Short Writing Tasks Short Writing Often ... Not Just Long Writing Seldom Application to Intermediate Grades 3rd 6th 1 Anita L. Archer, PhD Author, Consultant, Teacher [email protected] 2
Topics Why? What? How? 3 Why? - Short writing tasks benefit both teachers and students. - One student benefit is ...
- This is critical because .... - Another student benefit is ... - In addition, students ... - These writing assignments are also advantageous to teachers because .... 4 Why? Learning Students learn more due to Rehearsal Retrieval
Promotes critical thinking Helps clarify thinking 5 Why? Engagement Active thinking Active reflection Active participation When writing precedes discussion, More thoughtful participation
Increased diversity of student voices 6 Why? Writing Develops writing skills Keeps writing skills sharp Increases ability to communicate in domain 7
Why? Embedded Formative Assessment Students can appraise their grasp of critical content and concepts Teachers can appraise grasp of critical content and concepts 8 What Short Writing Tasks - Writing-to-Learn - Develop big ideas and concepts
- Embedded within the lesson - Beginning - During - End - Focus on ideas rather than correctness of style, grammar, or spelling - Less structured than disciplinary writing 9 What The following types of products will be particularly useful in terms of writing practice, comprehension, and content learning:
Response to Comprehension Questions Summaries Compare and Contrast Explanations Arguments Exit Tickets 10 HOW Scaffolding Scaffolding Students writing can be supported using:
Model the procedure. Guide students in writing a product. Have students use the procedure. Carefully monitor and provide feedback. I do it. We do it. You do it. 12 How - Instructional Procedures Option #2.
Show students an example of completed product. Tell students how to proceed. Have students use the procedure. Carefully monitor and provide feedback. 13 How Provide Feedback
Teacher Feedback: Teacher provides feedback to individuals in real time. Walk around. Look around. Talk around. Teacher Feedback: Teacher provides feedback to entire group. Partner Feedback: Students provide feedback on specific attributes to their partners. Self Feedback: Students reread their products and carefully revise and edit. Teacher Feedback: Teacher provides feedback on completion of product. 14
Students write answers to questions to deepen understanding, to rehearse information, and to retrieve information. RESPONSE TO COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS 15 Strategy Short Answer Step 1: Read the item. Step 2: Turn the Question into part of the answer and write it down. Step 3: Think of the answer or locate the answer
in the article. Step 4: Complete your answer. REWARDS PLUS 16 Example The Magic Gourd What happened as a result of Rabbits kindness? (oral answer): As a result of Rabbits kindness, the Chameleon gave Rabbit the decorated, magic gourd. As a result of Rabbits kindness, the Chameleon
gave Rabbit the decorated, magic gourd. (written answer): The major difference between producers and consumers is that producers make their own food and consumers must eat plants and other animals for food. 17 Sentence Frames/Paragraph Frames Grade 5, Social Studies What does this painting tell you about the roles of men and women at that time? This painting tells us about the roles of men and women. The role of men was to... The role of
women was to ... 18 Students summarize chapter, segment of chapter, article, lecture, or unit focusing on the most critical content. SUMMARIES 19 Strategies Strategy for Paragraph Writing
- List - Cross-out - Connect - Number ( Write) REWARDS PLUS (Sopris West) 20 List - Make a list of important ideas. Penquins birth
Male takes care of egg Female lays egg Female leaves Female spends winter at sea The water is very cold Male puts egg on his feet under belly Male stays on egg for two months Male doesnt eat Egg hatches Male must care for baby 21
Cross-out - Cross out any unnecessary or weak ideas. Connect - Connect ideas that could go in one sentence. Penquins birth Male takes care of egg Female lays egg Female leaves Female spends winter at sea The water is very cold Male puts egg on his feet under belly Male stays on egg for two months Male doesnt eat
Egg hatches Male must care for baby 22 Number - Number the ideas in the order that they will appear in the paragraph. Penquins birth 3 1 2
4 5 6 Male takes care of egg Female lays egg Female leaves Female spends winter at sea The water is very cold Male puts egg on his feet under belly Male stays on egg for two months Male does not eat
Egg hatches Male must care for baby 23 Write a summary. The birth process of penguins is fascinating and quite different from that of other animals. The female penguin lays an egg. Soon after laying the egg, the female penguin leaves and spends the winter in the sea. Meanwhile the male must take care of the egg. For two months, he places the egg on his feet under
his belly. During this time, the male penguin does not eat. Even after the baby penguin hatches, the male penguin continues to take care of the infant penguin. 24 25 The roots of modern theater can be found in early Greek theater. Greek theater began as a religious ceremony that honored the Greek god Dionysus. At first, choruses chanted lyrics.
