Burden, Access, and Unmet Need: the mental health service landscape in Ontario Association of General Hospital Psychiatric Services Paul Kurdyak MD PhD Disclosures Salary Support from: ICES CIHR Overview
1. 2. 3. 4. The burden of mental illness and addictions Medical Comorbidity Access to psychiatrists Increasing help-seeking behaviour a CAMH natural experiment Opening Eyes, Opening Minds: The Ontario Burden of Mental Illness and Addictions Report
4 Burden of Mental Illness and Addictions in Ontario A collaboration between PHO and ICES Involved CAMH scientists Important because: Sets a baseline for evaluating future public health or population-based interventions Has fostered relationships between mental health and
public health Unit of Measurement: HALY HALY: Health-Adjusted Life Years HALY = YLL + YERF YLL: Years of life lost due to premature mortality YERF: Equivalent years of healthy life lost due to disease/disability
Disease Categories Mental Health Conditions Agoraphobia
Bipolar disorder Major depression Panic disorder Schizophrenia Social phobia Addictions Alcohol use disorders Cocaine use disorders Prescription opioid misuse HALYs by Mental Health Condition/ Addiction 250,000
200,000 Female HALYs Male 150,000 Total 100,000 50,000
0 Depression BPD Alcohol Social Phobia SCZ PD Agoraphobia Cocaine
Prescription opioid misuse YLLs by Mental Health Condition/ Addiction YLL by Mental Health Condition/ Addiction 20,000 Female 15,000 Male
YLL Total 10,000 5,000 0 Alcohol SCZ Depression Cocaine
BPD Prescription opioid misuse Social Phobia Agoraphobia PD YERFs by Mental Health Condition/ Addiction
YERF by Mental Health Condition/ Addiction 250,000 200,000 Female Male Total YERF 150,000 100,000
50,000 0 Depression BPD Alcohol Social Phobia SCZ PD
Agoraphobia Cocaine Prescription opioid misuse HALYs by Age Group 11 Comparison to Other BoD Studies MI&A Cancers
Infectious Diseases Overview 1. 2. 3. 4. The burden of mental illness and addictions Medical Comorbidity Access to psychiatrists Increasing help-seeking behaviour a CAMH natural experiment
Mortality Burden Dramatically Under-estimated Cause of death is disease-specific. No one dies from schizophrenia Premature mortality in schizophrenia mostly due to cardiovascular disease and risk factors Access to medical care is very poor All Cause Mortality: SCZ and BPD (20062010)
Male Female Crude Rate Ratio Age Adjusted RR (95% CI) Crude Rate Ratio Age Adjusted RR (95% CI)
Adjusted AOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.40-0.56; p<0.001 18 Cardiologist Visits Unadjusted Adjusted AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.43-0.65; p<0.001 19 Overview
1. 2. 3. 4. The burden of mental illness and addictions Medical Comorbidity Access to psychiatrists Increasing help-seeking behaviour a CAMH natural experiment Ability to Access Psychiatrists
Primary care physician surveys from multiple jurisdictions psychiatrists most difficult specialists to access NPS survey 2007 - from 2004 to 2007, ability to accept urgent referral (< 1 week) increased from 44% to 49% Other specialties increased from 60% (2004) to 80% (2007) 2010 survey 35% primary care physicans rated access to
psychiatrists as poor (vs. 4% of GIM and 2% for pediatricians) 21 297 Psychiatrists 230 Contacted 160 Unavailable (70%) 22 297 Psychiatrists 230 Contacted 160 Unavailable
(70%) 64 (27%) Need to review referral information and no wait-time estimate 23 297 Psychiatrists 230 Contacted 160 Unavailable (70%) 64 (27%) Need to review referral information and no wait-time estimate 6 (3%) offered
immediate appointments (wait times 4-55 days) 24 Ontario Psychiatrist Supply Toronto and Ottawa have 24 times more psychiatrists per capita than other regions in Ontario. 25 What Are Psychiatrists Doing?
There are large differences between psychiatrist supply across different regions Toronto and Ottawa have large supplies per capita The rest of the province hovers around 10 psychiatrists/100,000 If there are so many psychiatrists (and so many more in Toronto and Ottawa), why
are they the most difficult to access? 26 Mean # Unique Patients and # New Patients per Year Low supply area psychiatrists see twice as many patients and twice as many new patients/year
27 Psychiatrists vs Patients in Toronto 25% of psychiatrists see 6% of outpatients 28 Patient Income Across Visit Categories Toronto Almost half of patients seen >16 times/year are in the top income quintile
29 Summary Psychiatrists in high supply areas see fewer patients, fewer new patients and see these fewer patients more
frequently and for longer per visit In high supply areas, as visit frequency increases, patient SES increases The increased psychiatrist supply does not translate into better follow-up post-hospitalization Access to psychiatrists does not improve with increased per capita supply 30 Follow-up 30 days Post-Hospitalization 31 Readmission 31-60 days Post-Hospitalization
32 Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. The burden of mental illness and addictions Medical Comorbidity Access to psychiatrists Increasing help-seeking behaviour a CAMH natural experiment
33 Mental Illness and Addiction Treatment Rates Two thirds of people with depression do not seek help Up to 90% of people with addictions do not seek treatment Very little evidence on increasing treatment-seeking
behaviours to address burden of mental illness and addiction The CAMH Campaign A Natural Experiment The campaign is the only intervention that occurred in March 2010 (nothing else changed that could
explain changes in visit volumes) Permits an evaluation of the campaign using quasiexperimental methods ED volumes AND Gen Psych. Assessment Clinic volumes direct-to-consumer marketing vs. service provider marketing Methods
All patients who presented to the ED (N=29,069) and the Gen Psych. Assessment Clinic (N=8326) from April 1, 2006 to December 31, 2011. Grouped monthly Pre-campaign April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2010 Post-campaign April 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011 Also used regional-level data for system-level analyses (preliminary) Statistical Analysis
Time series analysis methods used to model the data series and test for an effect of the campaign. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) using patient postal code for mapping patient distance from ED. ED Volumes General Psychiatry Assessment Clinic Volumes ED Volumes: % new to CAMH and Region Pre-Campaign Map Post-Campaign Map
Maps Side by Side Limitations Just starting system context Dont know if we are duplicating services Preliminarily campaign increased volume in all categories: previous CAMH ED visit, new to CAMH, and new to region Main Findings
Addressing stigma increases help-seeking and referral behaviour Can have a significant impact on volumes Low treatment rates can be addressed using marketing strategies addressing stigma AND highlighting service availability Summary
Huge burden of mental illness and addictions in Ontario High supply of psychiatrists in Toronto and incentivization are perpetuating poor access in the face of very high psychiatrist supply Access to care at high times of need (posthospitalization) is poor CAMH campaign suggests there is a large unmet need market that is currently not being served
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