Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Unit 3, Continued

Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Unit 3, Continued

Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Unit 3, Continued 1. 2. 3. 4. Sanitation Kitchen Safety Food Service Equipment Knives & Smallware 5. 6. 7.

8. Using Standardized Recipes 17. Seasonings & Flavorings 18. Getting Ready to Cook 19. Cooking Methods 9. Breakfast Foods 10. Garde Manger Sandwiches, Appetizers, 11. & Hors dOeuvres 12. Fruit & Vegetables

13. 14. 15. 16. 20. 21. 22. 23. Grains, Legumes, & Pasta Stocks, Sauces, & Soups Fish & Shellfish Meat & Poultry Yeast Breads, Rolls, & Pastries

Quick Breads Desserts Working in a Restaurant Menus Nutrition The Business of a Restaurant Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 1 Sanitation Sec. 1.1 Sanitary Food Handling

Sec. 1.2 The Flow of Food Sec. 1.3 The HACCP System Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 1.1

Sanitary Food Handling Importance of Food Safety Foodborne Illness Caused by eating contaminated food Potential Contamination Hazards Biological Physical Chemical Sec. 1.1 Sanitary Food Handling

Importance of Food Safety (continued) Biological Hazards Living organisms Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungi Physical Hazards Foreign objects Chemical Hazards Man-made chemicals Toxic metals Sec. 1.1

Sanitary Food Handling FAT TOM Pathogens: disease-producing organisms Conditions that make pathogens grow (FAT TOM) Food Acidity Temperature Time Oxygen Moisture Sec. 1.1 Sanitary Food Handling

FAT TOM (continued) Temperature Danger Zone: temperature range for pathogen growth Between 41F and 135F Water Activity (Aw): measurement of moisture in food Sec. 1.1 Sanitary Food Handling Sources of Contamination Direct Contamination: food is received from supplier with contaminants

Cross-contamination: food is contaminated while being prepared, cooked, or served Sec. 1.1 Sanitary Food Handling Grooming and Hygiene Hand-washing 1. Wet hands 2. Apply soap 3. Scrub hands, between fingers, and forearms 4. Scrub under fingernails 5. Rinse hands and forearms 6. Dry hands

7. Turn off water, using towel 8. Open door 9. Discard towel Sec. 1.1 Sanitary Food Handling Grooming and Hygiene (continued) Wash Hands

When arriving at work After using the bathroom After sneezing After touching your hair, face, clothing After eating, drinking, or smoking Before and after putting on a new pair of gloves Sec. 1.1 Sanitary Food Handling Grooming and Hygiene (continued)

Before handling food After handling garbage After handling dirty equipment, dishes, utensils After touching raw meats, poultry, and fish After touching animals Anytime you change from one task to another Sec. 1.1

Sanitary Food Handling Grooming and Hygiene (continued) Disposable Gloves Wash hands before putting gloves on Change gloves when they rip or get contaminated Grooming Clean uniform Control hair Minimize or avoid wearing jewelry Sec. 1.1

Sanitary Food Handling Grooming and Hygiene (continued) Personal Hygiene Dont come to work sick Keep fingernails trimmed Cover cuts or burns with bandages; cover bandages with gloves Sec. 1.1 Sanitary Food Handling Cleaning and Sanitizing Clean

Wipe, wash, and rinse surfaces; sweep floors Types of Cleaners Detergent, degreaser, acid cleaner, abrasive cleaner Sanitize Use hot water or chemicals to reduce pathogens on surfaces Types of Sanitizers Chlorine, iodine, quarternary ammonium compounds Sec. 1.1 Sanitary Food Handling

Cleaning and Sanitizing (continued) Three-Compartment Sink First compartment Wash with hot water and detergent Second compartment Rinse with clean water Third compartment Sanitize with very hot water or water + chemical sanitizer Dishwashing Machine Sec. 1.1 Sanitary Food Handling

Waste Disposal and Recycling Waste Disposal Recycling Glass Plastic Metal Cardboard Sec. 1.1 Sanitary Food Handling Pest Control Examples: mice, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches Keep Pests out of the Kitchen

Fix holes and gaps in doors, windows, screens Keep surfaces clean Store foods properly Manage garbage and toss packaging material Pest Management Maintain the kitchen so pests cant get in Make sure pests cant find food Use pesticides when necessary Sec. 1.2 The Flow of Food The Flow of Food

The route food takes From the time it is received by the kitchen To the time it is served to the customer Sec. 1.2 The Flow of Food Purchasing and Receiving Foods Purchasing Reputable food supplier Delivery of safe foods in good condition Receiving Perishable goods For refrigerator

For freezer Dry goods Sec. 1.2 The Flow of Food Storing Foods Storing Avoid contamination and spoilage FIFO: First in, first out Perishables Freeze or refrigerate immediately Store raw food separate from cooked food Dry goods

Keep dry, clean, cool Keep away from chemicals Sec. 1.2 The Flow of Food Storing Foods (continued) Storage Temperatures Food Item Storage Temperature Meat and poultry

32 to 36F Fish and shellfish 30 to 34F Eggs 38 to 41F Dairy products 36 to 41F Produce (refrigerated)

32 to 50F Sec. 1.2 The Flow of Food Cooking Foods Safely Prepare Foods Safely Refrigerate foods until ready to use Avoid cross-contamination Keep double-strength sanitizing solution nearby Monitor Food Temperature Bring to safe temperature quickly Hold at that temperature until serving

Sec. 1.2 The Flow of Food Cooking Foods Safely (continued) Safe Food Temperatures Food Type Minimum Minimum Time at Internal Safe Temperature Temperature before Serving

Beef roasts (rare) 130F 140F 112 minutes 12 minutes Roasts (medium beef, pork), lamb, veal 145F 4 minutes Ham

155F 4 minutes Eggs, fish, pork, beef (other than roasts) 145F 15 seconds Ground meats (beef, 155F pork, game), ham steak

15 seconds Poultry, stuffed meats 15 seconds 165F Sec. 1.2 The Flow of Food Cooking Foods Safely (continued) Cooling Foods Safely to Below 41F One-stage cooling method

Two-stage cooling method Methods for Cooling Liquid foods Solid or semi-solid foods Thawing Foods Safely In the refrigerator Under running water In the microwave Sec. 1.2 The Flow of Food Cooking Foods Safely (continued) Tips for Cooling Food Safely

Liquids Use ice-water bath Use stainless-steel containers Stir frequently Add ice Use chill wand Solid/Semi-Solids Use stainless-steel containers Cut into small portions Leave unwrapped Use ice bath Use chill blaster

Sec. 1.2 The Flow of Food Serving Foods Safely Holding Hot foods: above 135F Cold foods: below 41F Use thermometer to check temperature

Discard time-temperature abused food Reheating To at least 165F for at least 15 seconds within two-hour period Use thermometer to check temperature Sec. 1.3 The HACCP System Food-Safety System Food-safety system: Precautionary steps that study how food can be exposed to biological, chemical, physical hazards Goal of system: to reduce or eliminate risk of

hazards Standards FDA Food Code: established national sanitation standards State and local standards Sec. 1.3 The HACCP System Food-Safety System (continued) Inspections Food-safety audit by local health department Inspected areas Foods and supplies

Grooming and hygiene of staff Temperatures for holding/serving foods Cleaning and sanitation procedures Water supply Waste disposal Pest control Sec. 1.3 The HACCP System Seven Steps of HACCP HACCP: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point 7-step system for maintaining food safety

Step 1: Conduct a Hazard Analysis Examine flow of food Watch for possible points of contamination Of particular concern: perishable goods Step 2: Determine Critical Control Points Specific points during food handling can cause health risk Examples: temperatures for storing, holding, cooking, serving Sec. 1.3 The HACCP System Seven Steps of HACCP (continued)

Step 3: Establish Critical Limits Measurements of time/temperature that indicate when food is at risk and needing corrective action Limits established by local health department or food-service establishment Step 4: Establish Monitoring Procedures Enter accurate measurements of time/temperature in log book Determine what is measured, how often, and by whom Sec. 1.3 The HACCP System

Seven Steps of HACCP (continued) Step 5: Identify Corrective Actions Bring food to a safe temperature Discard food held at an unsafe temperature for too long Step 6: Establish Procedures for Record-Keeping and Documentation Time/temperature logs, checklists, forms Easy-to-understand format Sec. 1.3 The HACCP System

Seven Steps of HACCP (continued) Step 7: Develop a Verification System Have someone double-check the recorded information to verify the system Time/temperature measurements might not be accurate Forms might be too difficult Person recording information might need more direction Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 2 Kitchen Safety Sec. 2.1

Fire Safety Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 2.1 Fire Safety

Fire Hazards Open Flames and Heat Can set fire to paper, food, clothing Gas burners Wood fires Matches, candles, cigarettes, cigars Very hot metal cookware Overheated equipment motors Sec. 2.1 Fire Safety Fire Hazards (continued) Grease

Fires can start from a layer of grease on Walls Work surfaces Ranges, oven hoods, fryers, broilers, ovens Heating, air-conditioning, and ventilation units Sec. 2.1 Fire Safety Fire Hazards (continued) Electrical Wiring Causes 30% of all accidental fires Do not pull a plug from an outlet by the cord Replace damaged cords or plugs

Use correct type of outlet (grounded or ungrounded) for each plug Do not overload outlets Keep all outlets and plugs dry Sec. 2.1 Fire Safety Fire Hazards (continued) Unsafe Storage Areas Store flammable items (paper supplies, linens) away from open flames or heat Keep cleaners or bleaches away from flammable items

Sec. 2.1 Fire Safety Fire Control Fire Detectors Smoke detectors Detect presence of smoke Need good air flow to function Heat detectors Activated by sudden rise in temperature Must be well maintained and installed by

fire-safety expert Sec. 2.1 Fire Safety Fire Control (continued) Automatic Hood and Sprinkler Systems Extinguishers, sprinklers, alarms Triggered by heat of fire Sprinklers release water Hood systems Located above ranges, griddles, broilers, deep fat fryers

Release chemicals, carbon dioxide, or gases Sec. 2.1 Fire Safety Fire Control (continued) Fire Extinguishers Handheld devices for putting out small fires (3 feet wide x 3 feet tall) Water-based extinguishers Douse fires with water For Class A fires Foam extinguishers Cool fire and cover with blanket of foam

For Class A or Class B fires Sec. 2.1 Fire Safety Fire Control (continued) Dry-chemical extinguishers Interrupt chemical reactions that keep fire burning For all classes of fires Sec. 2.1

Fire Safety Fire Extinguishers & Classes of Fires Class of Fire Type of Flammable Material Extinguisher to Use Class A Paper, cloth, wood, plastic Class A Class A:B

Class B Gas, grease, oil, spray cans Class A:B Class A:B:C Class C Electrical equipment, cords, outlets, motors Class A:C Class B:C

Class D Combustible switches, wiring, metals Class D Class K Deep fat fryers Class K Sec. 2.1

Fire Safety Fire Control (continued) PASS System How to use a fire extinguisher: Pull the pin Aim low, at base of fire (stand 6-8 feet away from fire) Squeeze the trigger Sweep from side to side Sec. 2.1 Fire Safety

Fire Emergency Plans Fire Emergency Plan: plan of action in case of fire Escape Routes Provide at least 2 ways to exit building Include clearly marked and accessible fire exit doors Must be posted, showing floor plan Must include emergency telephone numbers Sec. 2.1 Fire Safety

Fire Emergency Plans (continued) Assembly Points meeting locations away from the building Fire Drills practice of escape routes and safe behaviors In Case of Fire Call fire department immediately Stay calm Shut off gas valves Get people out of the building Meet at the assembly point Alert firefighter if someone is missing Sec. 2.2

Accidents & Injuries Types of Accidents and Injuries Burns First-degree Skin turns red, may swell Cool skin with cold running water or towels soaked in cold water Second-degree Painful, blisters Cool skin, seek medical attention Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries

Types of Accidents and Injuries (continued) Third-degree Skin may turn white or black, no feeling Cover with moist cloth, seek immediate medical attention Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries Types of Accidents and Injuries (continued)

Cuts Abrasion: minor cut caused by rubbing the skin against something Laceration: cut or tear in the skin, can be deep Avulsion: cut that removes piece of skin or body part such as fingertip Puncture: wound from a sharp object that pierces and makes a hole in the skin Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries

Types of Accidents and Injuries (continued) Strains, Sprains, and Falls Strains/sprains are the result of twisting or wrenching body out of normal position Often the result of falling or slipping Avoid standing in same position too long Avoid awkward stretching or bending Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries Preventing Accidents and Injuries

Dressing for Safety Uniform Toque: prevents hair from falling in food, open at top for coolness Double-breasted jacket: protects against burns on arms Apron: another layer of protection Shoes: should have closed toes and be resistant to slips, grease, heat No baggy clothing No large or dangling jewelry Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries

Preventing Accidents and Injuries (continued) Handling Knives Safely Keep knives sharp Keep hands and knives clean and dry Keep knives organized/safely stored Pass knife: lay it down on flat surface with handle toward person taking it Carry knife: blade pointed down and knife held

close to your side Wear mesh cutting gloves when needed Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries Preventing Accidents and Injuries (continued) Handling Other Cutting Tools Safely Use safety guards when cutting food with machines or appliances Turn off motorized equipment before cleaning Be careful with can openers, open metal cans,

sharp and jagged edges Clean up broken glass right away, placing in separate container Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries Preventing Accidents and Injuries (continued) Preventing Burns Wear long sleeves and keep rolled down Use oven mitts or dry side towels to carry hot pans

Let hot pots and pans cool before washing Lift lid on pot so side farthest from you opens first to prevent steam burns Open oven doors carefully Dry food before adding to hot oil Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries Preventing Accidents and Injuries (continued) Avoiding Slips and Falls Watch for wet floors, uneven carpeting, broken

pavement, objects you can trip on Keep floors/walkways clean, dry, clear Avoid walking in the dark Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries Preventing Accidents and Injuries (continued) Cleaning Up Spills Clean up any liquid on floor immediately Scatter absorbent material on grease spills before cleaning up

Use signs and verbal warnings to alert people of spills Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries Preventing Accidents and Injuries (continued) Lifting/Moving Heavy Objects Safely

If you cant lift it yourself, get help Make sure load is balanced and path is clear Know where youll put object down To lift heavy items: squat down, keep back straight, get secure grip on item, lift yourself up with your legs Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries Preventing Accidents and Injuries (continued)

Using Ladders Safely Use correct ladder Ladder should have nonskid feet Lock folding ladders brace Lean straight ladder correctly Do not stand on top of a step stool or on top two rungs of a straight ladder Sec. 2.2

Accidents & Injuries Preventing Accidents and Injuries (continued) Driving Vehicle should be safe Avoid distractions Follow safe-driving procedures Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries

First Aid and Emergency Procedures Keep a properly stocked first aid kit In case of accident Check scene of accident Stay calm and keep victim calm Keep people back Get medical help Administer first aid

Stay with victim until help arrives Complete an accident report Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries First Aid and Emergency Procedures (continued) Burns Remove the heat source Keep victim calm Soak burned area in cool water

Cuts Clean area well Cover bleeding wound with gauze and apply pressure Cover with dressing or bandage; change frequently Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries First Aid and Emergency Procedures (continued) Sprains, Strains, Broken Bones

Elevate injured part Apply ice to area Choking Perform obstructed airway maneuver (Heimlich maneuver) Make fist and place it just above victims navel, thumb facing in. Use quick, upward thrust. Repeat until obstruction is cleared. Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries

First Aid and Emergency Procedures (continued) Use CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation) Use an AED (automated external defibrillator) Preparing for Emergencies Have emergency supplies on hand Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries Safety as an Ongoing Process Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Federal agency charged with keeping workplace safe Requires posting of health and safety regulations Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) Requires employers to notify employees about chemical hazards on the job Corrosive hazards can irritate Carcinogenic chemicals cause cancer Sec. 2.2 Accidents & Injuries

Safety as an Ongoing Process (continued) Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Describes chemical hazards Hazard Communication Program Safety program to document injuries Accident/Illness Reports & Records Reporting must meet OSHA standards Establishment must keep a log and post it Sec. 2.2

Accidents & Injuries Safety as an Ongoing Process (continued) Workers Compensation State program to help employees who are hurt or get sick on the job Supplies money to replace earnings General Safety Audit Reviews safety level in establishment Checks: Building Equipment Employee and management practices

Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 3 Food Service Equipment Sec. 3.1 Work Flow in the Kitchen Sec. 3.2 Receiving & Storage Equipment Sec. 3.3

Preparation & Cooking Equipment Sec. 3.4 Holding & Service Equipment Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 3.1 Work Flow in the Kitchen

Workstations & Work Lines Workstation Work area containing equipment and tools needed for a specific task Examples: fry station, grill station Work Sections Workstations combined into larger work areas Work Lines Arrangements of equipment Sec. 3.1 Work Flow in the Kitchen Work Lines

Five Types of Work Lines Straight-Line L-Shaped Back-to-Back U-Shaped Parallel (Face-to-Face) Sec. 3.1 Work Flow in the Kitchen Work Flow Work flow: planned movement of food/staff as food is prepared Planning

Mise en place: have all raw ingredients, equipment, and tools ready at a workstation Timing Know how long dishes take to prepare Communication between Workstations Sec. 3.2 Receiving & Storage Equipment Receiving Equipment Receiving Area Inspects all incoming goods Uses thermometers to measure food temperature

Weighs food Counter scale Platform scale Floor scale Hanging scale Sec. 3.2 Receiving & Storage Equipment Refrigeration Equipment Walk-Ins largest units for refrigeration or freezing Reach-Ins Refrigerated Drawers and Under counter

Reach-Ins Portable Refrigeration Carts Sec. 3.2 Receiving & Storage Equipment Refrigeration Equipment (continued) Cleaning Refrigerators/Freezers 1. Turn off unit 2. Remove food; put in cold storage 3. Wash interior with soapy water 4. Rinse interior with damp cloth 5. Sanitize interior 6. Dry interior with single-use paper

towel 7. Turn on unit and refill with food 8. Wash, rinse, sanitize exterior daily Sec. 3.2 Receiving & Storage Equipment Storage Equipment Shelves For dry goods: dry storage area In walk-ins: cold storage area Made of steel, aluminum, or plastic Stand at least 6 inches from floor Storage Containers

Protect food from contamination Hold, store, and move food Labeled and dated Sec. 3.2 Receiving & Storage Equipment Storage Equipment (continued) Cleaning Shelves and Storage Containers 1. Remove food from shelves and containers 2. Clean shelves and containers with hot soapy water 3. Rinse with damp cloth or water 4. Sanitize shelves and containers

5. Dry shelves with paper towel; let containers air dry 6. Refill shelves and containers Sec. 3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Food-Preparation Equipment General Rules Learn to use equipment safely Use all safety features Maintain and clean equipment properly Turn off and unplug for cleaning Be sure equipment is complete and stable

Promptly report any problems Sec. 3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Chopping, Slicing, & Grinding Equipment Food processor Vertical chopping machine (VCM) Food chopper (buffalo chopper) Meat slicer Meat grinder Sec.

