Simple Machines Machine: an object that changes either the magnitude or direction of a force Simple Machines There are six simple machines: lever inclined plane Machines make life easier.
wedge Without simple machines wheel & axle there would be no other pulley machines. screw All other machines are made out of simple machines.
Mechanical Advantage (how machines make life easier) Double a force by using a machine with a mechanical advantage of two! Fr MA Fe effort force (Fe): the force exerted on a machine resistance force (Fr): the force exerted by a machine
Efficiency Work is input (Wi) to a machine when an effort force (Fe) is applied over a distance (de). Wi = Fede Wo efficiency 100%
Wi Work is output (Wo) from a machine when it exerts a resistance force (Fr) over a distance (dr). Wo = Frdr Ideal Machines (perfect machines) input work (Wi) = output work (Wo) efficiency = 100%
de IMA dr Ideal Mechanical Advantage No real machine is perfectly efficient! Lever (a rigid object pivoting on a fulcrum)
Three types of levers: 1st class lever: fulcrum between Fe & the load 2nd class lever: the load between Fe & the fulcrum 3rd class lever: Fe between the load & the fulcrum Fe Fe Fe
load load load Fr Fr
Fr 1st class lever 2nd class lever 3rd class lever Lever Examples
Crowbar (1st Class Lever Example) Fe Fr Wheel & Axle Wheels rotate around an axle.
Wheel Examples Well Wheel Fe Fr Pulley
A pulley is a wheel with a rope running over it Pulley Examples Inclined Plane A slanted surface or ramp Reduces the force required to move objects
Inclined Plane Examples Wedge A wedge is usually a triangle shape with a sharp point. A wedge is used to split, secure, or lift. Applying a force to one end pushes the wedge between
something The pictured wedge is designed to split wood when hit with a sledge hammer Wedge Examples Wedges that split: teeth knives zippers
Wedges that secure: doorstops nails Wedges that lift: shims golf wedges Screw (a helical inclined plane)
A screw is an inclined plane twisted around an axis. Screw Examples All 6 Simple Machines Lever
Pulley Inclined Plane Screw Wheel & Axle Wedge
Compound Machines Compound Machine: two or more linked simple machines The mechanical advantage of a compound machine is the product of the component simple machines mechanical advantages. Notes: 7. Machine: an object that makes transferring energy easier by changing either the
magnitude or direction of a force A. effort force (Fe): the force exerted on a machine B. resistance force (Fr): the force exerted by the machine C. mechanical advantage (MA): the ratio of the resistance force to the effort force F i. MA r Fe D. input work (Wi): the work done to the machine i. Wi = Fede E. output work (Wo): the work done by the machine
i. Wo = Frdr W F. efficiency o x 100% Wi G. ideal (perfect) machines i. input work (Wi) = output work (Wo) ii. ideal efficiency = 100% d iii. ideal mechanical advantage (IMA): IMA e dr
8. Simple Machines A. lever: a rigid object pivoting on a fulcrum B. wheel & axle: a wheel turning around an axle C. pulley: a wheel with a rope running over it D. inclined plane: a ramp E. wedge: a sharp triangular object F. screw: an inclined plane wrapped around a shaft 9. Compound Machines A. two or more linked simple machines B. MA = (MAmachine 1)(MAmachine 2) ()
Your Turn Chapter 10 Practice Problems (p. 238): 13-16
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