שקופית 1 - Art Pane

שקופית 1 - Art Pane

" : -"... . , 1937 " " . , , .

: , . , 10 .1933 , . ,

Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels (at podium) praises students and members of the SA for their efforts to destroy books deemed "un-German" during the book burning at Berlin's Opernplatz. Germany, May 10, 1933. Joseph Goebbels, German propaganda minister, speaks on the night of book burning. Berlin,

Germany, May 10, 1933. The scripted rituals of the book burnings called for high Nazi officials, professors, university rectors, and student leaders to address the participants and spectators. This program lists the order of events in the "celebration" at Munich: Beethoven's Egmont Overture; an address by the rector of the university; two movements from a composition by Richard Trunk; an address by the leader of the German Students Association; three songs performed by a State Opera singer; an address by the Culture Minister; the first verse of the German anthem and the first verse of the Nazi anthem, "Horst Wessel Song"; readings; and a concluding performance of Beethoven's "The Glory of God is in Nature." Munich, Germany, May 10, 1933 .

The book burning ceremonies were planned with meticulous attention to detail. This invitation to the book burning in Munich outlines the order of events: invitees "must arrive at the designated area at precisely 11 p.m. At 11 p.m. the torchlight procession of the entire Munich Students Association will be arriving. 1. The united bands will play parade music 2. The festivities will begin at 11 with the song "Brothers, Forward!" 3. Speech by the leader of the German Students Association Kurt Ellersiek 4. Burning of the nation-corrupting books and journals 5. Group sing-along of ... songs". German men and women! The age of arrogant Jewish intellectualism is now at an end! . . . You are doing the right thing at this midnight hourto consign to the flames the unclean spirit of the

past. This is a great, powerful, and symbolic act. . . . Out of these ashes the phoenix of a new age will arise. . . . Oh Century! Oh Science! It is a joy to be alive Joseph Goebbels, Reich Minister for Public Enlightenment and and Propaganda, speaking at the Berlin book burning, May 10, 1933 .1933 , 10 Henri Barbusse Georg Grosz Otto Dix Georg Bernhard

Marc Chagall Bertolt Brecht Max Brod Sholem Asch Vicki Baum John Dos Passos

Erich Kstner Anna Seghers H.G. Wells Jakob Wassermann Louis Fischer Ernst Glaeser Josef Stalin

Benjamin Barr Lindsey Sigrid Undset Klaus Mann Rudolf Hilferding Erich Maria Remarque Karl Marx Werner Hegemann

Lion Feuchtwanger Morris Hillquit Carl von Ossietzky Thomas Mann Franz Oppenheimer , , , .

. .1518 19 - . 20 - , . . ) (Nordau , . , ,

. . , . " " ) Entartete Kunst-Degenerate (art ,1937

. , . .20- , , . ,

. , . , Cover of the exhibition program: , . Degenerate Art exhibition, 1937. Note the word "Kunst", meaning art, Adolf Hitler and Adolf Ziegler visit the Degenerate Art exhibition,

1937. Hitler, Goebbels, and Adolf Ziegler view exhibit of degenerate art . Adolf Ziegler (1892 1959) was a German painter and politician. He was tasked by the Nazi Party to oversee the purging of "Degenerate art", made by most of the German modern artists. He was the favoured painter of Hitler. Hitler commented that Ziegler's work was akin . to that of perfection Letter from Adolf Ziegler to Schmitt-Rottluff about the Nazi seizure of work

In connection with the task, entrusted to me by the Fuehrer, of eradicating the works of degenerate art from our museums, no fewer than 608 paintings of yours had to be seized. A number of these paintings were displayed at the exhibits of Degenerate Art in Munich, Dortmund, and Berlin. This fact could leave no doubt in your mind that your paintings did not contribute to the advancement of German culture in its responsibility toward people and nation. Although you must also have been aware of the policy-setting speech of the Fuehrer at the opening of the Great German Art Exhibit in Munich, the recent paintings of yours which you have now submitted to us indicate that even at this date, you are still far removed from the cultural foundations of the National Socialist state. On the basis of these facts, I am unable to grant that you possess the necessary reliability for belonging to my Chamber. On the basis of Paragraph 10 of the first executive Order implementing the Law Concerning the National Chambers of Culture of

November 1, 1933 (Official Gazette, I, 797) I hereby expel you from the National Chamber of Fine Arts and forbid you, effective immediately, any activity - professional or amateur - in the field of graphic arts. MEMBERSHIP BOOK NO. M 756 issued in your name is no longer valid, and you are requested to send it .back to me by return mail .s. ZIEGLER Certified: DOEMLING )Rubber Stamp: National Chamber of Culture Chamber of Fine Arts ( , . ) (NSDAP .