3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Mixing & Blending Equipment Mixing: combining ingredients so they are evenly spread throughout mixture Blending: chopping ingredients to a uniform consistency Mixer A bowl & mixing tool for combining ingredients, used mostly by bakers Countertop or freestanding mixer Planetary mixer Spiral mixer

Sec. 3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Mixing & Blending Equipment (continued) Blender Uses rotating blade and high speed to make coarse or fine mixtures Countertop blender (bar blender) Immersion blender (hand or stick blender) Sec. 3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment

Cleaning FoodPreparation Equipment 1. 2. 3. 4. Turn off and unplug Remove attachments or bowls; use blade guards Take apart if needed Wash parts with hot, soapy water; avoid touching sharp edges 5. Dry with clean cloth 6. Sanitize 7. Wipe base and frame, rinse, dry, sanitize 8. Reassemble

9. Replace blade guards 10. Lubricate with oil as specified Sec. 3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Cooking Equipment Kettles and Steamers Use moist heat; can prepare large amounts of food Steam-jacketed kettle Swiss braiser (tilting skillet) Pressure steamer Convection steamer

Sec. 3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Cooking Equipment (continued) Ranges Open-burner range (electric or gas) Flattop range Ring-top range Ovens Conventional oven Deck oven Convection oven Combination steamer/oven Microwave oven

Sec. 3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Cooking Equipment (continued) Broilers, Fryers, Grills Broiler (heat source above food) Salamander (small broiler) Smoker Deep-fat fryer Grill Griddle Sec.

3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Cleaning Ranges Open-burner ranges 1. Turn off, allow to cool, remove grids and drip pan 2. Soak grids and drip pan in hot, soapy water 3. Wash rest of range 4. Rinse and dry range 5. Wash, rinse, dry grids and drip pan 6. Replace grids and drip pan Flattop and ring-top ranges 1. Turn off, allow to cool

2. Loosen burned food with scraper 3. Rinse and dry Sec. 3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Cleaning Ovens 1. Turn off, allow to cool 2. Remove racks, shelves 3. Clean racks in hot soapy water and rinse 4. Dry turntables, air-dry shelves 5. Clean inside and out with soapy cloth 6. Rinse with wet cloth and dry 7. Polish outside with cloth

Sec. 3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Cleaning Broilers 1. Turn off, allow to cool 2. Take out rack 3. Soak in soapy water and use scraper or wire brush 4. Dry with cloth 5. Scrape food from inside broiler 6. Remove drip pan 7. Wash, rinse, dry drip pan 8. Replace drip pan and racks

Sec. 3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Cleaning Deep-Fat Fryers Daily 1. Turn off, allow to cool 2. Wash removable parts with soapy water 3. Clean exterior surfaces with soapy water 4. Filter cooking oil, as directed

Weekly 1. Drain fryer vessel into filter or steel container 2. Clean vessel with cleaner/detergent 3. Close drain valve, refill with cleaner/detergent 4. Using gloves and brush, scrub interior 5. Drain vessel and rinse with water several times 6. Rinse with vinegar and water solution 7. Rinse again with water, dry thoroughly Sec. 3.3 Preparation & Cooking Equipment Cleaning Griddles/Grills Griddles

1. Turn off, allow to cool 2. Polish top with griddle stone or griddle cloth 3. Coat top lightly with oil 4. Heat griddle to 400F and wipe clean Grills 1. Turn off, allow to cool 2. Clean rack with wire brush and scraper 3. Oil rack Sec. 3.4 Holding & Service Equipment Holding Equipment Must hold hot food above 135F and cold food below

41F Sneeze Guards Used in buffets/cafeterias Protect food from cross-contamination Chafing Dish Holds 1 or 2 food items Uses fuel to heat Sec. 3.4 Holding & Service Equipment Holding Equipment (continued) Hot Plate Electrical

Used mostly for coffee and water Holding Cabinet and Covered Rack Holds trays Holding cabinets are insulated Heat Lamp Uses special bulbs placed directly over food Sec. 3.4 Holding & Service Equipment Holding Equipment (continued) Steam Table Uses steam from hot water to keep food hot Holds food in hotel pans

Hotel pans come in various sizes Full size 20 x 12 Fractions of full-size pan Refrigerated Holding/Display Unit Keeps food cold Can use hotel pans Sec. 3.4 Holding & Service Equipment Service Equipment Trays Tray Stands

Plate Covers Service Carts Provide work surface for carving, plating, assembling dishes tableside Examples: pastry cart, chafer cart, salad cart, flamb cart Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 4 Knives & Smallware Sec. 4.1 Using Knives

Sec. 4.2 Using Smallware Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 4.1 Using Knives Identifying Parts of a Knife Blade: cutting surface of the knife Forged blades

Stamped blades Sec. 4.1 Using Knives Identifying Parts of a Knife (continued) Parts of the Blade Tip Cutting edge Heel Bolster Spine Flat side of blade

Sec. 4.1 Using Knives Identifying Parts of a Knife (continued) Tang: Continuation of the blade into the knifes handle Full tang Partial tang Handle: Part of the knife meant to be held Rivets: used to attach wooden handles to blades Sec. 4.1

Using Knives Selecting the Appropriate Knife Types of Knives Chiefs knife Utility knife Paring knives Boning knife Filleting knife Slicer Cleaver Scimitar Sec. 4.1

Using Knives Using Knives Properly Holding the Knife Three basic grips Using the Guided Hand Four main methods Sec. 4.1 Using Knives Using Knives Properly (continued) Knife Safety

Always hold by handle Never catch falling knife Pass by laying knife on flat surface and allowing another to pick up Carry unsheathed knife straight down with sharp edge facing behind Never borrow without permission and return promptly Sec. 4.1 Using Knives Using Knives Properly (continued) More Knife Safety

Keep blade from hanging over edge of table or cutting board Do not use knives to open bottles, loosen drawers, and so on Do not leave knives where they wont be seen Never store or use above waist level Cut away from body Sec. 4.1 Using Knives Making the Cut Slicing

Use sharp knife Adjust length of stroke for clean, even slices Use long blades for fine cuts or slices Use small blades for small foods Sec. 4.1 Using Knives Making the Cut (continued) Chopping Cut roughly into the same size pieces Mincing Cut into fine pieces Shredding and Grating

Coarse or fine Use chefs knife, grater, slicer, food processor attachments Sec. 4.1 Using Knives Making the Cut (continued) Precision Cuts Rondelles Variations of rondelles: diagional and gaufrette cuts Chiffonade Julienne and batonnet

Oblique Sec. 4.1 Using Knives Making the Cut (continued) Dice Paysanne and fermiere Lozenge Turned Sec. 4.1

Using Knives Maintaining Knives Sharpening Knives with a Stone Whetstone: sharpening stone Use consistent direction and angle Honing Knives with a Steel Steel: textured steel or ceramic rod Honing or trueing: straightening knifes edge Consistent direction on each side of blade Sec. 4.1 Using Knives

Maintaining Knives (continued) Keeping Knives Clean and Sanitized Clean: use soapy water, rinse, and dry Sanitize: wipe handle and blade with sanitizing solution Storing Knife kits or cases Wall or tabletop racks Sec. 4.1 Using Knives Maintaining Knives (continued)

Maintaining the Cutting Surface Cutting boards, butcher block Keep surface uniform and clean Wipe surface with scrub brush or pad and clean, soapy water Use scraper to remove residue Wipe surface with cloth wrung with sanitizing solution Swab with sanitizing solution Sec. 4.1 Using Knives Maintaining Knives (continued)

Avoid cross-contamination Separate board for each type of food Clean, rinse, and sanitize board Sec. 4.2 Using Smallware Hand Tools Smallware: hand tools, pots, and pans Type dependent upon task Five basic types Sec. 4.2

Using Smallware Hand Tools (continued) Cutting and Slicing Tools Kitchen shears Melon baller Channel knife Olive pitter Pizza cutter/pastry wheel Zester Peeler Corer Fish scaler Sec.

4.2 Using Smallware Hand Tools (continued) Shredding and Grating Tools Knives Food processor and mixer attachments Box grater Mandoline Microplane Specialized graters Sec. 4.2

Using Smallware Hand Tools (continued) Mixing and Cooking Tools Kitchen fork Palette knife Rubber spatula Skimmers Mixing bowls Turners Spoons Tongs Whisk Sec. 4.2

Using Smallware Hand Tools (continued) Straining, Draining and Processing Tools Food mill Colander Ricer Drum sieve Conical sieve Funnel Sec. 4.2 Using Smallware

Hand Tools (continued) Measuring Tools Weight Portion scale Digital scale Balance scale Volume Measuring cups and spoons Volume and liquid measures Ladle Sec. 4.2 Using Smallware

Hand Tools (continued) More Measuring Tools Temperature Thermistor thermometer Bi-metallic-coil thermometer Thermocouple thermometer Liquid-filled thermometer Sec. 4.2 Using Smallware Cookware Pots and Pans

Size, material, and gauge appropriate to food Rate of heat transfer: how efficiently heat passes from cookware to the food inside Sec. 4.2 Using Smallware Cookware (continued) Cookware Materials Copper Cast iron Stainless steel Steel Aluminum

Nonstick coatings Sec. 4.2 Using Smallware Cookware (continued) Stovetop Cooking Stockpot Saucepot Saucepan Saut pan Omelet or crep pan Fish poacher Wok

Double boiler Steamers Sec. 4.2 Using Smallware Cookware (continued) Oven Cooking Roasting pan Sheet pan Terrine mold Braising pans and casseroles Pt mold Gratin dish

Souffl dish, ramekin, and custard cup Sec. 4.2 Using Smallware Cleaning and Sanitizing Smallware Washing by Hand Use a three-compartment sink 1. Clean sink area 2. Scrape and pre-rinse 3. Fill first sink with 110F water and soap; wash 4. Fill second sink with 110F water; rinse 5. Fill third sink with hot water and sanitizing

agent; submerge 6. Remove; air-dry Sec. 4.2 Using Smallware Cleaning and Sanitizing Smallware (continued) Dishwashers Undercounter Single-rack Conveyer Belt Warewashing station: area that includes rinsing,

washing, and holding areas Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 5 Using Standardized Recipes Sec. 5.1 Understanding Standardized Recipes Sec. 5.2 Converting Recipes

Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 5.1 Understanding Standardized Recipes Finding Recipes Recipe: written record of ingredients and preparation steps for specific dish Grouped by Category Regional or Ethnic Historic Main Ingredient Specific Part of Menu

Meal Type Cooking Method Sec. 5.1 Understanding Standardized Recipes Finding Recipes (continued) 5 Common Recipe Sources Cookbooks Periodicals Food producers and manufacturers Cooking contests Internet

Sec. 5.1 Understanding Standardized Recipes Standardized Recipes Standardized Recipe: a recipe designed for the needs of a kitchen Purpose Consistent quality and quantity Efficient purchasing and preparation Eliminate waste Accurate content information for wait staff to communicate Sec.

5.1 Understanding Standardized Recipes Standardized Recipes (continued) Sections Title Category Yield, or measured output Ingredients list Equipment Method Service HACCP Sec.

5.1 Understanding Standardized Recipes Reading Recipes PRN Method for Reading Recipes Preview To get the big picture Read To focus on specifics Note To record any changes in preparation Sec.

5.1 Understanding Standardized Recipes Reading Recipes (continued) Questions to Ask When Reading Recipes What is the yield? What are the ingredients? Are they available? Pre-preparation? What method? Equipment? Timing? Serving and handling? Sec. 5.1

Understanding Standardized Recipes Measurement Conventions Count: number of whole items such as standardized ingredients Volume: space occupied by solid, liquid, or gas Weight: mass or heaviness Sec. 5.1 Understanding Standardized Recipes Measurement Systems U.S. System Volume: teaspoon (tsp), tablespoon (Tbsp),

fluid ounce (fl oz), cup (c), pint (pt), quart (qt), and gallon (gal) Weight: ounce (oz) and pound (lb) Metric System Volume: milliliter (ml) and liter (l) Weight: milligram (mg), gram (g), and kilogram (kg) Sec. 5.1 Understanding Standardized Recipes Measurement Techniques Techniques to Assure Accuracy Dry volume: Overfill container and

scrape excess Liquid volume: Fill clear container on flat surface Weight: Select scale that suits food size; account for weight of container (tare) Sec. 5.2 Converting Recipes Scaling Recipes Up or Down Scale: to change the amount of ingredients based on yield needed 1. Find the recipe conversion factor (RCF). RCF =

yield you want = yield of original recipe new yield old yield 2. Multiply each ingredient by the RCF. Sec. 5.2 Converting Recipes Scaling Recipes by Changing

Portion Size 1. Find the old yield. Old yield = old no. of servings x old portion size 2. Find the new yield. New yield = new no. of servings x new portion size 3. Find the RCF. RCF = new yield old yield 4. Multiply each ingredient amount by the RCF. Sec.

5.2 Converting Recipes Scaling Recipes Based on an Available Ingredient 1. Express the recipe ingredient and available ingredient in the same measure. 2. Find the RCF. RCF = available ingredient amount ingredient amount in recipe 3. Find new yield.

new yield = old yield x RCF 4. Find new amounts of each ingredient. new amount = old amount x RCF Sec. 5.2 Converting Recipes Using Scaled Recipes Preparation Factors to Consider Monitor cooking temperature and time Determine pan size and depth Adjust seasonings Realize particular recipes cannot be scaled

Know preparation and equipment limits of scaling Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 6 Seasonings and Flavorings Sec. 6.1 Sensory Perception Sec. 6.2 Seasoning and Flavoring Foods Sec.

6.3 Herbs, Spices, & Aromatics Sec. 6.4 Condiments, Nuts, & Seeds Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 6.1 Sensory Perception

The Five Senses Human Senses Taste Sight Smell Touch Hearing Sec. 6.1 Sensory Perception The Five Senses (continued) Taste: dependent upon food coming in contact with

taste buds Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umani, or savory: meaty, brothy Sec. 6.1 Sensory Perception The Five Senses (continued) Sight: visual appeal of foods Ripeness Cut and arrangement

Color Smell: powerful, influences taste Aromatic: strong smelling foods Sec. 6.1 Sensory Perception The Five Senses (continued) Touch: texture and temperature of food Hearing: auditory interaction with of food as it is consumed Sec. 6.1

Sensory Perception Changing a Foods Flavor Flavor: the way a food tastes, its texture, appearance, doneness, temperature Affected by Ripening or aging Temperature Preparation and cooking Sec. 6.1 Sensory Perception

Describing Flavor The Way Flavor Looks Opaque: light does not pass through it Translucent: some light will pass through it Transparent or clear? Colors Sec. 6.1 Sensory Perception Describing Flavor (continued) The Way Flavor Smells Sensation can differ between smelling and eating

Perfumed Pungent Earthy Stale Musty Fresh Strong Intense Sec. 6.1 Sensory Perception Describing Flavor (continued) The Way Flavor Feels

Texture when touched, cut, or bitten Firm, hard Soft, yielding, melting Crisp, crunch, crumbly Airy, frothy, foamy Thick, dense Watery, thin Warm, hot Cool, cold Sec. 6.1 Sensory Perception Describing Flavor (continued)

The Way Flavor Sounds Clue to flavor snap sizzle pop crackle crunch fizz Sec. 6.2 Seasoning and Flavoring Foods Seasoning Foods Seasonings: ingredients added to food to improve

flavor by Enhancing natural taste Balancing tastes Cutting richness Sec. 6.2 Seasoning and Flavoring Foods Types of Seasoning Ingredients Four types of seasoning Salt Pepper Sugar and light-flavored sweeteners Acids

Sec. 6.2 Seasoning and Flavoring Foods Types of Seasoning Ingredients (continued) Salt: sodium chloride is used worldwide Small amounts enhance flavor High-sodium food, or salty food Found underground and in seawater Types Table salt Sea salt

Kosher salt Rock salt Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Sec. 6.2 Seasoning and Flavoring Foods Types of Seasoning Ingredients (continued) Pepper: spice used in small amounts, best freshly ground Black pepper comes from dried, unripe berries White pepper comes from ripe husked berries

Sec. 6.2 Seasoning and Flavoring Foods Types of Seasoning Ingredients (continued) Sugar and Light-Flavored Sweeteners Use sparingly Distinctive flavor of different types Acids Sour or tart flavor Can improve appearance and texture

Sec. 6.2 Seasoning and Flavoring Foods Types of Seasoning Ingredients (continued) Seasoning improves foods original flavor Layering flavors Difference between seasoning and flavoring Specific time and manner of seasoning affect flavor Sec. 6.3

Herbs, Spices, & Aromatics Herbs Herbs: leaves and stems of certain plants Sweet or savory Associated with particular cuisines Selecting and Storing Flavor weakens with age Select firm stems with firm, fresh leaves Sold dried or ground Store in air-tight containers no longer than six months Sec. 6.3

Herbs, Spices, & Aromatics Herbs (continued) Using Fresh and Dried Herbs Review recipe for either fresh or dried herbs Gentle flavor from herbs added at beginning of cooking Intense flavor from herbs added at the end of cooking One teaspoon of dried herbs for one tablespoon of fresh herbs Sec. 6.3

Herbs, Spices, & Aromatics Herbs (continued) Common Herbs Sweet or savory Rosemary Chervil Chives Cilantro Savory Thyme Tarragon