When actors were added to interact with the chorus, theater was born. Later, the Dionysus festival in Athens became a drama competition, and amphitheaters were built to accommodate the event. Both tragedies, which taught lessons, and comedies, which made fun of life, were performed. Greek theater declined when the great playwrights died and the government changed. 26 Summary - Informational Text
Chapter: __________ Topic: _______________ In this section of the chapter, a number of critical points were made about First, the authors pointed out that This was important because Next, the authors mentioned that Furthermore, they indicated This was critical because Finally, the authors suggested that 27
Summary - Informational Text Example Chapter: Drifting Continents Topic: Wegener's Theory In this section of the chapter, a number of critical points were made about Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift. First, the authors pointed out that Wegener believed that all the continents were once joined together in a single landmass that drifted apart forming the continents of today. This was important because it explained why the outline of the continents as they are today fit together. Next, the authors mentioned that Wegener argued that there were many pieces of evidence supporting his theory of continental drift. Furthermore, they indicated that Wegener used evidence of similar landforms and fossils on different continents to prove his theory. This was critical because other scientists could validate this
evidence. Finally, the authors suggested that despite this evidence, other scientists did not accept Wegener's theory because he could not explain the force that pushes and pulls the continent. 28 Summary - Informational Text Chapter: Decomposers In this section of the chapter, a number of critical points were made about decomposers. First, the authors stated that decomposers break down organisms that are no longer living such as dead plants, dead animals, and rotting wood. This is important because decomposers
break the organisms into nutrients that can be used by plants. Next, the authors mentioned that earthworms are decomposers that eat plant life that has died. Furthermore, they indicated that earthworms pass nutrients from dead plants to the soil. This was critical because these nutrients enrich the soil and thus support plant growth. Finally, the authors suggested that fungi and some insects are other examples of decomposers. 29 Why There are a number of reasons why writing frames are beneficial to students.
The most important reason is Another reason is A further reason is So you can see why 30 Summary - Video Although I already knew that ... I learned some new facts from the video titled ... I learned ... I also discovered that... Another fact I learned was ...
However, the most important/interesting thing I became aware of was... 31 Summary - Video Although I already knew that migrating Vaux Swifts gather in NW Portland, Oregon in the fall, I learned some new facts from the video titled Vaux Swifts. I learned that the Vaux Swifts can not perch like other song birds due to the structure of their claws. These birds either cling to the walls of a hollow tree or a chimney or fly. I also discovered that their natural habitat is declining, forcing them to sleep in chimneys. Another fact I learned was that up to 30,000 swifts gather
at Chapman Elementary School where they dive down into the chimney at sunset. However, the most interesting thing I became aware of was that the children at the school are very supportive of the migrating Vaux Swifts. To protect the swifts in the school chimney, the heat is turned off until the swifts migrate, resulting in the students wearing sweaters and coats in class. 32 Students reflect on how two things are similar and different. COMPARE AND CONTRAST
33 Compare and Contrast ... and ... are similar in a number of ways. First, they both Another critical similarity is ... An equally important similarity is ... Finally, they ... The differences between ... and ... are also obvious. The most important difference is ... In addition, they are ...
In the final analysis, ... differs from ... in two major ways: 34 Compare and Contrast The sun and the moon are similar in a number of ways. First, they both belong to the solar system. Another critical similarity is that they are visible from Earth. During the day we can observe the sun and at night we can spot the moon. An equally important similarity is that both of them move within our solar system. Finally, they are objects that we want to learn more about. The differences between the sun and moon are also obvious. The most important difference is that the sun is a gaseous star while the moon is solid. The sun is MUCH larger than
the moon. In addition, they are different in terms of the light that we observe. The sun gives off heat and light of its own, while the moon does not give off light of its own but rather reflects light of the sun. In the final analysis, the sun differs from the moon in two major ways: their makeup (gas vs solid) and their light, produced by the sun and reflected by the moon. 35 Compare and Contrast - Example Narrative and informative written products are similar in a number of ways. First, they both have an author intent on sharing his/her ideas. Another critical similarity is the goal of informative and narrative writing: to communicate to a reader or group of readers. An equally important similarity is that both genre utilize the words, mechanics, and grammar of the authors language. Finally, they both are read on a daily basis across the world.