1933 - . " . " . . . Nazi officials view the Entartete Kunst exhibition. . , , , ,`.

16000 - . .1938 " . , , . " . , . A confiscated self-portrait by

Vincent van Gogh is auctioned at Gallerie Fisher, Lucerne, in 1939. The winning bid was $US 40.000 .by Dr. Frankfurter ' : " 20 - , , , ,19 - ,

, , , "`.,, " " . " " , -. " " " " , -. Memorial plaque, Entartete Kunst, Kpenicker Strae 24, Berlin-Kreuzberg, Germany

. )Main Artists on the The Nazi List singled out for special condemnation ( Otto Dix German 1862-1942 Expressionist Dutch, 1853-1890 Post-Impressionist Vincent van Gogh Max Beckmann German, 1884-1950 Expressionist Edvard Munch Norwegian, 1863-1944 Symbolist/Expressionist Emile Nolde German, 1867-1956 Expressionist Painter

Oskar Kokoschka Austrian, 1886-1980 Expressionist Painter Ernst Kirchner German, 1880-1938 Expressionist Painter. Wassily Kandinsky Russian, 1866-1944 Expressionist Painter Paul Klee Swiss 1879-1940 Swiss Expressionist Painter Spanish, 1881-1973 Cubist/Abstract/Symbolist Pablo Picasso Max Ernst German, 1891-1976 Surrealist Painter Marc Chagall Russian, 1887-1985 Surrealist Painter Franz Marc German, 1880-1916 Expressionist / Fauvist ),(Otto Dix

, 1914 . . The Seven Cardinal Sins .

The Seven Cardinal Sins, 1933 Two hundred sixty of Dix's paintings were removed from German museums in 1937. Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden, 1926- Paris Muse National d'Art Moderne

Portrait of the Dancer Anita Berber - 1925 Otto Dix ,20 - . , "" (Die Brucke), ) .(Kirchner ,

. . " " , " " . , . . ,

. . ' ' .1917 - ) ( . , , ,

, . . ) . (. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Self-portrait as a Soldier

Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig Self-Portrait with Model 1910/1926 Kirchner Erich Heckel an der Staffelei Erich HECKEL (1883 - 1970)

(Siblings) 1913 Mann in der Ebene In the Blue, 1925 Dusseldorf, Germany Born in Moscow in 1866, Wassily Kandinsky played the piano and cello at an early age. The influence of music in his art was profound; many of his paintings had musical connotations: "Improvisations," "Impressions," and "Compositions." In

1895 Kandinsky attended a French Impressionist exhibition where he saw Monet's "Haystacks at Giverny." He was upset he had not recognized it as a haystack, and also thought the painter had no right to paint in such an vague way. Yet he was intrigued by the picture. A short time later he left Moscow for Germany to study sketching and drawing. He is considered to be one of the founders of abstract art. Paul Klee is ranked as one of the most original masters of contemporary art. He was born in Bern, Switzerland and lived

for many years in Germany. He was one of the instructors at the Bauhaus. In 1931 he began teaching at Dusseldorf Academy. Small Rhythmic Landscape, 1920 A Young Lady's Adventure Paul Klee, 1922

Franz Marc died before Hitler's rise to power, but his work influenced and helped lay the foundations for the abstract art movement. He volunteered for military service during W.W.I. and died near Verdun, France, on March 4, 1916. Franz Marc - Little Blue Horses 1911 Edvard Munch is probably best known for his painting The

Scream. His preoccupation with the more sorrowful aspects of life was perhaps a result of loosing both parents, a brother, and a sister when he was young. Munch was a painter and printmaker. The Scream (or The Cry) 1893; National Gallery, Oslo

The Sick Child touches on the fragility of life. It draws upon Munchs personal memories, including the trauma of his sisters death. He described the 1885 painting as a breakthrough in my art and made several versions, of which this is the fourth. Edvard Munch

The Sick Child 1907 Marc Chagall was born in Russia in 1887. His life was deeply rooted in Jewish tradition and religion. His paintings are filled with a child-like glee, using crayon colors and joyous renderings, which appear to be seen through the eyes of a child.