Bay Leaf Parsley Mint Lemongrass Sage Marjoram Oregano Dill Sec. 6.3 Herbs, Spices, & Aromatics Spices

Spices: aromatic ingredients added in small amounts to give a specific flavor Purchase whole and grind as needed for best flavor Spice blends and dry rubs come from combinations of spices and herbs Sec. 6.3 Herbs, Spices, & Aromatics Spices (continued) Common Herbs Allspice

Mustard Cardamon Cloves Caraway seeds Ginger Nutmeg and Mace Peppercorns Cinnamon Cumin Fennel Peppers Saffron

Sec. 6.3 Herbs, Spices, & Aromatics Aromatic Combinations Three Common Aromatic Combinations Mirepoix Sachet dpices Bouquet garni Sec. 6.3 Herbs, Spices, & Aromatics

Aromatic Combinations (continued) Mirepoix: combination of vegetables cooked together and used as aromatic flavoring Standard Mirepoix White Mirepoix Cajun Mirepoix Matigan Battuto Sec. 6.3 Herbs, Spices, & Aromatics Aromatic Combinations (continued)

Sachet dpices Mixture of fresh and dried herbs, dried spices in cheesecloth bag Bouquet Garni Assortment of fresh herbs tied together Sec. 6.4 Condiments, Nuts, & Seeds Condiments Condiments: prepared mixtures to season and flavor foods Traditional and Nontraditional Selecting and Storing Condiments

Available as fresh or prepared Storage containers intact and tight Using Condiments Determine amount needed per dish Check for taste and freshness Sec. 6.4 Condiments, Nuts, & Seeds Nuts and Seeds Nuts: fruit of various trees Shelled or unshelled Uncooked, raw, roasted, blanched Whole, halved, sliced, slivered, chopped

Keep in motion when cooking Store in tight container in dry, dark area Sec. 6.4 Condiments, Nuts, & Seeds Nuts and Seeds (continued) Seeds: part of a plant that can grow into a new plant Provide texture and flavor Store in tight container in dry, dark area Sec. 6.4

Condiments, Nuts, & Seeds Nuts and Seeds (continued) Common Nuts and Seeds Almond Pecan Chestnut Cashew Hazelnut Pistachio Walnut Sesame seeds

Macadamia Peanut Poppy seeds Pine nut Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 7 Getting Ready to Cook Sec. 7.1 Mise en Place

Sec. 7.2 Learning to Work Together Sec. 7.3 Food Presentation Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 7.1

Mise en Place Understanding Mise en Place Mise en Place: French phrase meaning to put in place Work plan of activities in preparation for cooking Develops good work habits Includes preparation techniques, ingredients lists, cooking and mixing methods Sec. 7.1 Mise en Place Organizing Your Work

Planning Your Work Determine Your Assignment Assignment: food to be cooked P R N (Preview, Read, Note) Prepare an Inventory of Equipment and Ingredients Break Assignment into Tasks Task: small jobs leading to assignment Sec. 7.1 Mise en Place Organizing Your Work (continued) Reviewing Your Lists

Compare for similarities and shared efficiencies Making a Timeline Timeline: schedule of tasks and their completion, or deadline Sec. 7.1 Mise en Place Organizing Your Work (continued) A timeline requires you to: Create a list of tasks Know length of tasks Know cooking times Know how long to cool a dish

Know how long to hold before quality is lost Sec. 7.1 Mise en Place Organizing Your Work (continued) To Determine a Timeline 1. Review your recipes. 2. Combine tasks. 3. Assign a deadline for each task. 4. Prioritize the work. Sec. 7.1

Mise en Place Organizing Your Work (continued) Setting Priorities: decide which tasks are most important Organize by importance High and low priority Problem-Solving Strategies: skills and strategies to get job done Written plan Coping with unexpected Sec. 7.1

Mise en Place Sequencing and Simplifying Work Work Sequencing: doing the right thing at the right time Consider what Can cook without being watched Needs a long time to prepare Can be interrupted or done quickly Cannot be interrupted or done quickly Sec. 7.1 Mise en Place

Setting Up a Workstation Workstation Utilization Gather tools and ingredients Develop mise en place, cook, or serve foods Determine workflow, or order, for tasks Sec. 7.2 Learning to Work Together Communicating Effectively Three Elements of Effective Communication Listening Give full attention Practice echoing

Asking Questions to Clarify Keep notes Language of the Kitchen Use proper terms Sec. 7.2 Learning to Work Together Receiving and Giving Criticism Effective Criticism: points out what went wrong and how to improve Receiving Criticism Intent to improve workplace Listen carefully, ask questions, think before

responding Giving Criticism Stay calm and quiet Avoid negative terms, focus on specifics Clearly state improvements Sec. 7.2 Learning to Work Together Using Feedback Effectively Feedback: review of work gathered through different sources and ways Verbal: spoken cues Nonverbal: posture, facial expression, and

visual awareness cues Sec. 7.2 Learning to Work Together Using Feedback Effectively (continued) Compliments and Complaints Right and wrong based on opinion Taking Action Use compliments or complaints to improve quality Sec. 7.2

Learning to Work Together Courtesy and Professionalism Courtesy is respect for others Professionalism is respect for work Courteous Behavior in the Kitchen Safety and efficiency Similar behavior returned Professionalism Maintain standards for work and behavior Sec. 7.3 Food Presentation

Presenting Foods Basic Guidelines Plate Presentation Hot foods hot, cold foods cold Plates neat, no drips or smudges Food attractive and appealing Basic Mise en Place for Service Keep notes Determine how food will arrive at table Gather serving items Maintain cleanliness Sec. 7.3 Food Presentation

Portioning Foods Portioning foods: properly serving the correct amount of a certain food Portion is the same as plate serving Consistent portion size makes planning easier Tools for portioning Ladles and scoops Portion scale Serving dishes Sec. 7.3 Food Presentation

Temperature Keeping Foods at the Best Temperature Hot foods at least 135F Steam table or warm oven to maintain heat Cold foods below 41F Allowances for room-temperature food Frozen foods below 32F Some foods may be transferred to refrigerator prior to serving Sec. 7.3 Food Presentation Temperature (continued)

Plates Hot food put in cold dishes will cool down Cold food put on hot dishes will warm up Maintaining best temperature Heat or chill plates prior to serving Sec. 7.3 Food Presentation Textures, Colors, and Shapes Texture Keep by Retaining cooking appearance Combining on plate

Color Achieve by Cooking properly Balancing colors on plate Sec. 7.3 Food Presentation Textures, Colors, and Shapes (continued) Shapes and Arrangements Consider Relationship between food and plate shapes Presentation side of food

Neatness Arrangement of food for effect Symmetrical and asymmetrical arrangements Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 8 Cooking Methods Sec. 8.1 Dry Heat Methods Sec. 8.2

Moist Heat Methods Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 8.1 Dry Heat Methods How Dry Heat Affects Foods Methods of Heat Transfer Radiant heat: rays from glowing, red hot source to food Metal transfers heat from burner to food

Oil transfers heat from pan and burner to food Changes to food include color, texture, flavor and nutritional value Carmelize: surface sugars turn brown Maillard reaction: proteins turn brown Sec. 8.1 Dry Heat Methods How Dry Heat Affects Foods (continued) Maintaining Moisture in Foods Dust or soak foods prior to cooking Avoid overcooking Nutritional Value

Nutritive value: healthful benefits of food Heat causes loss of nutritive value Sec. 8.1 Dry Heat Methods Dry Heat Methods Grilling and Broiling Food cooked by radiant heat Grilling: food cooked on rack or griddle with heat source below Broiling: food cooked with heat source above Sec.

8.1 Dry Heat Methods Dry Heat Methods (continued) Roasting and Baking Food cooked by hot air trapped in oven Difference between terms is food size Water bath: baking pan in pan of water to control heat Sec. 8.1 Dry Heat Methods

Dry Heat Methods (continued) Sauting Technique that cooks quickly with heat from pan Condition the pan: allow pan to heat before sauting and then add oil Recovery time: amount of time needed for pan to regain heat after adding food Sec. 8.1 Dry Heat Methods Dry Heat Methods (continued) Variations of Sauting

Stir frying: cook in wok (pan with round bottom and high sides) Searing: cook just long enough to color outside of food Pan broiling (dry sauting): use high heat but no fat Sweating: cook food uncovered over low heat in small amount of fat; pan is covered in variation called smothering Sec. 8.1 Dry Heat Methods Dry Heat Methods (continued)

Pan Frying Hot oil halfway up sides of food Average oil temperature 350F Oil seals in moisture and juice Most foods coated prior to frying Seasoned flour Standard breading Batter Deep frying Hot oil covers food Sec. 8.1 Dry Heat Methods

Determining Doneness Carryover Cooking Retained heat continues to cook food after it is removed from heat source Length of time depends on size of food Factor into cooking time Resting Food Allows time for proper doneness Food is moister Allows for plating and presentation Sec. 8.2 Moist Heat Methods

How Moist Heat Affects Foods Heat Transfer Food cooked through direct contact with hot liquid or with steam rising from hot liquid Changes to Food Little change to internal or external color of food Foods become firmer or softer Nutritional Value Reduce loss of nutrients by cooking food as short a time as possible Sec. 8.2 Moist Heat Methods

Moist Heat Cooking Methods Steaming Trapped steam circulates around the food Food retains more nutrients Poaching, Simmering, and Boiling Food completely covered by hot water Process dependent on temperature of water Rolling boil: rapid boiling Sec. 8.2 Moist Heat Methods Combination Cooking Methods Combine dry and moist cooking methods

Food first seared in hot oil; then cooked in flavorful liquid or sauce Braising: food left in whole or large pieces, partially covered with liquid Stewing: small pieces cooked covered with liquid Sec. 8.2 Moist Heat Methods Determining Doneness Proper Doneness Blanching: food added directly to boiling water, removed, and put in ice water Parcooked: partially cooked food using

liquid or steam Parboiled: partially boiled food Fully cooked: food cooked all the way through Test for Doneness Appearance Fork tender Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 9 Breakfast Foods Sec. 9.1 Eggs & Dairy

Sec. 9.2 Breakfast Foods & Drinks Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 9.1 Eggs & Dairy Selecting and Storing Eggs Egg Anatomy Shell: hard, porous outer casing allows air in,

moisture out White, or albumen: contains protein and water Yolk: yellow center contains protein, fat, and lecithin, an emulsifier Egg Inspecting and Grading United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Grades Grade AA Grade A Grade B Sec. 9.1 Eggs & Dairy

Selecting and Storing Eggs (continued) Egg Sizes Part of USDA inspection White is two-thirds of weight, yolk one-third Peewee Large Small Extra Large Medium Jumbo Buying and Storing Eggs Shell eggs are fresh Bulk eggs are out of shell Dried Eggs are powdered Egg substitutes made from whites or soy

Sec. 9.1 Eggs & Dairy Cooking Eggs Eggs Cooked in Their Shells Length of cooking time in water determines type Cover with inch of water to cook Coddled Soft-Cooked Medium-Cooked Hard-Cooked Sec.

9.1 Eggs & Dairy Cooking Eggs (continued) Poached Eggs Remove from shell and cook in hot water (165F) Use fresh Grade AA eggs Fried Eggs Remove from shell and cook quickly in hot oil or butter Sunny-side up egg Over egg Levels of Doneness Easy, medium, hard

Sec. 9.1 Eggs & Dairy Cooking Eggs (continued) Scrambled Eggs Mix whites and yolks, stir when cooking Fluffy and moist Omelets Rolled omelet French omelet American omelet Flat omelet Frittata

Sec. 9.1 Eggs & Dairy Cooking Eggs (continued) Shirred Eggs Eggs made by cracking egg in cup and baking Quiches Baked custard made of milk and eggs Souffls Baked light, fluffy egg dish Sec. 9.1

Eggs & Dairy Egg Safety Maintaining Quality and Safety 1. Wash hands before and after handling eggs 2. Wash, rinse, and sanitize equipment and work surfaces after contact with eggs 3. Do not use eggs that are broken, cracked, feel slimy, have powdery spots 4. Avoid dropping broken egg shell into egg 5. Dont keep out of refrigerator longer than two hours Sec. 9.1

Eggs & Dairy Egg Safety (continued) 6. Defrost eggs and egg products safely 7. Cook egg dishes to 160F. 8. Use eggs and egg products within safe time spans 9. Do not eat any egg product not fully cooked Sec. 9.1 Eggs & Dairy Identifying and Storing Dairy Products

Milk Used as beverage or ingredient Mostly water, some protein, sugar, fat Types Whole Dry (powdered) Low-Fat Evaporated Skim (nonfat) Condensed

Pasteurized to kill bacteria Homogenized to break up butterfat Sec. 9.1 Eggs & Dairy Identifying and Storing Dairy Products (continued) Cream and Cultured Dairy Products Cream: higher milkfat content than milk Cultured dairy products: bacterial added for taste and thickening Crme frache: fresh cream that will not

curdle in hot soups and sauces Sec. 9.1 Eggs & Dairy Identifying and Storing Dairy Products (continued) Butter Cream churned until fat clumps and water squeezed out Preserved with salt Clarified butter: remove the milk solids and water

Margarine: butter substitute made from vegetable oils Sec. 9.1 Eggs & Dairy Identifying and Storing Dairy Products (continued) Storing Dairy Products Highly perishable Dated containers Store away from products with strong odors Check expiration dates before using

Sec. 9.2 Breakfast Foods & Drinks Pancakes, Waffles, and French Toast Dough and Bread Products Pancakes and Waffles: Same batter ingredients in different proportions create both Batter: very wet form of dough French toast: Bread dipped in milk and egg mixture Crpes: French pancake from extremely thin batter

Sec. 9.2 Breakfast Foods & Drinks Breakfast Breads and Cereals Readymade Breakfast Breads Toasted bread Donuts English muffins Bagels Croissants Muffins

Loaf breads Biscuits Pastries Scones Sec. 9.2 Breakfast Foods & Drinks Breakfast Meats and Potatoes Breakfast Meats Bacon, Canadian bacon Sausages

Ham Chicken-fried steak Breakfast Potatoes Hash Hash browns Home fries Sec. 9.2 Breakfast Foods & Drinks Breakfast Beverages Provide caffeine or nutrients Coffee: brewed from roasted, ground beans, caffinated

Tea: brewed from leaves of tea plant less caffeine and acidity than coffee Juice: fresh, frozen, or canned provide vitamins and minerals Smoothie: cold drink made by mixing fresh fruit, ice, and juice Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 10 Garde Manger Sec. 10.1 Dressings & Dips Sec.

10.2 Salads Sec. 10.3 Cheese Sec. 10.4 Cold Food Presentation Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar.

Sec. 10.1 Dressings & Dips Garde Manger Garde Manger: pantry chef responsible for cold food preparations Foods include: Salad dressings and dips Salads Cheeses

Cold food presentations and garnishes Kitchen workflow determines responsibilities Sec. 10.1 Dressings & Dips Salad Dressings and Dips Salad dressing: used to flavor salad or hold it together Dip: sauce or condiment served with appetizers or snack foods Sec. 10.1

Dressings & Dips Salad Dressings and Dips (continued) Five Categories Vinaigrettes Mayonnaise Dairy-based dressings and dips Cooked dressings and dips Vegetable- or fruit-based dressings and dips Sec. 10.1 Dressings & Dips Salad Dressings and Dips (continued)

Vinaigrette: salad dressing that combines oil and vinegar into an emulsion Basic vinaigrette: temporary emulsion Emulsified vinaigrette: ingredients will not separate Sec. 10.1 Dressings & Dips Salad Dressings and Dips (continued) Emulsifier: added substance that binds vinegar and oil (egg yolk, mustard, potato starch, arrowroot, cornstarch) Preparation

3 parts oil to 1 part vinegar proportion Olive oil, other oils, flavored vinegars, acids, mustard, herbs, salt and pepper, and sugar are also used Sec. 10.1 Dressings & Dips Salad Dressings and Dips (continued) Mayonnaise: thick creamy emulsion of oil and egg yolks Commercial mayonnaise Long shelf life Freshly made mayonnaise

Rich flavor, looser consistency Use care when combining egg yolk with oil Use care in storage to prevent contamination Sec. 10.1 Dressings & Dips Salad Dressings and Dips (continued) Dairy-Based Dressings and Dips Soft cheeses for thicker consistency Cultured milks produce thinner consistency Flavor with fruits, herbs, nuts, vegetables

Sec. 10.1 Dressings & Dips Salad Dressings and Dips (continued) Cooked Dressing and Dips Limited oil dressing Warmed Asian dipping sauce Wilted salad dressing Sec. 10.1 Dressings & Dips

Salad Dressings and Dips (continued) Vegetable- or Fruit-Based Dressings and Dips Salsa Guacamole Tapenade Baba Ghanoush Sec. 10.2 Salads Purpose of Salads Salad: combination of raw or cooked ingredients, warm or cold, with salad dressing Five Purposes

Appetizer salad Side salad Main-course salad Separate-course salad Dessert salad Sec. 10.2 Salads Green Salads Green salad: one or many greens, usually tossed and combined with dressing Basic Types of Salad Greens Mild Greens

Spicy greens Bitter greens Type of greens used depends on purpose of salad Sec. 10.2 Salads Green Salads (continued) Use greens within two to three days Match dressing to salad by judgment Use gloved hands to mix salad Add garnishes last Sec.

10.2 Salads Other Salad Ingredients Ingredients Other than Greens Consider relationship of salad to main dish Different types of salads for varied tastes Types of Ingredients Vegetables Starches Proteins Fruits and nuts Sec. 10.2

Salads Composed Salads Composed Salad: combination of ingredients arranged carefully and artfully on plate or in bowl Four parts Main ingredients Supporting ingredients Garnish Dressing Sec. 10.2 Salads

Composed Salads (continued) Preparation focus is on balance and contrasts Textures Flavors Colors Height Examples of Composed Salads Chefs salad Cobb salad Caesar salad with grilled chicken Nioise salad Sec. 10.3

Cheese Types of Cheese Fresh cheeses: moist, soft cheese that is not ripened or significantly aged; highly perishable Soft, rind-ripened cheeses: ripened by friendly mold Semi-soft cheeses: retain shape; mild or strongly flavored Rind-ripened, dry rind, waxed-rind Sec. 10.3 Cheese Types of Cheese (continued)

Blue-veined cheeses: needles create holes in cheese in which friendly mold spores multiply Hard cheeses: dry texture and firm consistency; grate and slice easily Grating cheeses: solid and dry with grainy consistency Processed cheeses: made from one or more cheeses combined with nondairy ingredient Sec. 10.3 Cheese Buying Cheese Examine the label Examine the rind

Examine the interior Taste Sec. 10.3 Cheese Handling Cheese Cut and grate only what is needed Trim moldy areas Use clean food-service gloves Clean and sanitize work surfaces Clean and sanitize equipment Sec.

