:Hebrew Manuscripts Genizah Fragments Some 10,000 fragments of old Hebrew books and documents believed to be derived from the Genizah - a store room in the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Old Cairo, belong also to the Hebrew manuscript collection. Acquired by the British
Museum at various points during the 19th and 20th centuries, the fragments contain documents, letters, Autograph responsum of Maimonides from the Cairo Genizah, about the 12th century. Text in Judaeo-Arabic. religious and literary texts providing valuable insight
, -. Book of Genesis Decorated first word of the Book of Genesis. Vellum .manuscript Image taken from Duke of . Sussex German Pentateuch Originally published/produced .in South Germany, c.1300
Haggadah Pesach'' Scenes from the old testament from the 'Haggadah Pesach', or liturgy .of the Jewish Passover, with grotesque initials and gilt headings . Image taken from Sister Haggadah .Originally published/produced in Catalonia, mid 14th century Scenes from the old testament from the 'Haggadah Pesach', with grotesque initials and gilt .headings
.Image taken from Sister Haggadah Preparation for the Passover. Abraham being saved from the furnace of the Chaldeans Image taken from Sister . Haggadah Originally published/produced in .Catalonia, mid 14th century
Scenes from Exodus The top scene shows the crossing of the Red Sea. The lower scene shows Miriam and her maidens play, sing and dance. .Vellum manuscript Image taken from Sister . Haggadah Originally published/produced in
Catalonia, mid 14th . century Illustration from a Haggadah A miniature from a Haggadah executed in the Italian style. The upper image shows four scenes depicting Moses after receiving signs from God.
The lower image shows Moses' return from Egypt and the circumcision of his .son Image taken from Brother . Haggadah Originally published/produced in .Catalonia, 14th century
Plagues Plague of boils )top(; Plague of . hail )lower( Image taken from Brother . Haggadah Originally published/produced in .Catalonia, c.1370s Scenes from Exodus The plague of the first born )upper(. The Israelites
. Frontispiece of the Book of Exodus. Duke of Sussex German Pentateuch, copied in southern Germany around 1300. The first half of the 19th century witnessed a slow but steady expansion of the Museum's collection of
Hebrew manuscripts, resulting partly from the dispersal of libraries once owned by wealthy English aristocrats, for instance that of the Marques of Lansdowne in 1807, the Earl of Bridgewater in 1829 and in July 1844 that of the Duke of Sussex, King George IV's brother. The latter library yielded six Hebrew
manuscripts one of the finest being the Duke of Sussex German Pentateuch , an illuminated biblical codex Decorated frontispiece. Image taken from King's . Bible Originally Solsona, 1384. Author: Isaac ben Judah of Toulouse )scribe(
Various implements to the Temple . Image taken from King's Bible Originally published/produced in Solsona, : . , , . : 1894 .
: " , . , , .
The event that transformed the Hebrew collection into a significant scholarly resource occurred in 1865, when 322 manuscripts extending from the 13th-16th centuries and embracing all branches of Hebrew literature, were acquired from the library of the Italian bibliophile Giuseppe Almanzi )1801-1860(. From this remarkable legacy came the Mahzor Vitry in twovolumes, a Festival prayer book
copied in France around the middle of the 13th century , the Lexicon of Menahem ben Saruk dated 1091 , probably the oldest extant copy known, and the elegant Golden Haggadah created in Catalonia at the beginning of the 14th century. Almanzi Pentateuch The Golden
Haggadah Scenes from Genesis 1320 , - .14 3 -.1 :
14 -. .2 .3 100 . . , . - . .
: . , . , 1320 , .
, -. " , . Duke of Sussex's Spanish Hebrew Bible The messianic imagery found in these splendid Hebrew Bibles is unique. Crystallised in Spain in the 13th century and applied splendidly in this 14th-century manuscript, it had no apparent antecedent in Christian and Jewish art.