He believed that the spirituality of Art had to be universal and timeless. "It always seemed to me, and it still does, that the Bible is the greatest source of poetry that has ever existed. Since that time, I have been seeking to express this philosophy in life and art." The Poet with the Birds - 1911

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minnesota The Gramineous Bicycle Garnished with Bells the Dappled Fire Damps and the Echinoderms Bending the Spine to Look for Caresses - 1920/21 The German painter-poet Max Ernst was a member of the dada movement and a

founder of surrealism. He was a self-taught artist. He pioneered a method called frottage, in which a sheet of paper is placed on the surface of an object and then penciled over until the texture of the surface is transferred. In 1925, he showed his work at the first surrealist painting exhibition in Paris. ,1976-1891 , 1929 , - ), (Max Beckmann

,1- . , . " " ) (Descent from the Cross . Max Beckmann - Max Beckman was influenced by Edvard Munch. Beckman served in the medical corps during World War I, an experience that led to extreme pessimism in his artwork. Many of his paintings were sold by the Third Reich after the Entartete Kunst exhibition. Beckman was able to escape to Amsterdam and then

eventually made his way to the United States. The Beach (Strand) 1922 View Paul Fuhrmann's Kriegsgewinnler (War Profiteer), an oil painting from 1932. Two of Fuhrmann's works were included in the Entartete Kunst exhibition. Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980) was an Austrian artist, poet and playwright best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes.

The Tempest, a self-portrait expressing his unrequited love for Alma Mahler, widow of composer Gustav Mahler, 1914 Heinrich Campendonk (3 November 1889 9 May 1957) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker. The Sixth Day 1914 Lyonel Charles Feininger (1871-1956) was a German-American painter and caricaturist.

400 of his works were seized by the Ministry of Propaganda and some 17 were included in various exhibitions of Degenerate Art held in 1936 and 1937. Lyonel Feininger's-Jesuiten III 1915 Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (1887-1948) was a German painter

who was born in Hanover, Germany. Das Undbild, 1919, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart Pharisees 1912 Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (German, 1884-1976) Otto Mueller. In 1937 the Nazis seized 357 of his works from German museums. . Two Girls in the Wood, 192025, Pinakothek der Moderne

ARNOLD SCHOENBERG (1874-1951) The artistic work of the founder of modern classical music is a surprise: although Schoenberg only painted for a few years, he nonetheless created a lot of pictures and drawings that

are worthy of notice. Fritz Burger-Mhlfeld. Abstrakte 1923 Emile Nolde was an expressionist painter and graphic artist known for his religious works. His distortion and violent use of color attracted the attention of Die Brcke resulting

in an invitation in 1906 to join the group. Nolde's temperament was not suited for collective work and he left Die Brcke in 1907 after learning the technique of woodcut. Nolde was able to remain in Germany during the Nazi regime, but over one thousand of his works were confiscated. Membership in the Nazi Party did not protect Emil Nolde whose 1912 woodcut The Prophet is shown here from being proscribed by Hitler. 1052 of Nolde's paintings

were removed from German museums, more than any other artist Excited People - 1913 Nolde-Stiftung Seebull Nolde, Emil Wildly Dancing Children 1909 ,

" " .

. - Lenbachhaus Stdtische Galerie 'Blue Mountain' Gabriele Mnter 1909 Murnau-Gabriele Mnter Not every artist considered by the Nazis to be

degenerate was included in the Entarte Kunst exhibit. One such artist was Kthe Kollwitz whose paintings, drawings, and sculptures were commentaries on social conditions. She was much loved by the German people, with streets and parks being named after her. Kthe Kollwitz became the first woman elected to the Prussian Academy of Art in Berlin. But because her work was critical of the Nazi regime, she became persona non grata, and

. she was expelled from the academy in 1933 Where do all the women who have watched so carefully over their loved ones get the heroism to send them to face the cannon? I toy with the thought (of) . . . mothers standing in a circle defending their children, as a sculpture in the round. --Kollwitz Kollwitz believed that art should reflect social conditions in one's time. The Nazis forbade her work to be displayed, and banished her work to the cellar of the

Crown Prince Palace, declaring "In the Third Reich mothers have no need to defend their ." children. The State does that Piet (1938) by Kthe Kollwitz, located in the Neue Wache in Berlin. Artistic movements condemned as degenerate Bauhaus Cubism

Dada Expressionism Impressionism New Objectivity Surrealism Fauvism Foyer of the Bauhaus University in Weimar Cover of Anna Blume

Dichtungen, 1919 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1974-020-13A, Salzburg, Ausstellung "Entartete Kunst", Werbung "I have at last learned the lesson that has been forced upon me during this year, and I shall not ever forget it. It is

that I am not a German, not a European, indeed perhaps scarcely a human being (at least the Europeans prefer the worst of their race to me) but I am a Jew."Arnold Schoenberg Cover of the exhibition program: Degenerate music exhibition, Dsseldorf, 1938 Walter Braunfels Hanns Eisler