10.3 Cheese Storing Cheese Proper storage ensures freshness Wrap in waxed paper or butcher paper Do not reuse wrappings Sec. 10.3 Cheese Serving Cheese Use fresh cheese on day purchased

Serve at room temperature Serve as separate course Appetizer course Following a meal Ways to serve Individual cheese Multiple cheeses or flight of cheeses Cheese cart Sec. 10.3 Cheese Cooking with Cheese Heat can alter cheeses flavor, so use low heat

Uses of cheese in cooking In a dish In a sauce As a topping or garnish Sec. 10.4 Cold Food Presentation Types of Cold Food Presentations Cold food presentation: collection of cold foods presented in an artful manner Platter: single large platter such as an antipasto platter Tray: food assembled on a tray and passed by

waiters or diners Sec. 10.4 Cold Food Presentation Types of Cold Food Presentations (continued) Raw Bar: bar or counter serving raw shellfish whole or on the half shell Use only cultivated shellfish, depurated oysters, clams, and mussels Use only fresh shellfish Caviar Presentations: salted fish eggs, usually from a

sturgeon Beluga caviar Osetra caviar Sevruga caviar Sec. 10.4 Cold Food Presentation Types of Cold Food Presentations (continued) Guidelines for Handling Caviar Use nonmetal utensils Chill to 32F

Open jar only when serving; consume within two to three days Serve in original container or nonmetal bowl Handle carefully Serve on lightly buttered toast or blinis with sour cream Sec. 10.4 Cold Food Presentation Types of Cold Food Presentations (continued) Smoked Fish Presentations: Salmon and other fishes

commonly served on ice Natural oils keep fish tender Served on toast, black or whole grain bread Sec. 10.4 Cold Food Presentation Elements in Cold Food Presentation Design Elements for Food Arrangements Balance Color Texture Cooking technique Shape and height

Focal point Strong, clean lines Sec. 10.4 Cold Food Presentation Elements in Cold Food Presentation (continued) Buffet Table Design Table layout considerations Food should be within reach of guests Plentiful serving and table utensils Allow for equipment to keep foods cold

Larger or high items should be placed behind smaller items Sec. 10.4 Cold Food Presentation Elements in Cold Food Presentation (continued) Serving Main Items Slicing and sequencing Grosse pice: large, unsliced portion Serving Tools Use dining room tools

Function as part of presentation Sec. 10.4 Cold Food Presentation Centerpieces Reflect and reinforce buffets theme or concept Stabilize tall and large centerpieces Consider dangerous nonedible components Ice carvings Specialized skill to create Consider drainage of melted water Sec.

10.4 Cold Food Presentation Garnishes Used to add flavor and visual appeal Guidelines for using garnishes Determine function Enhance flavor Create color and visual appeal Add textural appeal Gauge appropriate size or scale Design special effects Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations

Chapter 11 Sandwiches, Appetizers, & Hors dOeuvres Sec. 11.1 Sandwiches Sec. 11.2 Appetizers & Hors dOeuvres Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar.

Sec. 11.1 Sandwiches Basic Sandwich Elements Sandwiches combine four elements: Bread Spread Filling Garnish Sec. 11.1 Sandwiches

Basic Sandwich Elements (continued) Breads Pullman loaf: long rectangular loaf Kaiser roll: hard, crusty roll Focaccia: large flat, Italian bread Pita bread: flat round or oval used for pocket sandwiches Tortilla: round, flat unleavened bread Bagel: used for breakfast sandwiches Croissant: flakey, buttery roll Hot dog or hamburger rolls Sec. 11.1

Sandwiches Basic Sandwich Elements (continued) Spreads Butter Mayonnaise Vegetable-based Pures Sec. 11.1 Sandwiches Basic Sandwich Elements (continued) Fillings Meat and poultry

Seafood and fish Vegetable Cheese Eggs Sec. 11.1 Sandwiches Basic Sandwich Elements (continued) Garnishes Typically decorative Should complement flavor Large garnishes should complement, but be eaten separately

Sec. 11.1 Sandwiches Sandwich Mise en Place Organizing Mise en Place Gathering Tools Cutting board Tongs and spatulas Sharp knives Serving spoons or scoops Palette knife or butter knife Toaster

Sec. 11.1 Sandwiches Sandwich Mise en Place (continued) Selecting and Preparing Ingredients Slice bread and rolls in advance Have spreads and fillings ready Prepare and portion fillings Wash and dry salad greens Prepare garnishes Sec. 11.1

Sandwiches Sandwich Mise en Place (continued) Organizing the Job and Work Space List the steps in the recipe in order Use PRN: Preview, Review, Note Keep everything needed within easy reach Have everything move in one direction Prepare multiple sandwiches at once Sec. 11.1 Sandwiches Cold Sandwiches

Closed sandwich Two pieces of bread Open-faced sandwich One slice of bread, contents on top Finger sandwich Small, simple tea sandwich Sec. 11.1 Sandwiches Cold Sandwiches (continued) Hero sandwich Long, thin sandwich Club sandwich

Double-decker closed sandwich Wrapped pita pocket Rolled up in edible wrap Sec. 11.1 Sandwiches Hot Sandwiches Sandwich with hot filling Filling is cooked and added Grilled sandwich Entire sandwich is grilled Pressed sandwich Toasted on heavy, two-sided press

Hot open-faced sandwich Served on toasted bread with gravy or sauce Sec. 11.2 Appetizers & Hors dOeuvres Definitions Hors doeuvre: small savory dish consumed in one or two bites Finger food Appetizer: a hors doeuvre served as the first course of a meal Purpose is to stimulate appetite

Sec. 11.2 Appetizers & Hors dOeuvres Types of Hot Appetizers and Hors dOeuvres Baked, sauted, or grilled seafood Brochettes: small version of foods cooked on skewers Fried foods Pastry and tart shells Meatballs Pasta Grilled, steamed, baked, or roasted vegetables Dumplings, egg rolls, and spring rolls Chicken wings

Crab cakes Sec. 11.2 Appetizers & Hors dOeuvres Types of Cold Appetizers and Hors dOeuvres Open-faced sandwiches Cold cooked seafood Smoked fish, meat, or poultry Raw or cured meats Pickled vegetables Cold grilled or roasted vegetables Salads

Cheese Raw vegetables Pts and terrines Sec. 11.2 Appetizers & Hors dOeuvres Presenting Appetizers Presentation Guidelines Use small portions Use the correct balance of seasonings Make a good first impression Consider a chefs tasting (sampler plate)

Sec. 11.2 Appetizers & Hors dOeuvres Presenting Hors dOeuvres Presentation Guidelines Use fresh ingredients Make hors doeuvres bite-sized Complement other foods Dont mix hot and cold items Consider an hors doeuvres varies (variety plate for one) Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 12 Fruit & Vegetables

Sec. 12.1 Fruit Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 12.1

Fruit Introduction to Fruit Encloses and protects seeds or stones of plant Can be eaten raw Use to make sweets or desserts Use in savory dishes Sec. 12.1 Fruit Types of Fruit Apples: varieties cooked, baked, or eaten raw

Berries: firm, serve fresh or cooked Citrus Fruit: essential oils in skin, pith underneath Four types of oranges: loose-skinned, sweet, juicing, bitter Grapes: juicy berries that grow in clusters Pears: sweet, creamy flesh, multiple seeds Sec. 12.1 Fruit Types of Fruit (continued) Stone Fruit: contain hard pit that covers seed; cherries, plums, peaches, apricots Melons: grow on small shrubs or vines; should be

firm, heavy Rhubarb: not technically a fruit; red, celery-like stalks Tropical and Exotic Fruit: found in specialty stores; mangos, star fruit, papayas, passion fruits, quince Sec. 12.1 Fruit Selecting and Storing Fruit Market Forms of Fruit: quality relates to growing season Individual or bunches of whole fresh fruit Processed fresh fruit

Dried fruit Frozen fruit Individually quick frozen (IQF) Canned fruit Sec. 12.1 Fruit Selecting and Storing Fruit (continued) The Ripening Process Maturation: fruit left on the vine, tree, or bush to reach full size Ripening: developed brightest color, deepest flavor, sweetness, aroma

Ethylene: gas given off by fruit as it ripens Sec. 12.1 Fruit Selecting and Storing Fruit (continued) Grading Fruit: graded by the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) U.S. Fancy: premium quality U.S. No. 1: good quality U.S. No. 2: medium quality U.S. No. 3: standard quality Frozen Fruit U.S. Grade A: equal to U.S. Fancy

U.S. Grade B: above-average quality U.S. Grade C: medium quality Sec. 12.1 Fruit Selecting and Storing Fruit (continued) Storing Fruit Refrigerator storage slows ripening process Keep produce dry Apples and pears give off large amounts of ethylene Store fruit varieties separately Store canned and dried fruit in dry storage

Sec. 12.1 Fruit Preparing Fruit Cleaning: skin of fruit can carry pathogens Wear gloves Use cold water and gentle touch Heavy rind fruit: use brush to scrub Delicate fruit: rinse at last moment to avoid water logging Sec. 12.1

Fruit Preparing Fruit (continued) Peeling, Seeding, Trimming Remove skins Remove cores Remove seeds and stones Remove stems Zesting Cutting Fruit for Service Use sharp knife Cut into rounds, wedges, slices, chunks, cubes Sec. 12.1

Fruit Preparing Fruit (continued) Juicing and Pureing Use fresh fruit Tools: reamer, juice extractor, blender or food processor Preparing Dried Fruit Serve as is or soften Soften by allowing to soak in warm liquid until soft Sec. 12.1

Fruit Cooking Fruit Prepare by dry and moist heat methods Grilling and broiling Sauting Frying Baking Poaching Stewing Pureing cooked fruit Sec. 12.1 Fruit

Serving Fruit Serving Suggestions Fruit plates and salads Garnish on entres and desserts Paired with meats, fish, or poultry Stuffing and sauces Dessert fondue Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Introduction to Vegetables Edible parts of plant: roots, stems, leaves, flowers,

seeds Some vegetables are technically fruit Some eaten raw; others must be cooked Available in many varieties Focus of healthy eating Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Types of Vegetables Avocados: a fruit, contains fat, cut right before using Cabbages: uniform color, intact stems, fresh leaves; broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts

Gourds: all parts eaten; summer and winter squash Leafy Greens: sauted, steamed, or braised; salad greens and green vegetables Mushrooms: firm, without soft spots; cultivated and wild varieties Onions: green onions and dry onions Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Types of Vegetables (continued) Peppers: sweet (or bell) peppers; chiles vary in heat intensity due to capsaicin Pods and seeds: edible and inedible pods; peas,

beans, bean sprouts, corn, okra Root vegetables: grow underground; rich in sugars, starch, vitamins, minerals; beets, carrots, radishes, turnips Shoots and stalks: select fresh, firm varieties; artichokes, asparagus, celery Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Types of Vegetables (continued) Tomatoes: a fruit, juicy flesh, edible seeds, smooth skin; beefsteak, cherry, pear, plum, tomatillo, heirloom varieties

Tubers: fleshy portion that grows underground; potatoes High-starch/low-moisture potatoes Low-starch/high-moisture potatoes Yams and sweet potatoes Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Selecting Vegetables Market Forms: Select those that are fresh, firm, with good color Fresh vegetables sold by weight and count in boxes, bags, or crates

Canned vegetables packed in salted water Dried vegetables Graded for quality by USDAs Agricultural Marketing Service Based on appearance, color, shape, size Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Storing Vegetables Proper storage extends life, maintains quality Wrap and refrigerate all except potatoes, tomatoes, avocados, dry onions, winter squash Remove leafy tops from root vegetables, keep

roots dry Store unripened avocados and whole tomatoes at room temperature Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Storing Vegetables (continued) Store tubers in dry storage Discard any potatoes with green spots and sprouts (they can be poisonous) Store onions, garlic, shallots in separate bags, boxes, baskets Store winter squash in a cool, dark place for

several weeks Trimmed, peeled, or cut vegetables should be treated as perishable food Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Preparing Vegetables Cleaning: outer skin or covering of vegetables can carry dirt and pathogens Wear gloves Use cold water and gentle touch Scrub all but leafy greens with sponge Wash as close as possible to preparation

Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Preparing Vegetables (continued) Trimming Remove peels Remove woody stems Onions and garlic should be cut right before use Tomatoes are peeled, seeded, then diced (tomato concass) Sec.

12.2 Vegetables Cooking Vegetables Levels of Doneness Blanched Cooked 30 seconds to 1 minute Parcooked/parboiled Cooked to partial doneness to be finished by grilling, sauting, or stewing Tender-crisp Cooked until offering slight resistance when bitten Fully cooked Tender, retaining shape and color

Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Cooking Vegetables (continued) Boiling and Steaming Retains vivid colors, identifiable flavors Preserve flavor, texture, nutritional value by serving promptly Refreshing or shocking: partially prepare ahead Steaming: use steamer insert, tiered steamer, convection or pressure steamer Level of liquid depends on equipment and cooking time

Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Cooking Vegetables (continued) Pureing Used to flavor or color a dish, thicken a sauce, basis of sauce or soup Glazing Finishing technique involving boiling, steaming, sauting Vegetables cooked in liquid until tender, add butter and sugar to form glaze Can also cook all ingredients together in oven

Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Cooking Vegetables (continued) Braising and Stewing May include one vegetable or combinations Cook in own juices until fork tender Vegetables are cut in small pieces Roasting and Baking Cooked in dry environment Scrub and pierce vegetables Season cut or peeled vegetables Marinades

Stuffing mixtures Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Cooking Vegetables (continued) Grilling and Broiling Distinctive charred flavor, deeply browned exteriors High-moisture or tender vegetables can be grilled in raw state Dense or starchy vegetables must be precooked Marinades

Sec. 12.2 Vegetables Cooking Vegetables (continued) Frying and Sauting Preliminary cooking techniques for highmoisture vegetables Finishing and reheating techniques for parcooked vegetables Cooking fat complements the vegetables flavor Pan-fried vegetables may be breaded or coated with flour or batter Sec.

12.2 Vegetables Cooking Vegetables (continued) Potato Pures Use high-starch/low moisture potatoes Dry potatoes before pureing them Have all ingredients hot before pureing them Use a potato masher, wooded spoon, sieve, ricer, or food mill Sec. 12.2 Vegetables

Serving Vegetables Varied preparation techniques allow for differences in color, texture, flavor, nutritive value Serve as appetizers, side dishes, main courses, accompaniment to meat or fish Basis of sauces and soups Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 13 Grains, Legumes, & Pasta Sec. 13.1 Rice & Other Grains

Sec. 13.2 Beans & Other Legumes Sec. 13.3 Pasta Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 13.1

Rice & Other Grains Grains Grains: the seeds of grasses Grains as food group: farinaceous Parts of a Grain Husk or hull Bran Endosperm Germ Sec. 13.1 Rice & Other Grains

Grains (continued) Processed Grains Milled grain: cut, crushed, rolled, or ground Whole grain: hull or husk removed Refined grain: highly processed Pearl grain: bran removed Cracked grain: cut or crushed kernels Meal: grain milled into fine particles Sec. 13.1 Rice & Other Grains Selecting Grains

Major Types of Grain Rice Wheat Corn Sec. 13.1 Rice & Other Grains Rice Long Grain Longer than it is wide, fluffy and dry when cooked Medium Grain Shorter than long grain, moister when cooked

Short Grain Nearly round, sticky when cooked Wild Rice Longer than it is wide, toasty flavor Sec. 13.1 Rice & Other Grains Rice (continued) Brown Rice Has some or all of its bran Nutty flavor Takes longer to cook White Rice

Has all of its bran removed Converted Rice Parcooked before milling Sec. 13.1 Rice & Other Grains Wheat Wheat Berries Whole kernel of wheat; not hulled, polished, or steamed Cracked Wheat Crushed wheat berries Bulgur Wheat

Steamed whole wheat berries crushed into small pieces Wheat Bran The bran surrounding the wheat kernel Sec. 13.1 Rice & Other Grains Corn Hominy Whole dried corn kernel with hull and germ removed Posole Whole kernel with germ and bran intact, soaked

in alkaline solution Cornmeal Bulgur Wheat Finely ground corn Other names: grits, polenta Hominy grits: made from hominy Masa harina: made from posole Sec. 13.1 Rice & Other Grains Additional Grains Oats Used as hot cereal or in baking Barley

Looks like doubled grain of rice Pearl barley, Scotch barley Rye Rye berries, rye flakes Quinoa Round kernel, fluffy and light when cooked High-protein Sec. 13.1 Rice & Other Grains Storing Grains Keep cool and dry Keep in containers with tight lids if removed from

their packaging Refrigerate or freeze if grain is not processed Sec. 13.1 Rice & Other Grains Preparing Grains Boiling or Steaming Grains Preparing Cereals and Meals (mush or porridge) Preparing Pilaf Grain is sauted first Preparing Risotto Grain is sauted Liquid is added gradually while stirring

Sec. 13.1 Rice & Other Grains Presenting Grains Hot Grain Dishes Serve quickly after cooking Serve on heated plates Cold Grain Salads Add dressing or sauce Serve on chilled plates Sec. 13.2

Beans & Other Legumes Legumes Legume: a plant with a pod that contains seeds Beans: longer than round Navy beans, kidney beans Peas: round Green peas, chickpeas Lentils: round disks Sec. 13.2 Beans & Other Legumes

Selecting and Storing Legumes Selecting Legumes Dried: packaging with no rips Canned: free of dents or bulges Storing Legumes Store for one month only Keep cool and dry If damp, mold can form: aflatoxin Sec. 13.2 Beans & Other Legumes Preparing Legumes Sorting & Rinsing Dry Legumes

