) 1,3 diphenylpropane tethered to the pore surface of MCM41

The Elastic Incoherent Structure Factor (EISF) A particle (H-atom) moves out of volume defined by 2/Q in a time shorter than set by the reciprocal of the instrument sensitivity, dw (meV) gives rise to quasielastic broadening. The EISF is essentially the probability that a particle can be found in the same volume of space at some subsequent time and so depends on the size of the box (2/Q). AE AQ EISF S(Q,= S(Q,AE S(Q,/(AE+AQ S(Q,) 13 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 2/Q

QENS and Neutron Scattering Instruments Probe Diffusive Motions Length scales set by Q, 0.1 -1 < Q < 3.7 -1, 60 > d > 1.7 depends on . Time scales set by the width of instrument energy resolution, typically at least 0.1 meV (fwhm) but higher resolution -> longer times/slower motion Energy transfers ~ 2 meV (or less) High resolution requirements emphasizes use of cold neutrons (but long limits Q) Incident neutron wavelengths typically 4 to 12 (5.1 meV to 0.6 meV) Why a variety of instruments? (Resolutions vary from 1 meV to 100 meV) Energy resolution depends on knowing both the incident and scattered neutron energies Terms in the resolution add in quadrature typically primary spectrometer (before sample), secondary spectrometer (after the sample) Improvement in each resolution term cost linearly in neutron flux (ideally) Optimized instrument has primary and secondary spectrometer contributions approximately equal Factor of 2 gain in resolution costs at a minimum a factor of 4 in flux 14 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 Role of Instrumentation

Currently about 25 neutron scattering instruments in the world useful for QNS (6 in the U.S., including NSE) U.S. instruments Opportunity is Good- Competition is High NIST Center for Neutron Research High Flux Backscattering Spectrometer Disc Chopper Spectrometer Neutron Spin Echo Spallation Neutron Source BaSiS near backscattering spectrometer (3.5 meV) Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer (CNCS) (10 100 meV) Neutron Spin Echo (t to 400 nsec) Trade-offs Resolution/count rate Flexibility

Dynamic range Neutron vs Q large high resolution -> long times/slow motions large limited Q-range, limited length scales 15 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 The High-Resolution Neutron Spectrometer Landscape nt e m fine n o in C

Backscattering les u c e Mol Small Molecule Diffusion l Co d loi o C / s le

p m xF s d i lu lym o P nd a ers 16 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 ins e

t Pro Cold Neutron Chopper Neutron Spin Echo Restricted Diffusion Tethered Molecules Samples typical 0.7 g 240 K < T < 340 K Simple Fit Lorentzian + d MCM-41 (2.9 nm pore diameter) high DPP coverage MCM-41 DPP Pore Diameter (nm) Coverage (molecules/

nm2) 1.6 0.85 (saturation) 2.1 1.04 (saturation) 3.0 0.60 0.75 1.61 (saturation) Elastic Scans Fixed Window Scans Coverage Dependence Pore Size Dependence Onset of diffusive

motion giving rise to QENS signal (typically) I Q I 0 exp Q 2 u 2 3 Onset of diffusive and anharmonic motion (TT) Elastic Scans (Fixed Window Scans) TT No dependence on DPP surface coverage at 3.0 nm pore diameter ( 130 K) 1.7 nm

196 K for 2.1 nm pore (maximum DPP surface coverage) Deeper potential Simulations indicate that at 2.1 nm (2.2 nm) DPP molecules adopt a conformation that has a more uniform density throughout the pore volume 2.2 nm Large pores have enough surface area for DPP to orient near the MCM-41 surface 2.9 nm 19 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 Simple Fit to data (HFBS NCNR) 30 diameter pore, 320 K, Q = 1 -1 -1 AE

AQ EISF S(Q,= S(Q,AE S(Q,/(AE+AQ S(Q,) EISF 30 DPP sample, saturation Curvature determines Rmax fm 1-fm 21 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 Non-zero asymptote implies immobile H-atoms (on S(Q,the S(Q,time S(Q,scale S(Q, of S(Q,this S(Q,instrument) Lorentzian G(Q) Non-zero intercept Implies S(Q,

restricted/confined S(Q, diffusion 22 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 Simple Analytical Model e.g. Diffusion in a Sphere 2r l 2 n x D 1 r2 l Ss Q, w, r, D A Qr d w + (2l +1)An Qr

2 l.n 0,0 l 2D 2 x + w n r 2 2 3 j1 Qr 0 EISF: A0 Q Qr 0 0 Volino and Dianoux, Mol. Phys. 41, 271-279 (1980).

