Skeletal System Introduction Functions & Bone Structure

Skeletal System Introduction Functions & Bone Structure

ACOS OBJ 6.1) Identifying functions of the skeletal system. KMFwAF_6Z0 Composed of 206 Bones Bones- Organs of the Skeletal

System Provide points of attachment for muscles,

Protect & Support softer tissues House blood-producing cells Store inorganic salts Contain passageways for blood vessels and nerves. What are Bones Made Of?

Bones are made of several different things: Bone Tissue Cartilage Dense connective tissue Blood Nervous Tissue

Osteocytes - Bone Cells - Transport nutrients & wastes to and from nearby cells. Extracellular Matrix of bone tissue is largely composed of collagen & inorganic salts - collagen= strength & resilience - inorganic salts= cause bone to be hard

and resistant to crushing. Processes- Bony projections that provide sites for ligaments & tendons to attach. Grooves & Openings- Form passageways for blood vessels & nerves.

Epiphysis- located at the end of bone. Forms a joint with another bone. Articular Cartilage: hyaline cartilage located on outer surface of epiphysis. (Articulating Portion) -Diaphysis- Shaft of the bone located

between the epiphyses. Periosteum- Tough, vascular covering of fibrous tissue that completely encloses the bone. Helps to form and repair bone tissue. Medullary Cavity- Semi rigid tube with a hollow chamber.

Formed by compact bone Lined with a thin layer of bone forming cells= endosteum Filled with soft connective tissue known as marrow. 1. Compact Bone= Composes wall of diaphysis. Tightly packed

NO Gaps Resists Bending 2. Spongy Bone Found in Epiphyses beneath a layer of thin compact bone. Helps to reduce the bones weight

Red Marrow= Functions in the formation of Red blood cells(erythrocytes) , white blood cells(leukocytes), and blood platelets. In an adult found in: skull, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebra, and hipbones.

Yellow Marrow= Replaces red Bones can form 2 ways 1. Intramembranous bones originate between sheet-like layers of connective tissues. EX: Flat bones of the skull 2. Endochondral bones begin as masses of cartilage that bone tissue

later replaces. Majority of bones in the skeletal system are endochondral. Osteoblasts- Bone forming Cells Osteoclasts- Break down calcified matrix. 1. Give shape to structures like the head, face, thorax, and limbs. 2. Provide support & protection

EX: Bones of lower limbs, pelvis, & backbone support the bodys weight. Bones of the skull protect eyes, ears, & brain. Rib cage & shoulder girdle protect the heart and lungs. 3. Body Movement

4. Blood Cell Formation (Hemopoiesis) Blood cells are made in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Marrow is located in the medullary cavity, irregular spaces of spongy bone, & large canals of compact bone tissue.

5. Storage of inorganic salts Intercellular matrix of bone tissue rich in calcium salts. Calcium phosphate VITAL metabolic processes require CALCIUM. Blood clot formation Nerve impulse conduction Muscle cell contraction

Holes Essentials of Human Anatomy& Physiology.

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