Sort to get rid of stones and shriveled legumes Cover with water to loosen dirt Drain in a colander Rinse Sec. 13.2 Beans & Other Legumes Preparing Legumes (continued) Soaking Dry Legumes Soak before cooking to soften skin (except for lentils and split peas) Quick-soak method Cover with water, boil, remove from heat,

cover, soak 1 hour Long-soak method Cover with water, refrigerate (4 hours for most beans) Using canned legumes Drain and rinse Sec. 13.2 Beans & Other Legumes Presenting Legumes Legume Dishes Hummus: pureed, seasoned chickpeas Refried beans: mashed and cooked in oil or lard

Bean soups Adding Cooked Legumes to Other Dishes Legume and grain combinations Beans and rice good source of protein, fiber, vitamins Sec. 13.2 Beans & Other Legumes Presenting Legumes (continued) Legume Salads Cook until tender; then cool Add herbs and vegetables Add dressing or sauce just before serving

Serve cold as side dish or appetizer Sec. 13.3 Pasta Types of Pasta Pasta: Italian for dough. Also called macaroni or noodles. Fresh Pasta Dough made from flour + water or eggs Sample shapes Sheets and ribbons: fettuccini, tagliatelli, lo mein noodles Squares, rounds, and rectangles: wrappers

used for stuffed pasta Store in refrigerator or freezer Sec. 13.3 Pasta Types of Pasta (continued) Dried Pasta Dough made from flour + water or eggs Dough can be extruded (pushed through pasta machine opening) to make wide variety of shapes Dough dried until hard and brittle Store in original packaging or airtight moistureproof containers

Sec. 13.3 Pasta Types of Pasta (continued) Sample Pasta Ingredients Semolina flour: Italian-style pasta Rice flour: rice vermicelli or Asian wrappers Buckwheat flour: Japanese soba noodles Eggs and wheat: egg noodles Other flours from chickpeas, quinoa, millet Sec. 13.3

Pasta Types of Pasta (continued) Dried Pasta Shapes Elbow macaroni Spaghetti Shells Fettuccini Penne Capellini

Manicotti Lasagna Rigatoni Orzo Fusilli Farfalle Sec. 13.3

Pasta Preparing Pasta Fresh Pasta Dough Make dough, let it rest, then roll out with pasta machine or rolling pin Boiling Pasta Fresh pasta: cooks quickly Dried pasta: takes longer Cook semolina pasta until al dente (not too soft or too hard) Sec. 13.3 Pasta

Presenting Pasta Adding Sauce to Pasta Pair pasta shape with appropriate sauce Long, thin pasta: smooth sauce Tube-shaped pasta: chunky sauce Pasta with wrinkles or ridges: chunky sauce Drain well before adding sauce Methods for combining pasta and sauce Add pasta to sauce in a saut pan Ladle sauce over drained pasta Sec. 13.3

Pasta Presenting Pasta (continued) Baked Pasta Dishes Combine pasta with sauce and other ingredients Examples: macaroni and cheese, lasagna Filled Pasta Dishes Fill dried pasta after cooking pasta Fill fresh pasta before cooking Examples: ravioli, tortellini, wontons Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 14 Stocks, Sauces, & Soups

Sec. 14.1 Stocks Sec. 14.2 Sauces Sec. 14.3 Soups

Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 14.1 Stocks Basic Ingredients for Stocks Stock: flavorful liquid used to prepare soups, sauces, stews, and braises Basic Ingredients Bones, Shells, or Vegetables Beef and veal bones Poultry bones Fish bones

Shellfish shells Vegetables Sec. 14.1 Stocks Basic Ingredients for Stocks (continued) Mirepoix Spices and Herbs Liquid Sec. 14.1

Stocks Types of Stock Brown stock: made from roasted bones White stock: made from unroasted bones Fish fumet: made from fish bones cooked in oil Shellfish stock: made from lobster, shrimp, crayfish shells Vegetable stock Sec. 14.1 Stocks Preparing Stock

Three Preparation Keys to Success 1. Keep the stock at a gentle simmer 2. Skim any foam or froth 3. Simmer long enough for a full flavor Preparing Bones Browning bones: roast in oven Blanching bones: simmer in water Sweating bones: saut in oil with lid on pot Sec. 14.1 Stocks Preparing Stock (continued)

Preparing Mirepoix Standard mirepoix for brown stocks White mirepoix for white stocks Preparing a Sachet dEpices or a Bouquet Garni Wrap ingredients in cheesecloth and tie with string Choosing Equipment Stockpot, steam-jacketed kettle, strainer Sec. 14.1 Stocks

Preparing Stock (continued) Preparing Fish Fumet Sweat bones and mirepoix Preparing Shellfish Stock Saut shells and mirepoix Preparing Vegetable Stock Sweat or roast vegetables Using Prepared Stock Bases Powder or cube form Sec. 14.1

Stocks Storing Stocks Storing Stocks If not for immediate use, cool and store quickly Use ice bath or chill wand Transfer to storage container Label and refrigerate or freeze Sec. 14.1 Stocks

Using Stocks Choosing the Right Stock Color Flavor Texture Reducing Stocks Double-strength stock Glaze Sec. 14.2 Sauces Basic Ingredients for Sauces

Liquids Stock Milk, cream, egg yolks, or butter High-moisture vegetables Aromatics and Seasonings Thickeners Roux Starch slurry Liaison Pure Sec. 14.2 Sauces

Preparing Thickeners Roux Ingredients: fat and flour Types: white, blond, brown color Ways to add to sauce Add cooler liquid to hot roux Add cooler roux to hot liquid Sec. 14.2 Sauces Preparing Thickeners (continued) Starch Slurries

Ingredients: cornstarch or arrowroot Liaison Ingredients: blended cream and egg yolks Tempering: technique to avoid overcooking Sec. 14.2 Sauces Types of Sauces The Grand Sauces Brown sauce Espagnol sauce Demi-glace

Jus de veau li Liaison Velout sauce Tomato sauce Hollandaise sauce Sec. 14.2 Sauces Types of Sauces (continued) Derivative Sauces Examples Suprme Sauce (Velout derivative)

Mornay Sauce (Bchamel derivative) Brnaise Sauce (Hollandaise derivative) Sec. 14.2 Sauces Types of Sauces (continued) Miscellaneous Sauces Compound butter Coulis Gravy Salsa Relish or chutney Specialty sauces (barbecue, cocktail)

Sec. 14.2 Sauces Preparing and Storing Basic Sauces Equipment Used in Preparing Sauces Correct saucepan Whisk Sieve or cheesecloth Food mill, blender, food processor Storing Sauces Use holding container for serving Cool before storing

Sec. 14.2 Sauces Presenting Sauces Serve at the right temperature Reheat properly Hold properly Season properly Sec. 14.3

Soups Basic Types of Soups Clear Soups Broth Bouillon Consomm Hearty Soups Cream soup Pure soup Bisque Sec. 14.3

Soups Preparing Soups Choosing Equipment for Soups Soup pot Wooden or metal spoons Sieves, colanders, cheesecloth Food mill, blender, food processor Making a Broth Use flavorful ingredients Simmer and skim Produce a clear liquid Sec. 14.3

Soups Preparing Soups (continued) Making a Consomm Clarification ingredients Raft Making a Hearty Soup Saut aromatics first Add remaining ingredients in order of required cooking time Sec. 14.3

Soups Reheating and Serving Soups Reheating Soups Use direct heat Use heavy-gauge pot For thick soups: pour thin layer of water or broth in pot before adding soup Serving Soups Hold at correct temperature Keep covered Sec. 14.3

Soups Garnishing Soups Garnishes Should: Be held at appropriate temperature Be small enough to fit in a spoon Be added right before serving Provide texture contrast Clear Soup Garnishes Avoid clouding the broth Hearty Soup Garnishes Croutons Small pieces of main ingredient

Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 15 Fish & Shellfish Sec. 15.1 Fish Sec. 15.2 Shellfish Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar.

Sec. 15.1 Fish Types of Fish Varieties of Fish Saltwater fish: live in oceans, seas, bays, gulfs Freshwater fish: live in freshwater ponds, lakes, rivers, streams Anadromous fish: live part of life in saltwater, part in freshwater Farm-raised fish: raised in ponds or penned waters; consistent quality Wild fish: caught in nets or on lines; inconsistent

quality Sec. 15.1 Fish Types of Fish (continued) Fat Content: provides species distinctive flavor Low fat typically Higher fat creates stronger flavor Lean fish: light flesh, mild flavor Moderately fatty fish: deeply flavored flesh, firm texture Fatty fish: saltwater, deep flavor

Sec. 15.1 Fish Types of Fish (continued) Body Type Round fish: swim upright, eyes on both sides of head, light skin on belly Flat fish: swim close to bottom, eyes on same side of head, wider than thick Non-boney and other fish: have cartilage (a flexible material) instead of bones Sec. 15.1

Fish Selecting and Storing Fish Inspection and Grading Fish and shellfish inspected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Evaluation and Grading Type 1: check for quality and wholesomeness Type 2: check accuracy of labeling and weight Type 3: evaluation of sanitation Sec. 15.1

Fish Selecting and Storing Fish (continued) Market Forms Whole fish Cross cuts or steaks Fillets Frozen fish Canned fish Salted, cured, and smoked fish Sec. 15.1 Fish

Selecting and Storing Fish (continued) Selecting Fish Smell the fish for clean smell Check the temperature Check the fishs appearance Press fish to check firmness Open the gills and belly Sec. 15.1 Fish Selecting and Storing Fish (continued) Storing Fish

Whole fish 1. Layer ice in bottom of perforated pan 2. Pack ice in belly; fish belly down in ice 3. Mold ice around fish 4. Place perforated pan in another pan 5. Re-ice fish daily Sec. 15.1 Fish Selecting and Storing Fish (continued) Storing Fish, continued Fish fillets 1. Place in storage container

2. Set container in ice-filled pan 3. Keep fish away from ice contact Frozen fish 1. Avoid fish with white edges 2. Store at -20F to 0F until needed Sec. 15.1 Fish Preparing Fish Fillets Round fish can be cut into two fillets Flat fish can be cut into two or four fillets Trim by removing belly and pin bones

Paupiettes: thin, rolled fillets Cuts tranche goujonette Sec. 15.1 Fish Matching Cooking Methods to Fish Types Guideline: the leaner the fish, the more delicate the cooking method Determining doneness Internal temperature 145F

Firm, opaque flesh Sauting Lower temperature for delicate fish Dust with flour Sec. 15.1 Fish Matching Cooking Methods to Fish Types (continued) Pan Frying and Deep Frying Pan fry fish coated in bread crumbs or cornmeal; oil to cover a third of fish Submerge fish in hot oil to deep fry

Grilling and Broiling Seasonings and marinades used for grilling Sauces used for broiling Sec. 15.1 Fish Matching Cooking Methods to Fish Types (continued) Baking and Roasting Oven preparation Often has crust or topping for moisture retention Steaming Avoid overcooking

En papillote: fish, vegetables, aromatics wrapped in parchment paper and baked Sec. 15.1 Fish Matching Cooking Methods to Fish Types (continued) Poaching Deep poaching: liquid to cover fish Shallow poaching: enough liquid to create steam Sec. 15.2

Shellfish Types of Shellfish Varieties of Shellfish Mollusks: soft body, no skeleton, some with shells or cartilage Crustaceans: jointed exterior shells Forms of Shellfish Fresh shellfish: live, shucked, tails, cocktail claws, legs, claws Frozen shellfish: shucked, tails, cocktail claws, legs, claws Sec. 15.2

Shellfish Receiving and Storing Shellfish Guidelines Use reputable suppliers Keep full purchase records Purchase only depurated mollusks with sweet, sea-like aroma Avoid closed shells that do not open and any that are cracked, discard Sec. 15.2 Shellfish

Receiving and Storing Shellfish (continued) Store mollusks between 35F and 40F Pack live lobsters, crabs, shrimp, crayfish in damp paper or seaweed Shrimp sold by count, the number per pound Sec. 15.2 Shellfish Preparing Shellfish Thaw frozen shellfish in refrigerator or cool water

(in original packaging) Lobster: best alive, then boil or steam; split before broiling or baking Shrimp: clean by removing shell and deveining Clams, oysters, mussels, scallops: shucked or whole, clean before use Sec. 15.2 Shellfish Matching Cooking Methods to Shellfish Raw freshly shucked clams and oysters on half shell Steaming and Boiling

Shrimp, lobsters, crab, crayfish eaten hot or cold Mussels, clams, oysters steamed or marinara style Frying Coat with batter or breadcrumbs Sec. 15.2 Shellfish Matching Cooking Methods to Shellfish (continued) Grilling and Broiling

Scallops, shrimp, lobsters Use skewers with scallops and shrimp when grilling Sauting or Stir Frying Shrimp or scallops Cook quickly at high temperature Baking and Roasting Lobster, squid, clams Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 16 Meat & Poultry Sec. 16.1

Meat Sec. 16.2 Poultry Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 16.1 Meat Inspection and Grading of Meat

Meat Inspection Government inspection required Inspection ensures Animals disease-free Farms operating according to appropriate standards Meat is wholesome Sec. 16.1 Meat Inspection and Grading of Meat (continued)

Quality Grading: voluntary, USDA standards Quality graders consider Overall shape of carcass Ratio of fat to lean meat Ratio of meat to bone Color of meat Amount of fat in lean flesh, or marbling Sec. 16.1 Meat Inspection and Grading of Meat (continued)

Butchering: done after slaughtering, inspection, grading Two methods Sides and quarters, including forequarters and hindquarters Saddles, including foresaddle and hindsaddle Primal cuts: cut quarter or saddle Subprimal cuts: broken down primal cuts Fabrication: restaurant breakdown of subprimal cuts Sec. 16.1 Meat

Types and Cuts of Meat Flavor, color, texture influenced by exercise level, animals age, type of feed, breed Beef: meat from male and female cows Aged: darker color, tender texture, full flavor Wet aging Dry aging Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Eight USDA Grades of Beef

Prime Choice Select Standard Commercial Utility Cutter Canner Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Eight Primal Beef Cuts

Forequarter chuck (shoulder) rib brisket and foreshank short plate Hindquarter loin sirloin flank round (leg) Sec. 16.1 Meat

Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Beef Cooking Methods Chuck: moist heat and combination cooking methods Rib: roasting, grilling, broiling, sauting Brisket and foreshank: braising, curing and smoking Short plate: braising and dry heat methods Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Beef Cooking Methods, continued

Loin (short loin): roasting, grilling Sirloin: roasting, grilling, broiling, sauting Flank: grilling, braising Round: braising, stewing Variety meat: various methods Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Veal: 2-3 month old calf, formula or milk fed Delicate pale pink flesh Six USDA grades of veal Prime

Choice Good Standard Utility Cull Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Six Primal Veal Cuts Cut into a foresaddle and hindsaddle Shoulder (chuck) Shank

Rib (rack) Breast Loin Leg Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Veal Cooking Methods Shoulder (chuck): moist heat or combination methods Rib (rack): roasted whole or broken down into chops

Shank: braised Breast: stuffed and rolled; then braised or slowly roasted Loin: roasting, grilling, broiling, sauting Leg: roasting Variety meat: various methods Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Pork: domesticated pigs, usually less than 12 months old USDA grades for pork

Acceptable grade Utility grade Various producer grades Must meet or exceed government standards Must be clearly defined Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Five Primal Pork Cuts Boston butt Shoulder Loin

Belly Ham (leg) Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Pork Cooking Methods Boston butt: bone in or out, roasting, sauting, stewing, curing, smoking Shoulder: stewing, braising, ground Loin: dry heat and quick cooking methods; roasting, grilling, broiling, sauting, pan frying Belly: curing, smoking, dry heat methods

Ham (leg): bone in or out, sauting, pan frying, roasting, baking, stewing, braising, curing, smoking Variety meat: various methods Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Lamb and Mutton: domesticated sheep Lamb: butchered at 6-7 months Mutton: butchered when 16 months or older USDA grades for lamb Prime

Choice Good Utility Cull Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Five Primal Lamb Cuts Shoulder Foreshank and breast Rib (rack) Loin

Leg Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Lamb Cooking Methods Shoulder: simmering, braising, stewing Foreshank: simmering, braising Breast: simmering, braising, broiling, grilling Rib (rack): roasting; chops are sauted, broiled, grilled Loin: sauting, grilling, broiling, roasting Leg: sauting, grilling, braising, roasting, stewing

Variety meat: various methods Sec. 16.1 Meat Types and Cuts of Meat (continued) Game: meat of wild animals and birds Venison: meat of member of deer family Hare: large wild rabbit, 6-12 pounds Game animals have dark red, lean meat Game Cooking Methods Loin and rib: Grilling or roasting Haunch, shank, shoulder: moist heat or

combination methods Sec. 16.1 Meat Receiving and Handling Meat Receiving Meat Meat temperature should be below 41F (5) Check for dryness or discoloration (indicates prior temperature abuse) Clean and intact packaging Check temperature inside delivery truck Sec.