Veniamin Fleishman Hans Gal Berthold Goldschmidt Pavel Haas Karl Amadeus Hartmann Jaroslav Jezek Vitezslava Kapralova Gideon Klein Erich Wolfgang Korngold Hans Krasa

Ernst Krenek Bohuslav Martinu Franz Reizenstein Franz Schreker Erwin Schulhoff Marcel Tyberg Viktor Ullmann Kurt Weill Mieczyslaw Weinberg Jaromir Weinberger

Eric Zeisl Alexander Zemlinsky The Music Suppressed by the Third Reich Berthold Goldschmidt (1903-1996) was a prominent Jewish composer and conductor who had experienced harassment as a Jew even before Hitler came to power. He escaped to England in 1935. He stayed in obscurity until the 1980s when his work was again recognized internationally. Otto Klemperer (1885-1973) emerged as one of the leading German conductors of his

generation. After conducting Tannhser in 1933 on the 50th anniversary of Wagner's death, Klemperer fled to the United States to escape Nazi persecution. He became conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra in 1937. By 1955, after years of health problems, he was appointed the principal conductor of the London Philharmonic. Ernst Krenek (1900-1991) was considered a respectable German Catholic until he wrote a modern opera called Jonny Spielt Auf. The storyline of the opera featured a black man as the main character. The opera was a musical mix of jazz, spiritual, and classical. He employed special sound effects to depict traffic noise, trains, and sirens within the music.

Erik Korngold (1897-1957) was a Jewish child prodigy. By the age of ten, he composed "Der Schneemann" which was orchestrated and conducted by his teacher Zemlinksy. In 1934 he began writing musical arrangements for Hollywood films. While working in the United States in 1938, the Nazis seized his Austrian home and property. Korngold never returned to lve again in Austria. His lengthy Hollywood career produced two Academy Awards for film scores. He was a popular composer for films, generating music for more than 20 movies. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) Though Schoenberg emigrated to the United States just after Hitler came to power in 1933, he understood what it meant to be persecuted

and what lay ahead for the Jews who did not leave Germany. He foresaw the decimation of the Jews, and tried to get the public's attention. His agenda stated 1) antisemitism must be stopped; 2) a united Jewish party must be created; 3) unanimity in Jewry must be priority; 4) an independent Jewish state must be created. It is no wonder he drew the hatred of Hitler and the Nazis. He was telling the world that Hitler was dangerous before Hitler had a stranglehold on the German people. Bruno Walter (1876-1962) was born Bruno Walter Schlesinger. Walter was the conductor of the Leipzig Orchestra and frequent guest conductor of the Berlin Orchestra prior to the Third Reich. In 1933 the Nazi government canceled his concerts due to the "threat to public order." They could no longer guarantee his

personal safety. Walter fled to Austria and then to the United States where he became a well know conductor and music advisor. Anton Webern (1883-1945) was a staunch follower of Hitler, though not a member of the Nazi party. He agreed with Hitler's writings, and felt that Hitler would moderate his policies concerning the Jews after the first display of power. He was friends with Schoenberg, an exiled German Jew whose music had been classified as degenerate and thereby banned. This friendship along with his advocacy of atonality in music got his works listed as degenerate. The Nazis burned his writings and forbade performances of his music after Hitler took over Austria. He retired to a life in the country toward the end of the war. He was accidentally shot to death by an American

soldier in 1945 while smoking a cigarette outside his daughter's home in Mittersill. Goebbels views the Degenerate Art exhibition : http://www.tate.org.uk/modern http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Degenerate_art http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rL-3aCehcSk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDejjelKCvY http://www.moma.org/collection/theme.php?theme_id=10077

: http://liatde.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post.html "::Faksimile "Ausstellungsfhrer Entartete Kunst http://kunst.gymszbad.de/nationalsozialismus/entartet :The Third Reich's Pillage of European Art and Treasures http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters : http://www.tapuz.co.il/blog/ViewEntry.asp .http://art.holocaust-education.net/explore

: http://cla.calpoly./History437/Art/Entartete http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/arts/artDegen.htm :Defining Degenerate Music in Nazi Germany http://orelfoundation.org/index.phdegenerate_music_in_nazi_germany/ http://www.imj.org.il/exhibitions/2008/MNR/index.html :1933 http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/bookburning/author.php /http://www.ushmm.org/research/library :United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

http://www.ushmm=1933 http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/arts/musDegen.htm .http://orelfoundation.org/index : www.clarita-efraim.com

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