23 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 Extend to a Sum over Spheres of Varying Size (15 H-atoms) 15 S DPP Q, w S s Q, w , Ri , Di i 1 Ri Rmax ts Fi to ta a D Q2 u2 3 Q2 u2

S Q, w C0 Q +C1 Q e d w +C2 e MCM-41 C2 fm C1 + C2 24 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 3 Li Lnatom 15 S Q, w, R , D

S i i1 Fraction of DPP H-atoms moving on time scale of instrument i DPP 29 diameter pores 370 K (BaSiS SNS) Beyond the EISF Fitting the Model to the Full Data Set 25 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 RM How extended is the motion? Maximal DPP coverage Partially folded DPP

O terminal H distance 5.9 Extended DPP O terminal H distance 12 b-cristobailite 3.0 nm RM decreases with increasing pore diameter! (Molecules can interact with surface) RM generally is larger at higher DPP surface coverage (Molecules are excluded from surface) 26 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - Small pores and high coverage tend to drive DPP into the pore center where

there is more volume available for August 2017 motion DM How fast is the motion? Maximal DPP coverage DM increases with pore diameter while RM decreases Diffusion in the pore volume depends on how crowded it is DM increases with surface coverage in large pores More molecules are forced into the more open volume of the pore and away from the pore surface 3.0 nm 27 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017

Two Instruments Two Resolutions Two Dynamic Ranges 3.0 nm 320 K HFBS (1 meV, 17.5 meV) BaSiS (3 meV, -100 to 300 meV) QENS E.J. Kintzel, et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 923-932 (2012). 28 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 Two Instruments Dynamics Similar activation energies Different magnitudes 29 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 Geometry nearly identical determined by intensity measurements

Example 2: Dendrimers Colloidal Polymer pH responsive Dendrimers bind to receptors on HIV virus preventing infection of T cells. Sharpharpm C & E News 83, 30 (2005) Trojan horse folic acid adsorbed by cancer cell delivering the anti-cancer drug as well James R. Baker Jr., Univ. of Michigan Health Sciences Press Release 30 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 SANS Results Global Size Constant, Redistribution of Mass Samples: 0.05 gm protonated dendrimer in 1 ml deuterated solvent

Molecular Dynamics Simulations Basic Acidic 31 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 Methodology Determine center-of-mass translational motion with pulsed fieldgradient spin echo NMR Could have been determined directly from QENS measurement but this tied down parameter set Measure (dendrimer + deuterated solvent) (deuterated solvent) > dendrimer signal Vary pH to charge dendrimer amines (a = 0 (uncharged), a = 1 (primary amines charged), a = 2 (fully charged)) S Q, w Sint Q, w SCOM Q, w modeled localized internal motion as 2 xnl D 1

r2 l Sint Q, w A Qr d w + (2l +1)An Qr 2 l.n 0,0 l 2D xn r 2 + w 2 32 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 0 0 Localized Motion of Dendrimer Arms Q = 0.5 -1 Q = 1.3 -1 Localized motion modeled as Diffusion in a Sphere X. Li, et al, Soft Matter 7, 618-622 (2011)

R ~ 2.8 , a independent 1.60 0.03 10-10 m2/s a = 0 D 2.58 0.03 10-10 m2/s a = 1 3.11 0.03 10-10 m2/s a = 2 Localized motion increases as amines are charged! 33 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 Reference Materials - 1 Reference Books Quasielastic Neutron Scattering, M. Bee (Bristol, Adam Hilger, 1988). Methods of X-Ray and Neutron Scattering in Polymer Science, R. J. Roe (New York, Oxford University Press, 2000). Quasielastic Neutron Scattering and Solid State Diffusion, R. Hempelmann (2000). Quasielastic Neutron Scattering for the Investigation of Diffusive Motions in Solids and Liquids, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, T. Springer (Berlin, Springer 1972).

34 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 Reference Materials - 2 Classic Papers L. Van Hove Phys. Rev. 95, 249 (1954) Phys. Rev. 95, 1374 (1954) V. F. Sears Canadian J. Phys. 44, 867 (1966) Canadian J. Phys. 44, 1279 (1966) Canadian J. Phys. 44, 1299 (1966) G. H. Vineyard Phys. Rev. 110, 999 (1958) S. Chandrasekhar Stochastic Problems in Physics and Astronomy, Rev. Mod. Phys. 15, 1 (1943) (not really QNS but great reference on diffusion models)

Data Analysis DAVE NIST Center for Neutron Research http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/dave/ 35 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017 SUMMARY QENS is an excellent technique to measure diffusive dynamics Length scales/geometry accessible through Q-dependence Many analytic models form a framework for comparison and parametric studies Large range of time scales ( sub-picosecond < t < nanosecond (100s nsec for NSE) H-atom sensitivity Instrument selection is a critical decision the resolution must match the time scale of the expected motion World-class instrumentation is currently available in the U.S. Natural connection to theory (Molecular Dynamics Simulations) Analysis Software DAVE at the NCNR at NIST available from the NCNR Web site 36 National School on Neutron & X-ray Scattering - August 2017

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