16.1 Meat Receiving and Handling Meat (continued) Storing Meat Wrap and store below 41F Store in separate unit or part of cooler Place uncooked meat on trays Keep different meat types separated Store vacuum-packed meat in packaging Once removed from packaging, rewrap in airpermeable paper Cook short shelf life meats as soon as possible Sec. 16.1

Meat Preparing Meat Trimming Meat Grain: direction of tissue fibers Seams: membranes that join the muscles Cut along edges to separate Cut away visible (surface) fat Silverskin: remove this tough membrane that shrinks when cooked Gristle or tendon: remove before cooking Sec. 16.1

Meat Preparing Meat (continued) Cutting and Pounding Cutlets Cut from tender cut of meat Pound to ensure even surface thickness Cook by rapidly sauteing or pan frying Adjust the weight of mallet and strength of blow to match meat Sec. 16.1 Meat Preparing Meat (continued)

Preparing Meat for Stewing and Grinding Cut tougher, fatty cuts into cubes Remove fat; cut along seams Cut and discard gristle, silverskin, tendons Cut meat across the grain for stewing Sec. 16.1 Meat Preparing Meat (continued) Grinding Meat Clean grinder and assemble correctly Chill all grinder parts that make contact with meat Do not force meat through feed tube

Be sure blade is sharp Begin with a die with large openings Continue to grind through smaller dies until desired consistency is achieved Sec. 16.1 Meat Preparing Meat (continued) Tying a Roast Use secure knots with uniform tension Form of meat fabrication Ensures evenly cooked roast Helps retain shape

Sec. 16.2 Poultry Inspection and Grading Poultry: any domesticated bird used for human consumption Mandatory inspection USDA grades A, B, C Raw poultry chilled to 26F during processing Sec. 16.2

Poultry Types of Poultry Kinds of Poultry Chicken most popular Others include turkeys, geese, ducks Farm-raised game birds Flightless birds, or ratites Sec. 16.2 Poultry Types of Poultry (continued) Market Forms of Poultry

Whole chicken Whole chicken cut into pieces Breasts Whole legs Thighs Drumbsticks Ground poultry Processed poultry Sec. 16.2 Poultry Types of Poultry (continued) Choosing Quality Poultry

Plump breasts, meaty thighs Intact skin Use reliable suppliers Keep chilled to below 32F during storage Put in drip pans Keep separate from other foods Sec. 16.2 Poultry Preparing and Serving Poultry Trussing Poultry Provides smooth,compact shape Cooks evenly, retains moisture

Use string or trussing needles Disjointing Poultry Cut into halves, quarters, eighths Cut keel bone to divide in half Fabricating Skinless, Boneless Breasts Use breast boning technique Sec. 16.2 Poultry Preparing and Serving Poultry (continued)

Determining Doneness Fully cook to ensure safety Juices run clear, no trace of pink Leg moves easily when roasted Test with thermometer before serving 165F internal temperature Sec. 16.2 Poultry Preparing and Serving Poultry (continued)

Dry Heat Methods Use young, tender, meaty poultry Dark meat takes longer to cook Methods: roasting, baking, grilling, frying Moist Heat Methods Shallow-poaching creates basis for sauce Methods: steaming, poaching, simmering, stewing, braising Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 17 Yeast Breads, Rolls, & Pastries Sec. 17.1

Introduction to Baking Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough Sec. 17.3 Breads, Rolls, & Pastries Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar.

Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Ingredients Flour Varied amounts of protein and starch in different flours Starch thickens when heated and absorbs liquids Use specific flour called for in recipe Knead: work dough by hand or mixer Gluten: strands that trap carbon dioxide given off by yeast; causes dough to rise Store in cool, dry cupboard

Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Ingredients (continued) Types of Flour Wheat flour: contains glutenin and gliadin which provide dough structure All-purpose flour: blend of low and high protein wheat Bread flour: high protein; used in yeast-bread recipes Cake flour: less protein, soft, tender texture Whole grain and stone-ground flour: higher oil retention, flavorful

Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Ingredients (continued) Eggs: add proteins, fat, moisture Stirring, whipping, or heating causes protein to unfold and trap liquids or air to create texture Egg substitutes can replace fresh Egg wash provides a glossy sheen Potential source of Salmonella; cook to 165F Refrigerate between 33F and 38F Sec.

17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Ingredients (continued) Leaveners: increase dough volume by adding air or gas Organic leaveners: living single-celled organisms; yeast Chemical leaveners: reaction occurs rapidly when combined with moisture and heat; baking powder Physical leaveners: heat causes moisture to expand; steam and air Sec. 17.1

Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Ingredients (continued) Fat Flavor of baked good enhanced by butter, lard, nut oils; some oils lack flavor Texture of baked good results from type of fat and way worked into dough Freshness of baked good extended through fats ability to hold in moisture Two types of fats Solid fats: firm at room temperature Liquid fats: liquid at room temperature Sec.

17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Ingredients (continued) Sweeteners: provide flavor and texture Caution: Adding liquids to hot sugar can cause foaming or splattering Commonly used sweeteners Granulated sugar Superfine sugar Confectioners sugar Brown sugar Molasses Honey Maple syrup

Corn syrup Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Ingredients (continued) Acids Change structure of proteins through denaturing Tighten or loosen proteins Affect texture of product Added to batters leavened with baking soda to start leavening action Sec.

17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Ingredients (continued) Salt Powerful flavor enhancer and seasoning Balances other flavors when used in small amounts Controls yeast activity; limits fermentation Can affect texture Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking

Bakeshop Ingredients (continued) Thickeners: provide body in liquid mixtures Cornstarch and arrowroot Gelatin: processed animal protein Pectin: natural fruit substance Tapioca: tropical cassava root Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Equipment Tools for Measuring Scales

Thermometers Measuring cups and spoons Wooden dowels Rulers and tape measures Timers Dial-type Digital Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Equipment (continued) Work Surfaces Wood

Keeps product warmer Texture grabs dough; easier to stretch Marble Keeps product cool Good for delicate pastry, fudge, chocolate, caramels Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Equipment (continued) Tools for Cutting Bench scraper: rectangular steel blade capped with plastic or wooden handle

Pastry blender: crescent-shaped loop of thin wires attached to a handle Biscuit and cookie cutters: thin metal or plastic shapes with sharp edges Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Equipment (continued) Bread-Baking Equipment Baking stones: unglazed ceramic pieces lining oven Peel: flat wooden or metal paddle used to slide bread on baking stones

Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Equipment (continued) Appliances Mixers: large, free-standing Food processors and blenders Proofer: box to hold dough as it rises Dough sheeter: rolls large batches of dough into sheets Dough divider: cuts dough into equal pieces Retarder: refrigerated cabinet

Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Equipment (continued) Baking Pans and Molds Dark pans produce deeper crust color Light, shiny pans produce goods with lighter color Pan Liners Parchment paper: grease-resistant, nonstick, and heatproof paper Sil pad: reusable silicone pan liner Sec. 17.1

Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Equipment (continued) Common Baking Pans and Molds Loaf pans: rectangular Pie pans: sloped sides up to 3 tall Tart pans: short, scalloped sides; often have a removable base Cake pans: 6 to 18 in size Springform pans: hinged ring on removable base Tube pans: center tube of metal Souffl dishes, custard cups, and pudding molds: variety of sizes Sec.

17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Equipment (continued) Tools for Pastry Rolling pin: round bar made of wood, marble, metal, or synthetic material Pastry brush: brush with soft, flexible bristles Pastry wheel: round blade mounted on a handle Pastry bag and tips: cone-shaped bag with open ends; tip in one end Sec. 17.1

Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Equipment (continued) Tools for Pastry, continued Metal Spatulas and Palette Knives: long, metal blades with blunt edges Cake comb: piece of metal or plastic with serrated edges Turntable: raised, flat surface that can be turned Sec. 17.1 Introduction to Baking Bakeshop Equipment (continued)

Formulas: recipes Bakers Percentages Show how each ingredient compares to the amount of flour Flour is considered to be 100% Easy to increase or decrease recipe Dry and Wet Ingredients Sifting removes clumps, adds air, distributes dry ingredients Note how and when wet ingredients are added Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough

Basic Types of Yeast Dough Lean Dough (Hard Dough) Main ingredients: flour, yeast, salt, and water Coarse flour makes for dense texture Chloride dioxide: chemical dough conditioner used for dough stability Soft Dough (Medium Dough) Lean dough with added sugar and fat Softer texture due to sugar and fat Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough

Basic Types of Yeast Dough (continued) Enriched Dough (Sweet Rich Dough) Fat and sugar up to 25% Slower yeast activity Used for Cinnamon buns Hot cross buns Brioche Challah Stollen Kuchen Kugelhopf Sec. 17.2

Yeast Dough Straight Dough-Mixing Method Straight Dough-Mixing Method: all contents mixed together at once Scaling ingredients: weighing solids and liquids Precise measurement essential for yeast to work Bakers formulas often used for yeast dough Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough Straight Dough-Mixing Method

(continued) Yeast Hydration: soaking process activates yeast Pickup: first stage of mixing Combine yeast and water at low speed Add oil if used; then add dry ingredients Add shortening last Increase mixer speed to medium Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough Straight Dough-Mixing Method

(continued) Gluten Development Kneading dough causes gluten strands to expand Properly kneaded dough is shiny and elastic Test dough by pulling; it should not tear Gluten window test: when dough is held up to light source, it should be thin enough for some light to come through Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough Straight Dough-Mixing Method

(continued) Bulk Fermentation Fermentation: yeast organisms produce carbon dioxide and alcohol in presence of moisture and food source Oil surface of dough and sides of container Cover dough with plastic wrap or towel Leave dough to rise in warm area Dough rises two to three times original size Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough

Straight Dough-Mixing Method (continued) Folding Dough Allow rising to finish Turn dough onto floured work surface Fold dough over on itself continuously; removes carbon dioxide Helps distribute yeast evenly Creates uniform temperature Scale for size consistency Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough

Modifying the Basic Method Modified Straight Dough-Mixing Method: adds ingredients in steps Enriched Yeast Dough 1. Hydrate yeast and add flour 2. Add liquid ingredients and sweeteners 3. Mix until all flour is evenly moistened 4. Add additional butter gradually 5. Continue to mix and knead Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough

Modifying the Basic Method (continued) Sponge Mixing Method Combine one-third to one-half of total liquid with all of the yeast and enough flour to make a sponge (very loose dough) Allow sponge to double in size Mix remaining ingredients with sponge to make a dough Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough Modifying the Basic Method (continued) Pre-Ferments

Pre-ferment or dough starter: mix yeast with warm water and some flour Add pre-ferment to dough before final mixing Pre-ferment increases fermentation time and strength of gluten Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough Modifying the Basic Method (continued) Types of Pre-Ferments Poolish: equal amounts of water and flour with some yeast Biga: similar to poolish but contains less water

Sourdough: wild yeast; starter can be kept alive a long time Pte fermente: piece of dough saved from one batch and added along with flour, yeast, and liquid Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough Modifying the Basic Method (continued) Rolled-in Dough Rolled-in yeast dough: rolling and folding in fat creates layers of dough Laminated yeast dough: another name for rolledin yeast dough

Layers of fat and dough create steam when baked creating flakiness Do not knead as much as regular yeast dough Sec. 17.2 Yeast Dough Modifying the Basic Method (continued) Yeast Bread Garnishes Garnish ingredients can be mixed in dough Other garnishes added after dough rises Garnishes add crunch and flavor Check recipe for ratio of garnish to flour

Sec. 17.3 Breads, Rolls, & Pastries Dividing and Pre-Shaping Dough Cutting and Scaling Cut dough into uniform pieces with a bench scraper Scale each piece Pre-Shaping Gently make tight rounds on floured surface Bench Proofing Cover rounds; let dough rest about 20 minutes Bench box: covered container for resting

Sec. 17.3 Breads, Rolls, & Pastries Shaping Breads, Rolls, and Pastries Shapes of Bread Flat breads: carrier for food Baguettes: long narrow French bread Free-form loaves: shaped by hand Pan loaves: press dough into a mold or pan Braided loaves: three tapered ropes braided together Rolls and pastries: use free-form shapes, braiding, molds, pan shapes

Sec. 17.3 Breads, Rolls, & Pastries Baking Breads, Rolls, and Pastries Pan Proofing Final rise before baking Allow to rise to 3/4 of expected finished size Washes and Glazes Add egg wash or glaze prior to baking Used to give crust a shiny appearance Scoring Slash top of dough to release steam

Cuts should be between 1/4 and 1/2 deep Sec. 17.3 Breads, Rolls, & Pastries Baking Breads, Rolls, and Pastries (continued) Baking Stages Oven spring: last stage of rising, provides final shape as carbon dioxide expands Crust formation occurs when outer surface dries Determining doneness: golden color, aroma, hollow thump, recipes baking time

Sec. 17.3 Breads, Rolls, & Pastries Baking Breads, Rolls, and Pastries (continued) Cooling and Slicing Breads Remove products from pans immediately Hot bread continues to bake until cooled Cool before slicing Slice with serrated knife; use gentle sawing motion

Sec. 17.3 Breads, Rolls, & Pastries Evaluating Quality Quality Check Appearance Color and doneness of crust Crumb Elasticity, tenderness, fineness Flavor Excessive alcohol taste caused by too much yeast or insufficient time spent proofing Bland flavor indicates insufficient salt

Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 18 Quick Breads Sec. 18.1 Muffins & Quick Breads Sec. 18.2 Biscuits & Scones Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar.

Sec. 18.1 Muffins & Quick Breads Basic Ingredients Overview of Quick Breads and Muffins Use baking soda or baking powder instead of yeast Batter (not dough) Baked in loaf pans or muffin tins Sweet or savory Freeze well Sec.

18.1 Muffins & Quick Breads Basic Ingredients (continued) Basic Ingredients Flour: all-purpose flour is standard Sugar: white sugar, brown sugar, molasses Fat: oil, butter Liquid: milk, buttermilk, water Eggs Salt Leavening agent: baking soda or baking powder Sec. 18.1

Muffins & Quick Breads Methods of Mixing and Baking Well Method Use liquid fat; melted butter or oil Blend liquids together in one bowl Sift dry ingredients together Make depression in dry ingredients Pour liquids into depression Mix batter minimally Sec. 18.1 Muffins & Quick Breads

Methods of Mixing and Baking (continued) Creaming Method Mix fat and sugar together vigorously Beat in room-temperature eggs one at a time Sift dry ingredients together Alternately mix dry and liquid ingredients together Smooth texture results from small air bubbles in batter Sec. 18.1

Muffins & Quick Breads Methods of Mixing and Baking (continued) Preparing and Filling Pans Grease pans and tins with fat or oil Promotes browning and easy release Use portion scooper to fill tins halfway Baking Bake until edges begin to shrink from sides or wooden skewer comes out clean Cool loaf bread on rack before removing from pan Remove muffins from tins immediately

Sec. 18.1 Muffins & Quick Breads Garnishes and Serving Accompaniments Stir-Ins: savory or sweet ingredients added to muffins or quick breads Chop nuts, grains, fruit, cheese in proportion to size of product One cup of additions per cup of flour (maximum) Avoid overmixing Bake immediately to keep leavening active

Sec. 18.1 Muffins & Quick Breads Garnishes and Serving Accompaniments (continued) Sugar Glazes: thin liquid of sugar and water Flavor with lemon juice or vanilla Use confectioners sugar or superfine granulated sugar Seals baked goods; keeps them moist Apply glaze with pastry brush Crumb Toppings and Streusels Crumb topping: crumbly mix of fat, sugar, flour

Streusel: crumb topping with nuts and spices Sec. 18.2 Biscuits & Scones Biscuits, Scones, and Soda Bread Biscuits: small quick breads with little or no sugar Rolled and cut biscuits: dough flattened and cut into circles Drop biscuits: contain more liquid; can be dropped from spoon to baking sheet Beaten biscuits: beaten for long period; dough hard and stiff

Sec. 18.2 Biscuits & Scones Biscuits, Scones, and Soda Bread (continued) Scones: sweet biscuit-like quick breads May have fruit or nuts added to dough Dough folded into disk and cut into shapes Soda Bread: uses soda as leavening agent Dough similar to biscuits and scones

Sec. 18.2 Biscuits & Scones Biscuits, Scones, and Soda Bread (continued) Rubbed-Dough Method Used to make biscuits, scones, soda bread Fat is cut into chunks, chilled, rubbed into flour Process results in flakiness as fat does not fully combine with flour Sec. 18.2

Biscuits & Scones Mixing and Baking Temperature Chilled butter or fat limits blending with flour Creates temporary barrier between flour and liquid in dough Allows leavening gasses to expand High oven temperature traps steam in dough Provides added rise and flakiness Sec. 18.2 Biscuits & Scones

Mixing and Baking (continued) Basic Shaping Flour the work surface, dough, and cutter Use long, smooth movements when rolling Cut dough with sharp tool Laminating allows space for steam to expand during baking Egg wash adds color and shine Sec. 18.2 Biscuits & Scones Serving Biscuits and Scones

Serving Biscuits: served warm with meal Scones: served throughout day Both popular at breakfast Afternoon Tea Scones, small sandwiches, cakes Shortcakes Uncooked fruit and juice placed between a split biscuit Whipped cream topping Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 19 Desserts Sec. 19.1

Sec. 19.2 Chocolate Custards, Mousses, & Frozen Desserts Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Sec. 19.4 Pies, Tarts, & Pastries

Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 19.1 Chocolate Identifying Different Types of Chocolate Baking Chocolate Varieties Unsweetened Nibs: cleaned cocoa kernels milled into thick paste Cocoa powder Bittersweet and semisweet (dark chocolate)

Chocolate chips or morsels Milk chocolate White chocolate Compound or coating chocolate Sec. 19.1 Chocolate Working with Chocolate Melting Chocolate Use small pieces or shavings Melt chocolate in clean, dry bowl over simmering water Keep water out of melted chocolate

Bring water to boil; turn off heat Stir regularly while melting Microwave, at no more than 80%, in clean bowl for short periods Sec. 19.1 Chocolate Working with Chocolate (continued) Tempering Chocolate Tempering: crystallizing chocolate Factors in successful tempering Time: cannot be rushed Temperature: heating and cooling correctly

Stirring: continuous Tabling method: move portion of chocolate on marble slab to cool; return to balance in bowl Test for temper: becomes set on spoon dipped in mixture in 3 to 5 minutes Sec. 19.1 Chocolate Working with Chocolate (continued) Storing Chocolate Can be stored for a year if done properly Avoid Heat

Moisture Odors Light Ideal temperature 55F Wrap in plastic or airtight container Sec. 19.1 Chocolate Making Ganache Ganache: emulsion made with chocolate and cream Filling in candy, cake, pastry, sauce, glazes Flavor cream with herbs, fruits, extracts, alcohols