The differences between narrative and informative written products are also obvious. Narratives convey a story, real or imagined, while informative products transmit information that the reader needs or is interested in learning. The most important difference is their purpose. In addition, they are structured differently. The structure of a narrative is based on the elements of a story: settings, characters, the characters problems, attempts at resolving the problem, and finally its resolution. In contrast, when writing an informative product, authors organize the information into paragraphs each containing a topic and critical details. In the final analysis, narratives differ from informative text in two major ways: content and structure. 36
37 38 Compare The Senate and the House of Representatives are similar in a number of ways. First, they are both part of the legislative branch of government referred to as Congress. Furthermore, citizens in each state must elect the senators and representatives that serve in Congress. In addition, the two bodies of Congress have
a number of joint powers including the power to make laws, declare war, and collect taxes. 39 Contrast While the Senate and House are similar in a number of ways, their membership composition differs. There are 100 elected senators with two senators from each state regardless of the states population. In contrast, the House has a total of 435 representatives with the number from each state dependent on the states population. The qualifications also differ between senators and representatives. Representative must be at least 25 years old, a US citizen for 7 or more years, and a legal resident of
the state that they represent. On the other hand, a senator must be at least 30 years old, a US citizen for 9 years or more, and a legal resident of their state. The Senate and House of Representatives, while given joint powers, are also accorded separate powers. The Senate is given the responsibility for ratifying treaties, confirming presidential nominations, and trying impeached officials. In contrast, the House of Representatives specific powers include initiating spending and tax bills, impeaching high officials, and determining who will be president if the Electoral College ends in a tie. 40 Compare Contrast
43 Application Make a list of potential compare/contrast writing topics. eg., Senate VS House of Representatives 44 Ho How ( How are mountains formed? How does a spider spin a web?) Why (Why do some things float or sink? Why is the ozone layer getting thinner? Why does iron go
rusty? Why do living things need food?) EXPLANATIONS 45 Explanation There are a number of reasons why .... The most important reason is Another reason is A further reason is So you can see why
46 Explanation There are a number of reasons why everyone should recycle. The most important reason is that recycling reduces the amount of energy and natural resources that we use. Another reason is that recycling reduces the amount of waste that ends up in landfills. A further reason is that recycling also reduces the amount of carbon that is emitted into the air. So you can see why it is critical that all of us increase our efforts to recycle.
47 Explanation - Why There are a number of reasons why .... The most important reason is Another reason is A further reason is So you can see why 48
Explanation - Why There are a number of reasons why non-native plants and animals damage the Great Lakes. The most important reason is that many invasive species take food from native species. Another reason is that some of the invasive, non-native species attach to docks and to boats, causing great damage. A further reason is that some non-native species clog water pipes, restricting the movement of water to industries and residences. So you can see why actions need to be taken to protect the Great Lakes from invasive, non-native plants and animals. 49
Explanation There are differing explanations as to why One explanation for this is The evidence for this is An alternative explanation is The explanation is based on Of the alternative explanations, I think the most likely is 50 Description
When describing ..., the word that comes to mind is ... One reason is ... Another reason is ... Finally, ... is ... because ... Thus, ... is the best description of ... 51 Description (Mystic Horse by Paul Goble)
When describing the Pawnee boy in Mystic Horse, the word that comes to mind is kind. One reason is that he was very kind to his grandmother. He helped her travel, gather food, collect discarded clothing for their use, and set up camp every day. Another reason is that the boy took care of the sickly, old horse even when others thought the horse was useless. Finally, he was kind when he gave a horse to his grandmother and asked her to give the remaining horses in the herd to individuals who needed a horse. He could have chosen to keep the entire herd to increase his wealth. Thus, kind is the best description of the Pawnee boy called the Boy Chief.
52 Character Analysis The character ... in ... can best be described as ... This is evident when ... ... also shows this trait when he/she... Further, his/her...is evident when ... Thus, ... is a good way to describe ... 53 Character Analysis
The character Prince Alfonso in the story called Blancaflor can best be described as honorable and obedient. This is evident when the Prince kept his promise to return to the Land of No Return after three years in exchange for his fathers health. Prince Alfonso also shows this trait when he gave the eagle the golden chain in exchange for passage over a ravine. Further, his commitment to being honorable and obedient is evident when the Prince completed the three tasks required by Blancaflors father. Thus, being honorable and obedient is a good way to describe Prince Alfonso. 54
Analysis of Graphic The title of this graphic is... The type of graphic is .... Its purpose is to ... One critical observation that I made was... This is important because ... I reached a number of conclusions through my analysis of this graphic. First, .... Second, .... Finally, ...
