Plant Reproduction Click to Enter ClickBiology INSTRUCTIONS ClickBiology

Plant Reproduction Click to Enter ClickBiology INSTRUCTIONS ClickBiology

Plant Reproduction Click to Enter ClickBiology INSTRUCTIONS ClickBiology Ensure that you complete all activities and worksheets when instructed to do so. The pad icon will indicate when you should fill in your worksheet. Work your way through the presentation by clicking on the background to move to the next page or to activate an animation. The mouse icon will indicate that a click will activate an animation or require buttons to be pressed in the quizzes. You can navigate around the presentation by using the arrow links that appear when you place your cursor on the lower left hand part of the screen.

Some slides have embedded movies which will start when you click on the image. The video camera symbol tells you when a movie is available. There is sound so you may want to wear headphones if people are working near you. You can return to the home page by clicking on the clickbiology icon. At the end of the module there is a test that will provide a results page which you will print off and hand in to your teacher. The speaker symbol means that there are some audio explanation available for the slide ClickBiology Plant Reproduction Home Page 4

1 Seed dispersal Flower structure 5 2 Germination Pollination 3 6 Fruit development Test ClickBiology

Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology Click image to view a video on plant reproduction If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://vimeo.com/1594037?pg=embed&sec=1594037 Flower Structure

Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology Use the diagram below to complete the labels on the flower structure worksheet stigma anther style stamen filament carpel

ovary ovule petal sepal peduncle Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development receptacle Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology Complete the functions table by clicking on the labels to discover their functions stigma

anther style stamen filament carpel ovary ovule petal sepal receptacle peduncle Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal

Germination Test ClickBiology Flower Structure Quiz Click the correct answer What is the name of the structure labelled X in the diagram? carpel sepal X stamen peduncle Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal

Germination Test ClickBiology Flower Structure Quiz Where is pollen made? stigma sepal anther ovary Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination

Test ClickBiology Flower Structure Quiz Where is the ovule found in a flower? petals style nectary ovary Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

ClickBiology Flower Structure Quiz Which parts of the flower are labelled below: X X = style, Y = stigma X = filament, Y = anther Y X = stigma, Y = style X = anther, Y = filament Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal

Germination Test ClickBiology Pollination The pollen grain contains the male sex cell (gamete) Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther

to the stigma Click to view the animation This is an example of cross-pollination as the pollen travels from one flower to a different flower. This is desirable in plants as it promotes variation. Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology Pollen can be carried between flowers by insects or by wind Use the information in the next two slides to complete the table comparing the adaptations of

wind and insect pollinated flowers. Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology Insect-pollinated flowers are adapted to attract insects to them to enable transfer of pollen Pollen has barbs for hooking onto insect fur nectar and a

scent present Anthers positioned to rub pollen onto insects Sticky stigma to collect pollen Flower Structure Pollination Brightly coloured petals Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology

Wind-pollinated flowers are different in structure because they do not have to attract insects to them but do need to be exposed to the wind. Pollen grains are very small and light. They occur in very large numbers Anthers are exposed to the wind so that pollen can easily be blown away Stigma are feathery to catch pollen carried on wind Petals are small and green as there is no need to attract insects Flower Structure No scent or nectary

Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology Self-pollination occurs when pollen falls from the anther onto the stigma of the same flower Click to show animation of selfpollination Self-pollination is not desirable as it reduces variation Flower Structure

Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology Flowers will prevent self-pollination by either having stigma above stamen or Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination

Test ClickBiology by having stamen and stigma mature at different times. Complete the sections in your worksheet describing self-pollination and crosspollination. Explain the mechanisms employed by plants to prevent self-pollination. Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology

Click on the icons below to view the summary videos on pollination If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZ3J4UWwd2Q Pollination (9 minutes) If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ge3EM8AERV0 Insect pollination (1 minute) Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal

Germination Test ClickBiology Pollination Quiz Click the correct answer Pollination is the transfer from.? the stigma to anther style to stamen ovule to filament anther to stigma Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal

Germination ClickBiology Pollination Quiz The two mechanisms for pollination are? Wind and water Insect and wind Insect and water Wind and birds Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology

Pollination Quiz Cross-pollination Increases variation Decreases variation Is only performed by insects Is only performed by wind Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology Pollination Quiz Flowers are adapted for wind-pollination by

Having bright petals and a scent Having a nectary Having feathery stigmas Having sticky stigmas Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology Fertilisation and Fruit Development Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development

Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology Once pollination occurs a tube grows from the pollen grain down through the style to the ovule stigma style carpel ovary Click to view the animation ovule Note: Petals not shown in order to simplify diagram Flower Structure Pollination

Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology Fertilisation occurs when the male gamete fuses with the ovule (the female gamete) Complete the fertilisation section of the worksheet Click to view the animation (you will need to refer to your text book)

Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology Watch this short introductory video to review fertilisation (1 minute) If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVhH2GPlckE ClickBiology Seed Dispersal Flower Structure

Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology Watch the video on seed dispersal (lasts just under 10 minutes) If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbQ1jWl3AOM ClickBiology After fertilisation the petals, stamen and sepals fall off. The ovule turns into a seed, the fertilised egg inside develops into an embryo plant. Cotyledon: Food store

Testa: tough seed coat Plumule: Embryo shoot Micropyle: Hole made by pollen tube Embryo plant Radicle: Embryo root Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal

Germination ClickBiology Water leaves the seed, it dehydrates and becomes dormant because metabolic reactions stop. The ovary develops to become a fruit. Fleshy wall of the ovary (yes, you are eating an adapted ovary when you crunch into an apple! seed Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development

Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology Seeds need to be dispersed away from the parent plant in order to reduce competition for space, light, nutrients and water. Seeds can be dispersed by: Wind Water Mechanical Animals Fill in the worksheet on the reasons and mechanisms for seed dispersal ClickBiology

Seed dispersal quiz Click the correct answer Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture water mechanical wind animal Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology

Seed dispersal quiz Click the correct answer Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture mechanical animal water wind Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology Seed dispersal quiz

Click the correct answer Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture water wind animal mechanical Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology Seed dispersal quiz Click the correct answer

Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture animal mechanical water wind Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test ClickBiology Germination Flower Structure

Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology The seed contains the embryo plant and cotyledons (starch stores) Testa Water enters the seed through the micropyle and activates enzymes. Plumule (embryo shoot) The water also softens the testa to allow it to

split. Radicle (embryo root) Label the diagram of the seed Cotyledon Micropyle Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology Enzymes are used in seed germination Plumule

starch amylase secreted embryo plant ab so rbe d The enzymes break starch down into maltose and then glucose. The glucose is used in respiration to provide energy for growth maltose Radicle This is the first part to grow out of the

seed as it needs to absorb more water Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology Whilst germinating the plant uses food stores in the cotyledon to provide energy for growth light The seedling can now photosynthesise and make its own food germination Plant growth and development

soil Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology Changes in dry mass of the germinating seed: Answer the question on the worksheet Seed loses weight as it uses up starch stores in the cotyledons as the seedling cannot photosynthesise yet

Click to listen to an explanation Dry mass/g Weight increases as the seedling can photosynthesise and plant grows Dry mass is the mass of solid matter with all water removed Days Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal

Germination ClickBiology Conditions required for germination Summarise the findings of the experiment shown below: Click to listen to an explanation Oxygen present Pyrogallol (absorbs oxygen) Oxygen present No light Oxygen present Oxygen

present No oxygen moist 4oC A Flower Structure dry moist moist moist Warm B Warm C

Warm D Warm E Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination ClickBiology END www.clickbiology.com ClickBiology

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