Emulsion forms when two thirds of hot cream and chocolate mix Thicken by cooling and stirring Lighten by whipping Sec. 19.2 Custards, Mousses & Frozen Desserts Custard Custard: liquid thickened with eggs Types of Custards Baked custard: mix of liquid, eggs, flavoring; then baked Stirred custard: mix of liquid, eggs, flavoring;

stirred on stove Boiled custard: mix of liquid, eggs, flavoring, starch; boiled on stove Sec. 19.2 Custards, Mousses, & Frozen Desserts Mousses Mousse: aerated flavored dessert or filling Four components Base: provides flavor Egg foam: make a sabayon by whipping egg yolks as they are heated with sugar; make a meringue from stiffly beaten egg whites

mixed with sugar Gelatin: added to base Whipped cream: fold into mousse Sec. 19.2 Custards, Mousses, & Frozen Desserts Mousses (continued) Types of Aerated Desserts Fruit mousse Chocolate mousse Bavarian cream Aeration used for ice cream, sorbet, cake

and pastry fillings Sec. 19.2 Custards, Mousses, & Frozen Desserts Frozen Desserts Types of Frozen Desserts Granit: flavored water base processed with large ice crystals Sorbet: aerated frozen flavor base Sherbet: meringue with aerated frozen flavor base Ice cream: aerated dairy base Parfait and frozen souffl: frozen mousse

aerated with egg foam and whipped cream Sec. 19.2 Custards, Mousses, & Frozen Desserts Frozen Desserts (continued) Hardness Factors Sugar content Sugar lowers freezing point Amount of aeration More air, lighter texture Sec. 19.3

Cookies & Cakes Basic Ingredients of Cookies and Cakes Flour: gluten provides structure Eggs: provide structure, moisture Sugar: flavoring, browning, expansion while baking Fat: adds moisture, texture Also leaveners, flavorings, garnishes Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes

Types of Cookies Drop Cookies: firm dough or batter dropped onto pan; high fat content Types Icebox cookies: formed into a cylinder; then chilled and sliced Piped cookies: soft dough piped through pastry bag Stenciled cookies: thin batter spread into stencils or spread free-hand on sheet pans Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes

Types of Cookies (continued) Bar Cookies: soft batter spread in pan to bake Short shelf life due to cut edges Can be cut to different sizes Twice-baked cookies: low fat content Rolled cookies: stiff dough rolled flat and cut into shapes Molded cookies: stiff dough shaped by hand; can also be stamped, pressed, or piped Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes

Making Cookies Ingredients Room temperature (70-75F) for all ingredients before mixing Measure all ingredients Mixing methods Creaming method Foaming method Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cookies (continued)

Preparing Cookie Pans Prepare pans before mixing dough Select flat sheet pans for most cookies Double panning: stack 2 pans to prevent too much browning Use specified pan size for bar cookies Line pan with parchment paper or silicone baking mat Pans should be at room temperature when filled Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cookies (continued)

Creaming Method Blend ingredients until consistency is smooth and uniform Short creaming prevents excessive spreading while baking Dough should be cool going into oven Overmixing causes gluten development Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cookies (continued) Foaming Method Whip eggs and sugar until light

Add dry ingredients Cookies use less flour and have more resilient texture Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cookies (continued) Shaping Cookies Drop cookies: fill scoop, level, release onto pan, flatten if needed Icebox cookies: chill dough in parchment wrapped cylinders, slice, put on pan Piped cookies: fill pastry bag with dough,

dispense in rows Stenciled cookies: spoon chilled batter into stencil on pan, remove stencil Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cookies (continued) Shaping Cookies, continued Bar cookies: spread dough to even thickness in pan Twice-baked cookies: form dough into log, bake, cool, slice, bake again Cut-out cookies: roll out chilled dough, cut with

knife or cutters, bake like sizes together Molded cookies: chill dough, press stamp into dough or dough into mold Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cookies (continued) Baking Cookies Oven temperature: preheat Position of oven racks: use center of oven Baking: check halfway; rotate sheet Determining doneness: light golden-brown on bottom

Cooling: remove from pan quickly Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cookies (continued) Finishing Cookies Cutting bar cookies: cool, remove entire bar from pan, straight cut Glazing or icing cookies: arrange cookies together, pipe icing or glaze Shaping stenciled cookies: drape warm cookies over objects Sandwiching cookies: two uniform cookies with

thin layer of filling between them Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cookies (continued) Serving and Storing Cookies Cookies provide perfect accompaniment to desserts Element of plated desserts Allow chefs to create signature desserts Store cool cookies Use airtight containers at room temperature Sugar in cookies attracts moisture

Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cakes Pre-Baking Preparation Scale all ingredients before mixing Sift dry ingredients Preparing Pans Preparation vital to success Grease and flour pan or use liners Sec.

19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cakes (continued) Creaming Method Produces denser, heavier cake Pound cake Mix sugar and fat together until light, fluffy Slowly add almost room temperature eggs Add flour last Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes

Making Cakes (continued) Warm Foaming Method Light texture due to air beaten into eggs Heating egg and sugar mixture dissolves sugar, loosens egg protein Stabilize egg foam mixture after initial high speed mixing Add dry ingredients after stabilizing Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cakes (continued)

Cold Foaming Method Meringue-based cake batter Light, airy texture from air beaten into meringue After whipping meringue, fold in cake flour, sugar Bake in ungreased pan Cooling upside down prevents collapse Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Making Cakes (continued) Baking Cakes Bake cake as soon as mixed due to air escape Preheat oven to baking temperature

Test for doneness Browning Pull from edge of pan Spring back Unmold cake once baked Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Building, Icing, and Finishing Cakes Building Allow cake to cool Slice with long serrated knife Spread filling between layers

Simple syrup: mixture of equal parts boiled sugar and water Ice cake when needed Store filled, layered cake in refrigerator or freezer Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Building, Icing, and Finishing Cakes (continued) Icing Buttercream: aerated butter, shortening, powdered sugar

American: creamed butter and powdered sugar Italian: add butter to meringue French: whipped egg yolks, sugar, softened butter German: whipped pastry cream base Sec. 19.3 Cookies & Cakes Building, Icing, and Finishing Cakes (continued) Icing, continued

Flavor with extract, flavor paste, unsweetened chocolate, fruit juice Icing cake Apply thin icing coat on all surfaces (crumb coat) Second thicker coat to finish Finishing Add decorations for visual appeal Sec. 19.4 Pies, Tarts, & Pastries Pie and Tart Dough

Pastry Shells Fill with fruit, nuts, cream Pie pan: tall sides that flare out Tart pan: short vertical sides, straight or fluted sides Flaky dough: made with flour, water, butter or shortening Rubbed dough method Pale or white when baked Sec. 19.4 Pies, Tarts, & Pastries

Pie and Tart Dough (continued) Cookie Dough Cookie textured dough: made from flour, sugar, fat, eggs Used for tarts Creaming method Crumbly Dough Rich in fat and sugar Delicate to work with Rubbed dough method or creaming method Sec. 19.4 Pies, Tarts, & Pastries

Assembling Pies and Tarts Fillings Raw fruit: mix fruit with sugar, flavorings, thickener Cooked fruit: cook fruit with sugar, flavorings, thickener on stove Cream: prepare boiled custard; fill pre-baked shell Custard: combine liquid with eggs to make custard; fill shell and bake Sec. 19.4 Pies, Tarts, & Pastries

Assembling Pies and Tarts (continued) Rolling Dough Rested and well-chilled dough Roll dough to 1/8 inch thick on floured surface Fold rolled dough Place in pan, unfold, fit Cut edges, add fluting (decorative edge) Sec. 19.4 Pies, Tarts, & Pastries Assembling Pies and Tarts (continued) Blind Baking

Blind baked shell: pre-baked pie shell Filling not baked, or pie in oven short time Bake blind shell lined with parchment paper covered with weights Sec. 19.4 Pies, Tarts, & Pastries Assembling Pies and Tarts (continued) Assembling Fill pie higher than crust top for raw fruit and cooked fruit Fill custard and cream pies to top of crust

Toppings Top crust Lattice Streusel or crumbs Fresh fruit Meringue and whipped cream Sec. 19.4 Pies, Tarts, & Pastries Pastries Made with Choux Paste Choux Paste: versatile dough or batter Used to create sweet and savory items Examples include cream puffs and clairs

Contains liquid, fat, flour, eggs Piped out and baked on parchment Hollow center created when baked Cool, fill, glaze Sec. 19.4 Pies, Tarts, & Pastries Plating Desserts Plating Showcase chefs skill Simple or multi-component design Elements Flavor

Texture Temperature Main component attractive Any additions should add taste Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 20 Working in a Restaurant Sec. 20.1 Restaurant Personnel Sec. 20.2

Service Tools & Utensils Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Sec. 20.4 Handling Complaints & Problems Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec.

20.1 Restaurant Personnel Brigade System Brigade System: group of workers assigned set specific tasks Front-of-the-house brigade: dining room staff Matre d (matre dhtel): dining room manager Captain: charged with smooth running of specific group of tables; explains menu and takes orders Carver (trancheur): carves and serves meat Sec.

20.1 Restaurant Personnel Brigade System (continued) Front-of-the-house brigade, continued Wine steward (sommelier): buys, stores, and serves wine Server (front waiter): oversees table setting, food delivery, and diners needs Runner (back waiter): assists server Bus person (dining room attendant): clears and cleans tables Sec. 20.1

Restaurant Personnel Brigade System (continued) Back-of-the-house brigade: kitchen staff Receptionist: greets guests and takes reservations Executive chef (chef de cuisine): commands kitchen Sous-chef (second chef): assistant to executive chef Expediter: accepts customer orders; checks completed orders Sec. 20.1

Restaurant Personnel Brigade System (continued) Station chefs (line chefs) Grill station chef (grillardin): grilled orders Roast station chef (rtisseur): roasted items Fish station chef (poissonier): fish and seafood dishes Saut station chef (saucier): sauted dishes and sauces Sec. 20.1 Restaurant Personnel

Brigade System (continued) Station chefs (line chefs), continued Garde manger: cold food preparations Soups and vegetables station chef (entremetier): hot appetizers, pasta, vegetable dishes Roundsman (swing chef, tournant): roving chef Pastry chef (ptissier): pastry, desserts Prep chef: prepares ingredients Sec. 20.1 Restaurant Personnel

Working the Front Door Telephone Etiquette Guidelines Answer on first ring Use appropriate greeting Speak clearly and slowly Know hours and location Focus on caller Avoid speaking to others while on phone Avoid using hold for long When caller asks for someone, reply with, May I ask who is calling? Sec. 20.1

Restaurant Personnel Working the Front Door (continued) Reservations Reservation policy: customers call for specific dining time No-reservation policy: customers served on firstcome-first-served basis Each policy has advantages/disadvantages Reception Desk Provides guests with information Essential for smooth dining room operation Sec. 20.1

Restaurant Personnel Working the Front Door (continued) Taking Reservations Date when taken Who took reservation Date and time of reservation Guest name and telephone number Number in party Smoking or nonsmoking Any special seating Any special server requests Any handicapped seating Any special requests Sec.

20.1 Restaurant Personnel Working the Front Door (continued) Greeting and Seating Guests Greeting guests: matre d or receptionist Seating: matre d leads guests to table Preplanned dining room seating Seating plan distributes guests evenly Fixed seating plan: based on set seating times Continuous seating plan: tables turn over regularly Sec. 20.1

Restaurant Personnel Working the Front Door (continued) No-Shows and Late Arrivals Empty tables frustrate those waiting Restaurants lose money Call guests day before to confirm reservations Give-away policy: give table away if guest is half hour late Sec. 20.2 Service Tools & Utensils

Serviceware Serviceware: dishware and utensils Categories of Serviceware China: anything to contain food Flatware: utensils for table or serving Glassware: containers for liquids Hollowware: large decorative and utilitarian objects Servers need working pens, crumber, order forms, small calculator, notebook Sec. 20.2 Service Tools & Utensils

Serviceware (continued) The Cover Cover: complete place setting for one General guidelines for place settings Place settings should face one another when possible Set places consistently Width should be 18 inches Covers for Fine Dining Specific rules for placement depend on event, shape of table Sec. 20.2

Service Tools & Utensils Cleaning Service Utensils Importance of Cleanliness Prevent spreading germs and bacteria through proper washing Government regulations rigorous Staff need to be well informed in restaurant hygiene All surfaces, furniture, condiment dishes, cruets should be spotless Sec. 20.2 Service Tools & Utensils

Cleaning Service Utensils (continued) Washing Tableware Compliance with local health regulations Adequate dish soap, chemical desanitizers, and high water temperature ensure clean dishes Dishwashing areas, spray devices, and rinse pipes should be thoroughly cleaned with hot water daily Sec. 20.2 Service Tools & Utensils Cleaning Service Utensils (continued)

Tableware Washing Guidelines China Scrape and rinse by hand; pre-wash rinse cycle Glassware Spotwash by hand prior to machine washing Flatware Rinse and presoak before washing on rack in machine; air dry Sec. 20.2 Service Tools & Utensils Cleaning Service Utensils (continued)

Tableware Polishing Guidelines Glassware Expose clean glassware to steam and wipe with cloth (check local regulations) Flatware Dip in hot water and dry with cloth Silverware Use tarnish-removing agents before washing Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Service Styles Common Service Styles in America

Service style, table service: how food and drink are delivered American service: food prepared and plated in kitchen; brought to dining room served Buffet service: food served from long tables as diners file past Brunch service: combined buffet service and American service Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Service Styles (continued) Common Service Styles in America

Cafeteria service: diners choose foods from behind barrier and servers dish out portions Counter service: food served from counter Room service: food delivered to hotel room Take-out service: buy prepared food to take home Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Service Styles (continued) Common International Service Styles French service: three courses Side-table service: dishes prepared or finished

tableside Russian service, platter service: food delivered on large platters English service: food on platters, host or server serves Family service: diners self-serve from dishes on table Butler service: diners select from a platter Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Serving Guests Servers Responsibilities

Always be professional Learn and practice skills of restaurant service trade Provide seamless connection between dining room and kitchen Make guests welcome, anticipate needs Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Serving Guests (continued) Starting the Meal Guidelines Pull out chairs for guests

Greet guests with smile Attend to guests as soon as possible Acknowledge children Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Serving Guests (continued) Writing the Order Guidelines Write neatly Know any abbreviations Start order process with ladies, gentlemen, children

Write order in order it will be served Write one check per table Subtotal and staple continued order checks together Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Serving Guests (continued) Serving Water and Bread Guidelines Ask guests if they want water upon seating Fill glasses when half empty Replace dirty glasses with clean during meal

Bring bread as soon as possible Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Serving Guests (continued) Serving Beverages Guidelines Ask guests if they want something to drink upon seating Take and serve beverages with the food and dessert courses as well Bring beverages within five minutes Never serve alcoholic beverages to minors

Serve beverages on a tray Clear away extra glasses Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Serving Guests (continued) Presenting the Menu Guidelines Mention daily specials and anything not available Be informed about the menu items Know vegetarian alternatives and substitutions for special diets

Be diplomatic when asked for suggestions Pass menus from right after serving beverages Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Serving Guests (continued) Serving Food Guidelines Anticipate guests needs Serve without delay Serve women first, children last Serve guests from their right

Check tables after serving for additional needs Clear empty plates Monitor tables even when not actively serving Be a team player Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Serving Guests (continued) Course Sequence Guidelines Serving order based on type of food,

restaurant, country Sequence determined by guests preference Clear empty and soiled dishes Replace soiled dishes and flatware after each course Use crumber Pass out separate dessert menus Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Serving Guests (continued) After-Dinner Beverages Guidelines

Take orders for tea, coffee, and other beverages after table is cleared Bring appropriate china and flatware Bring full creamers; refill if needed Be sure water for tea is boiling hot Pour or serve all beverages from right Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Serving Guests (continued) Presenting the Check Guidelines Tally only after asking if guests want more

Deliver check according to restaurant procedure Use folder for presenting check if available Always include a pen when returning credit card form Sec. 20.3 Serving the Meal Serving Guests (continued) Parting Company Guidelines Thank guests and offer warm farewell Do not rush guests

Should guests linger and tables are needed, have matre d handle situation Sec. 20.4 Handling Complaints & Problems Handling Customer Complaints Anticipating Problems Prevent complaints before they happen Communicate with guests Servers should monitor tables when not actively serving Respond to guests gestures immediately

Sec. 20.4 Handling Complaints & Problems Handling Customer Complaints (continued) Addressing Complaints Quickly Server addresses complaints by Acknowledging the problem, apologizing Resolving problem quickly Communicate genuine concern Sec. 20.4

Handling Complaints & Problems Handling Customer Complaints (continued) Common Complaints Miscooked food: re-cook or offer another dish Foreign object in food: offer another dish Food temperature: re-cook Dining room temperature: move guests Lighting: provide additional light such as table lamp or candlestick Sec. 20.4

Handling Complaints & Problems Handling Problems Cleaning Spills Clean up table spills immediately Replace tablecloth after large spill Move objects to clean side of cloth, fold soiled half, insert clean cloth Apologize and offer to dry clean spills made to customers clothing by server Sec. 20.4 Handling Complaints & Problems

Handling Problems (continued) Health Emergencies Mitre d should calmly handle customer problems and call for emergency help if needed Accident report: written description of what happened Staff illness and emergency absences should be anticipated Develop contingency plans Sec. 20.4 Handling Complaints & Problems

Handling Problems (continued) Noisy Guests Tactfully ask guests to quiet down Stock crayons and coloring books for children Cell Phones, Pagers, and Electronic Devices Ask customers to take calls in lobby away from others Sec. 20.4 Handling Complaints & Problems Handling Problems (continued) Nonpayment Problems

Mitre d handles situations involving customers who refuse to pay Cash or Credit Card Problems Notify mitre d immediately Most restaurants have policies Walkout: customer leaves without paying Notify mitre d immediately to determine if police action is necessary Sec. 20.4 Handling Complaints & Problems

Handling Problems (continued) Customer Theft Notify mitre d immediately when restaurant property is stolen Robbery Remain calm, commit details to memory, and do not attempt heroic actions Restaurants protect against loss with insurance Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 21 Menus Sec. 21.1

Planning the Menu Sec. 21.2 Pricing Menu Items Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 21.1 Planning the Menu

Purpose of a Menu Menu: list of food and drink available Two functions: planning and communication Management plans menu in food-service operation Executive chef plans menu in hotel Central management plans menu in chain Chef plans menu in individual restaurant Sec. 21.1 Planning the Menu Purpose of a Menu (continued) Menus as Planning Tools

Factors affecting menu choices Customers needs and expectations Prices Mission statement: organizations goal Type of food served Service style Workers skills Required equipment Competitors Sec. 21.1 Planning the Menu Purpose of a Menu (continued)