Duke of Sussexs Spanish Bible, Catalonia, Spain, mid-14th century . Temple vessels The Duke of Sussex's German Pentateuch: Book of Ecclesiastes. Southern Germany, c. 1300 This page of the Duke of Sussex's German Pentateuch shows the kind of marginal decoration often painted
in Hebrew medieval manuscripts, especially in Germany. The strange beasts here are outlined in minute Hebrew lettering. As a whole, the richly-decorated book is a fine example of the South German style of illumination, with its rich, contrasting colours and exaggerated, often strange-looking faces and animals, and micrographic
Italian Pentateuch This Pentateuch shows a rare example of the embellishing of initial letters in a Jewish manuscript - a practice commonly associated with Latin sacred texts, but skilfully adapted here by an anonymous Jewish scribe working .in 15th-century Italy
Duke of Sussexs Italian Pentateuch, Italy, c.1400. Deuteronomy 1 Decorated first word of the Book of Numbers. Vellum .manuscript Image taken from Duke of . Sussex German Pentateuch Originally published/produced .in South Germany, c.1300
9th-century Torah This thousand-year-old document is one of the oldest surviving examples of a Hebrew Bible codex - a manuscript written in book form rather than a scroll and includes information from early scholars on how to pronounce and read out the .sacred text
An Early Codex of the Torah, Palestine or Middle East, probably ninth century. Exodus 20 Fine example of micrography , 13th-century Jewish art that turns minute sacred text into pictures. Images of the manuscript and description of the text . 13th-century Pentateuch An example of a uniquely Jewish art
from the 13th-14th century: micrography, the weaving of minute lettering into abstract or figurative designs. Scribes were discouraged from creating distracting illuminations in the main text, and so they put their ingenuity into creating micrographic designs from the masoretic notation )that is, advice to the reader on pronunciation and Pentateuch with Prophetical Readings and
the Five Scrolls,.intonation( France or Germany, 13th . to 14th century , ' , . 1320. Babylonian Talmud Origin unknown, c.13th14th century. Gemara
13th-century Talmud This is an exceptionally rare item: a Talmud from the Middle Ages that has somehow escaped the public burnings suffered by most of the other books of Jewish law at the time. Fortunately, it has survived Spanish Hebrew Bible This 14th-century design illuminates the Tetragrammaton: the fourletter inscription denoting the
name of God. Despite lacking all representational imagery, the abstract illuminations manage to evoke the ceiling of a temple dome, and imbue the Spanish Hebrewwith Bible, Catalonia manuscript
15th-century Mishnah This was the first complete printed text of the Mishnah - a book of authoritative Jewish law as compiled by early rabbis. The scope of the Mishnah over everyday life and business is extensive: these pages for instance contain detailed rules on the permitted mixing of seeds in .agricultural plots San'a Pentateuch A fine 15th-century example of illumination in a Pentateuch. Hebrew manuscripts from
Islamic lands contained no images, but were decorated with Jewish elements and adapted Islamic motifs. The handwriting style here is typical .of Yemen Sana Pentateuch, Yemen, 1469 The poem Give Ear; Deuteronomy 32.
: 9th c Torah Codex 9th-10th c Gaster Bible c.1278-98 King David, North French Miscellany 13th-14th c Babylonian Talmud 13th-14th c Pentateuch with prophetical readings c.1300 Duke of Sussexs German Pentateuch c.1300 Picturing God in a Jewish manuscript c.1320 Golden Haggadah 1339 Samaritan Pentateuch mid-14th c Duke of Sussexs Spanish Bible
14th c Barcelona Haggadah 1384 Spanish Hebrew Bible c.1400 Duke of Sussexs Italian Pentateuch 15th c Portuguese Pentateuch 1469 Sana Pentateuch 1482 Lisbon Bible 1492 First complete Mishnah 1643-63 Chinese Torah 1740 Leipnik Haggadah 1776 Italian Ketubah 1835 Karaite Pentateuch
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