55 Example Graphic Social Studies Western World - Holt Social Studies Analysis of Graphic The title of this graphic is Mexicos Trading Partners. The type of graphic is a pie graph. Its purpose is to convey information about Mexicos imports and exports in 2005. One critical observation that I made was that Mexicos major trade partner is the United States. This is important because it emphases the economic relationship between the United States and Mexico, its southern
neighbor. I reached a number of conclusions through my analysis of this graphic. First, Mexico has a higher percentage (89%) of their exports going to the US than the percentage of imports (63%) coming into Mexico from the US. Second, 10% of Mexicos imports come from Asian countries, China and Japan. Finally, it is obvious that Mexicos economy is very dependent on Mexicos relationship with the United States. 57 58 Analysis of Graphic
The title of this graphic is Pluto vs. Earth. The type of graphic is a chart. Its purpose is to show the differences between Pluto and the Earth. One critical observation that I made was that their surfaces are different. Pluto is mostly covered by frozen nitrogen and rock. However, the Earths surface is mostly covered in water and land. This is important because the Earths surface supports plant and animal life. This is not the same on Pluto. I reached a number of conclusions through my analysis of this graphic. First, the Earth is much larger than Pluto as indicated by their diameters (Earth - 8,000 miles vs Pluto - 1,400 miles). Second, Pluto is a greater distance from the Sun than the Earth is from the Sun. Finally, the length of a day on Pluto is MUCH longer than a day on Earth. On Pluto, a day is about 154 hours long. On the Earth, a day is 24 hours long.
59 Analysis of Graphic Title of Graphic Type of Graphic Purpose Observations a. b. c.
Conclusions a. b. c. 60 Analysis of Graphic Title of Graphic Type of Graphic
Purpose Observations Conclusions Pluto vs. Earth Chart Compare Pluto vs. Earth a. Earth is larger than Pluto. b. Pluto is a great distance from the Sun than the Earth. c. A day on Pluto is much longer than a day on Earth. a. Pluto would not support life in the same way as the earth.
b. Plutos surface would not support life. c. The distance that Pluto is from the Sun would result in different light and heat than the Earth. 61 Process To ..., you need to follow these basic steps. First, you need to Next Then When you finish, you should have .
62 Process To draw an animal using a photo, you need to follow these basic steps. First, you need to draw an oval for the body of the animal and additional shapes to represent the head and legs of the animal. Next, connect the shapes to form the outline of the animal. Then, draw in additional features such as eyes, ears, claws, etc. Finally, you can sketch in details such as hair, eyebrows, and nails. When you finish, you should have
a drawing that mirrors the animals photo. 63 Problem-Solution In this problem, we were asked to figure out. Some information was already given including ... and ... When creating a plan to solve this problem, I decided to follow a number of steps. First, I. Next, I Then, I Finally, I
After following these steps, I determined that the answer was To check this answer, I Based on my verification of the answer, I am quite certain that it is accurate. 64 Application Review the scaffolding procedures for an explanation. Complete this T Chart. Scaffolding Procedure Content
65 Students are given an issue and write an opinion on issue. OPINIONS 66 Argument Though not everybody would agree, I want to argue that... I have several reasons for arguing this point of view.
My first reason is A further reason is Furthermore Therefore, although some people might argue that I have shown that 67 Argument Though not everybody would agree, I want to argue that Andrew Jackson was not the president for the common man though he was the first US president not born into a rich family. I have several reasons for arguing this point of view. My first reason is that Jacksons policies called for the removal of Native Americans from
their homelands in order to allow white settlers to take over native territories. A further reason is that while Jackson expanded suffrage to white men who did not have property, voting rights were not extended to women. Furthermore, Jackson was a plantation owner with at least 150 slaves. Therefore, although some people might argue that President Jackson, our 7th President, was the president for the common man because of his impoverished roots, I have shown that Jackson was NOT the president for Native Americans, women, or African Americans. 68 Opinion I think that ... I feel this way because ...
Another reason I feel this way is... Most importantly, I think ... For these reasons, I believe that ... 69 Opinion I think that it would have been better to be a women in Sparta than in Athens. I feel this way because women in Sparta actually had more freedom than women in Athens. Another reason I feel this way is women in Sparta were able to own property. In Athens, women could only inherit
property if their fathers had no sons. Most importantly, I think while women of Athens were respected for their role of building strong families, women of Sparta were taught to be strong and independent. For these reasons, I believe that it was better for a women to live in Sparta than in Athens. 70 Application Opinion writing frames can be used across domains to deepen thinking and to prepare for a class discussion. What are some issues that students could consider in your class.
71 Exit Ticket Name: Directions: Complete _____________ of these statements. 1. Today I learned 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. I was surprised by The most useful thing I will take from this lesson is... One thing I am not sure about is. The main thing I want to find out more about is. After this session, I feel I might have gotten more from this lesson if. 72
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