The Menu is a Communication Tool Provides information on location, prices, hours, history, new items Informs customers about food choices Influences customer choices Creates an overall impression of the establishment Sec. 21.1 Planning the Menu Types of Menus la Carte: each item priced and served separately Modified la Carte: only appetizers and desserts

priced and served separately California: single menu listing breakfast, lunch, and dinner Sec. 21.1 Planning the Menu Types of Menus (continued) Du Jour: food served only that day Table dHte and Prix Fixe: complete meal for set price, with some choices Fixed: same items every day Cyclical: written for a certain period of time with items repeating

Limited: limited range of choices Sec. 21.1 Planning the Menu Planning a Menu Type of Place and Customers Geography and culture relating to food preferences Economics: price should reflect value Population density: affects number of items on menu Age: special menu sections for senior citizens and children

Sec. 21.1 Planning the Menu Planning a Menu (continued) Facility, Staff, and Equipment Limitations Number of people served influenced by menu and physical space Consider cost of food, labor, and equipment Training staff costs time and money Sec. 21.1

Planning the Menu Planning a Menu (continued) Balance and Variety Variety: use different cooking methods Balance: accommodate different tastes Special needs: allergies, diabetic, vegetarian Religion: be sensitive to dietary restrictions Regional cuisine: serve food specialties Trends: use market research Various price levels: keep in customers range Product availability: need sufficient supply Sec. 21.1

Planning the Menu Planning a Menu (continued) Truthfulness Truth in Menu Laws Designed to protect consumers Administered by local and state agencies Focused on accurate labeling of food Require honest pricing Sec. 21.1 Planning the Menu Organizing and Designing a Menu

Organizing a Menu: organize by categories Hors doeuvres Appetizers: hot and cold Soups: hot or cold Salads Sandwiches Main courses: entre in United States Side dishes Desserts Hot beverages Sec. 21.1 Planning the Menu

Organizing and Designing a Menu (continued) Designing a Menu Format Printed menu: common format with cover and back; permanent Table tent menu: folded card Spoken menu: server verbally shares menu Menu board: menu items listed on board for all to see Sec. 21.1 Planning the Menu

Organizing and Designing a Menu (continued) Design Guidelines for Printed Menus List restaurant vitals Design shape and size to match restaurant concept Avoid photos inside menu Emphasize items, not prices Use graphics sparingly Use print, not script Use numbers for prices Sec. 21.1

Planning the Menu Organizing and Designing a Menu (continued) Writing Menu Item Descriptions Check for misspellings, grammatical errors, unnecessary words Use language to reflect restaurants concept and style Describe food in a positive, attractive manner Make menus easy to follow and read Eliminate restaurant jargon Sec. 21.2

Pricing Menu Items Factors Influencing Menu Prices Type of restaurant: determined by mission statement Meal occasion: time of day Style and elaborateness of service: more service, higher cost Competition: what your competitor charges Customer mix: determined by population Profit objective: popularity, volume, margin Sec. 21.2

Pricing Menu Items MenuPricing Methods Copycat Method (Nonstructured Method) Copy a similar restaurants prices Problematic approach since it does not address individual situations Should be used for comparison purposes only Sec. 21.2 Pricing Menu Items MenuPricing Methods (continued) Factor Method

Calculate the raw food cost: add together the costs of the ingredients for a single serving, Determine the pricing factor: divide 100 by raw food cost Determine the price for menu item: multiply raw food cost by pricing factor Sec. 21.2 Pricing Menu Items MenuPricing Methods (continued) Prime Cost Method Determine raw food cost Determine direct labor cost: consider time to

make dish, multiply by chefs hourly wage, divide by number of portions Add direct labor to raw food price: most restaurants use 9% as direct labor cost Determine prime cost factor: divide 100 by the prime cost Determine price for menu item: multiply prime cost by prime cost factor Sec. 21.2 Pricing Menu Items MenuPricing Methods (continued) Actual Cost Method

Actual cost of raw food, labor, expenses, and profit added together Raw food cost and labor calculated in actual dollars Also calculated as percentage of menu price Allows restaurant to use percentages for expenses and profits Sec. 21.2 Pricing Menu Items MenuPricing Methods (continued) Gross Profit Method Designed to determine specific amount of profit

that should be made from each customer Used in well-established restaurants Requires analysis of past financial statements, what was ordered, number of customers Sec. 21.2 Pricing Menu Items MenuPricing Methods (continued) Base Price Method Analyzes what customers want to spend Works back from what customer will spend Determines menu items, prices, profit level

Sec. 21.2 Pricing Menu Items MenuPricing Methods (continued) Forced Food Method Determined by choices customers make Charges more for high loss or spoilage rates of certain foods Allows for volume in calculation Each menu item assigned specific profit margin in volume/risk category Menu prices calculated using overhead, labor, and profit as percentage of total cost Subtract this percentage to obtain percentage for

raw food cost Sec. 21.2 Pricing Menu Items Deciding on Menu Prices Comparison Charts Pricing system comparison chart: comparison of various pricing methods Includes two competitors prices Psychological Factors How a customer perceives menu items

Sec. 21.2 Pricing Menu Items Deciding on Menu Prices (continued) Price Increases Adjust portion size to limit steep increase Change what is served with the item to further justify increase Avoid rapid increases in short period Maintain quality standards with increases Do not increase prices of all menu items at once Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations

Chapter 22 Nutrition Sec. 22.1 Sec. 22.2 Nutrition Basics Making Menus More Nutritious Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 22.1

Nutrition Basics The Importance of Nutrition Nutrition: study of foods and how they affect health Nutrients: part of food used by bodies Poor nutrition: affects ability to function and fight disease Excessive weight gain, diabetes, heart disease Good nutrition: enough of the right foods Leads to diabetes, heart disease, and excessive weight gain Sec. 22.1

Nutrition Basics The Language of Nutrition Nutrition and Food Calorie: unit that measures the energy in foods Proteins Amino acids: 22 building blocks of protein found in foods or made by the body Complete protein: provides all essential amino acids; found in meats, fish, poultry, animal products Mutual supplementation: grains, legumes, and nuts need additional amino acids to be complete Sec.

22.1 Nutrition Basics The Language of Nutrition (continued) Carbohydrates: energy source Made up of sugars; broken down into glucose Simple carbohydrates: contain one or two sugars; fruit, milk, sugar, honey Complex carbohydrates: long chains of many sugars; plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, and vegetables Sec. 22.1

Nutrition Basics The Language of Nutrition (continued) Fiber Soluble fiber: dissolves in water, slows release of sugar, lowers cholesterol levels Beans, fruits, vegetables, whole grains Insoluble fiber: does not dissolve in water, cleans digestive track Fruits, vegetables, wheat bran, nuts, whole grains Sec. 22.1 Nutrition Basics

The Language of Nutrition (continued) Fats and Cholesterol Fats provide energy and slow digestion Excessive fat increases risk of heart disease and obesity Saturated fats: solid at room temperature Polyunsaturated fats: liquid at room temperature; come from plants Hydrogenation: changes liquid polyunsaturated fat to solid fat; creates trans fats (trans fatty acids) Sec. 22.1

Nutrition Basics The Language of Nutrition (continued) Fats and Cholesterol, continued Monounsaturated fats: liquid at room temperature; come from plants Omega-3 fatty acids: polyunsaturated fats linked to reduced strokes/heart attacks; come from fish Cholesterol: fatty substance in body Dietary cholesterol: comes from food Serum cholesterol: in persons blood Cholesterol testing in blood Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): bad High-density lipoproteins (HDL): good Sec.

22.1 Nutrition Basics The Language of Nutrition (continued) Vitamins Water-soluble vitamins: dissolve in water B and C Easily transported in blood system Can only store small amount Fat-soluble vitamins: dissolve in fat A, D, E, and K Stored in fat in body High levels toxic Antioxidants: substances that prevent tissue damage

Sec. 22.1 Nutrition Basics The Language of Nutrition (continued) Minerals Regulate body and strengthen bones Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus needed in large amounts Iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc needed in small amounts Water Critical to bodys chemical reactions

Cushions joints and maintains organ pressure Sec. 22.1 Nutrition Basics The Language of Nutrition (continued) Calories Foods energy value measured in calories Sources Carbohydrates Proteins Fat Alcohol Empty calories: food with few nutrients and high

calorie count Nutrient-dense foods: high nutrient number in relation to calories Sec. 22.1 Nutrition Basics The Language of Nutrition (continued) Individual Calorie Needs Weight: greater weight requires more calories Activity level: greater activity requires more calories Age/life cycle: growing and developmental stages of life require more calories

Gender: men have higher caloric needs than women Sec. 22.1 Nutrition Basics Nutrition Information Nutrition Labels and Information Sheets Food manufacturers have supplied since 1973 Information for food without labels available from the FDA Serving Size Listed by weight or volume

Doubling the size of a serving doubles calories Sec. 22.1 Nutrition Basics Nutrition Information (continued) Calorie Content Use calorie content to substitute ingredients to lower fat and calories Percent of Daily Value FDA established amount of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamin C, sodium, calcium, other nutrients Listed in metric weight and a percent value

Based on percentage of 2,000 calorie/day diet Sec. 22.1 Nutrition Basics Nutrition Information (continued) The Food Pyramid Guide Guide to making healthy food choices Five basic food groups Grains Vegetables Fruit Milk products Meat, fish, eggs, beans, nuts

Sec. 22.1 Nutrition Basics Nutrition Information (continued) Dietary Guidelines Revised every five years by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and USDA Get adequate nutrients without too many calories Select variety of fiber-rich foods Choose low-fat or nonfat foods Keep daily fat intake between 20% and 35% of calories

Limit sodium intake to less than 1 teaspoon/ day Sec. 22.2 Making Menus More Nutritious Planning Healthy Menus Nutritional Balance Menus need to provide Enough calories to meet energy needs Specific nutrients to promote health Specialized diets: menu planned with objectives Menus must meet nutritional and culinary objectives

Sec. 22.2 Making Menus More Nutritious Planning Healthy Menus (continued) Choosing Healthy Ingredients Seasonal produce: best flavor and texture Whole grains: minimally processed Lean meat and poultry: trim fat Fish: low in saturated fats Reduced salt: limit intake Reduced sugar: use fruit rather than increase sugar

Sec. 22.2 Making Menus More Nutritious Planning Healthy Menus (continued) Food Allergies Menu descriptions should list all contents Consider substitutions for allergy-related foods Avoid cross-contamination with any potential allergenic foods Common food allergies Shellfish, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, nuts Sec. 22.2

Making Menus More Nutritious Planning Healthy Menus (continued) Vegetarian Options Vegetarian: no meat or animal products Ovo-lacto vegetarian: no meat, poultry, or fish; will eat eggs and dairy Vegan: no animal products, only plant-based foods Sec. 22.2 Making Menus More Nutritious

Planning Healthy Menus (continued) Balanced Vegetarian Dishes Grains and legumes Grains and dairy products Legumes and seeds/nuts Legumes and dairy products Seeds/nuts and dairy products Sec. 22.2 Making Menus More Nutritious Using Healthy Food Preparation Techniques Techniques to Emphasize

Choose and handle ingredients carefully Use dry and moist heat methods to avoid adding fat to the cooking process Foods prepared early and held will lose nutrients Cook foods as close as possible to serving Batch cooking: process of reheating or finishing a small amount food Sec. 22.2 Making Menus More Nutritious Using Healthy Food Preparation Techniques (continued) Techniques to Limit

Any cooking method using large amounts of oil, butter, shortening Thickeners such as roux and liaison Cream sauces high in fat Sec. 22.2 Making Menus More Nutritious Using Healthy Food Preparation Techniques (continued) Substituting or Modifying Techniques Use breadcrumbs or crushed cornflakes for coating and baking to replace frying Brush or spray potatoes with oil and roast

instead of frying Use oils high in monounsaturated fats Reduce the sugar up to 30% in baked goods Sec. 22.2 Making Menus More Nutritious Using Portioning and Presentation Techniques Portions Portion control: controlling quantity of particular foods Use Food Guide Pyramid to determine servings Learn portion size for each food group

Sec. 22.2 Making Menus More Nutritious Using Portioning and Presentation Techniques (continued) Presentation Techniques Use colors and shapes of nutritious food to increase appeal Control texture through cutting or cooking methods Moist heat methods create tender, soft foods Dry heat methods result in firm, crunchy exteriors

Introduction to Culinary Arts: Presentations Chapter 23 The Business of a Restaurant Sec. 23.1 Owning Your Own Restaurant Sec. 23.2 Purchasing & Inventorying Sec.

23.3 Managing a Restaurant Click a section title to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Sec. 23.1 Owning Your Own Restaurant Creating a Business Plan Business Plan Mission statement Specific goals supporting mission

Sample menus Preliminary operating budgets Staffing needs Written business plan may be needed to borrow money for business Sec. 23.1 Owning Your Own Restaurant Creating a Business Plan (continued) Theme and Style Theme unites food, lighting, prices, decorations Ambience: feeling or mood

Budget Salaries are large part of operating budget Determine number of workers and skills needed Sec. 23.1 Owning Your Own Restaurant Creating a Business Plan (continued) Hours of Operation Hours affect number of staff, amount of food Normal hours part of business plan Special catered events held when restaurant closed

Sec. 23.1 Owning Your Own Restaurant Establishing a Client Base Client base: customers who come to dine Location: what customers are in the geographical area Market: research to determine potential customers Customers reactions: obtain feedback from patrons Sec. 23.1

Owning Your Own Restaurant Marketing and Promoting a Restaurant Your Brand Brand: public image of business; name, image, slogan, sign Logo: recognizable symbol that identifies restaurant Name reflects marketing Sec. 23.1 Owning Your Own Restaurant

Marketing and Promoting a Restaurant (continued) Advertising Printed Materials Advertisements in local papers, magazines Flyers Newspaper and magazine articles Press releases Include restaurant contact Informal Advertising Word of mouth Restaurant reviews Sec. 23.1

Owning Your Own Restaurant Marketing and Promoting a Restaurant (continued) Promoting Promotion: efforts to increase business Examples Booth at local fair Money-off coupons Charity event Community-minded event Sec. 23.1

Owning Your Own Restaurant Reading Income Statements Business Tracking Income statement: record of earnings and losses Profit and loss statement (P&L): collects information on money coming in (earnings) and being spent (expenses) Bottom line: balance after expenses Sec. 23.1 Owning Your Own Restaurant Reading Income Statements (continued)

Business Tracking, continued Assets: things business owns Liabilities: losses not balanced by profit Sales: money spent in restaurant by customer Income: same as sales Profit: calculated by subtracting expenses and losses from sales Sec. 23.1 Owning Your Own Restaurant Reading Income Statements (continued) Business Tracking, continued Income statement equation:

Income Expense = Profit Successful business balances liabilities with sales Raw food cost: measurement of how much you spend on food compared to what customers spend Expressed as a percentage Sec. 23.1 Owning Your Own Restaurant Reading Income Statements (continued) Business Tracking, continued Variable cost: expense that varies from week to

week Fixed cost (fixed expense): same cost each time Cost control: controlling variable expenses Other income: special events, catering Sec. 23.2 Purchasing & Inventorying Basic Purchasing Principles Five Basic Steps of Purchasing 1. Create par-stock (list of goods) 2. Write purchase specifications for each item 3. Select suppliers 4. Obtain quotes and bids from different suppliers

5. Place order Sec. 23.2 Purchasing & Inventorying Basic Purchasing Principles (continued) Creating a Par-Stock List Par-stock list: a list of the quantity of supplies needed to make all menu items Extra amount added to list as cushion Writing Purchase Specifications Product specifications: describe size, quality, grade, color, weight

Delivery specifications: how products packaged for delivery; temperature of products Sec. 23.2 Purchasing & Inventorying Basic Purchasing Principles (continued) Selecting Suppliers Supplier, vendor, purveyor, producer: all provide goods Locate suppliers by asking other owners and searching on Internet Supplier provides product list and delivery schedule

Locate suppliers that offer wide range of goods Sec. 23.2 Purchasing & Inventorying Basic Purchasing Principles (continued) Obtaining Market Quotes and Bids Market quote: product selling price and length of time in effect Bid: proposal from supplier indicating price supplier will charge if bid accepted Sec. 23.2

Purchasing & Inventorying Basic Purchasing Principles (continued) Placing Orders Order: communication between buyer and seller detailing amount of product needed Quantity specified in units Information needed to place order Par-stock Product specifications Inventory Suppliers and their product lists Suppliers market quotes or bids Sec.

23.2 Purchasing & Inventorying Inventories Inventory: list of assets arranged by category Par-stock lists what should be on hand; inventory lists what is on hand Subtract inventory from par-stock to know what to order Physical inventory: counting what you have Sec. 23.3

Managing a Restaurant Managing the Facility Restaurant Layout Sanitation Easily cleaned spaces Easily cleaned equipment Safety Federal, state, local health codes Legal requirements Sec. 23.3 Managing a Restaurant

Managing the Facility (continued) Dining Room Capacity limits Adequate space between tables Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act The Kitchen Covers a third of restaurant space Clearly defined work areas Employee changing/storage area Waste management system Sec. 23.3 Managing a Restaurant

Managing the Facility (continued) Other Areas Entry (common space) Lobby, foyer, vestibule Coat room Customer, employee restrooms Required by law to have hand-washing stations Area for displays, retail sales Bar or lounge Sec. 23.3 Managing a Restaurant

Managing People Communicating Manager responsible for Communicating expectations to employees Providing a training manual and instruction for new hires Being aware of communication among employees Treating employees with professionalism and dignity Communicating best practices Sec. 23.3

Managing a Restaurant Managing People (continued) Hiring and Training Manager hires, trains, supervises staff Locating new employees Ads in restaurant windows Local newspapers Internet Word of mouth Sec. 23.3 Managing a Restaurant

Managing People (continued) Hiring and Training, continued Manager interviews candidates Is the candidate qualified for the job? Does the candidate meet the skill standards for the position? Is the candidate dependable? Awareness of potential discrimination Job description: lists duties, responsibilities, education, training Sec. 23.3 Managing a Restaurant

Managing People (continued) Hiring and Training, continued Orientation: new employees learn about restaurant, policies, menu, layout Training: process of learning and practicing job; ongoing Performance evaluation: meeting between employee and manager to discuss performance Sec. 23.3 Managing a Restaurant Managing People (continued) Terminating

Discipline of employee Verbal warning: employee told about needed improvement Written warning: improvement needed documented in writing Termination: firing, or removal of employment Sequenced discipline measures

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