REVIEW VII THE FORBIDDEN CITY Located in modern-day Beijing, it was the capital of the Ming and Qing empires An imperial city containing hundreds of buildings, courtyards, and halls Members of the imperial family, the emperors concubines, and court eunuchs were the only people allowed in the Inner Court The lavishness and size of the city reflected the power and authority of the empire

QING DYNASTY Manchus from the north, non-Han peoples, invaded China and claimed the mandate of heaven in 1644 and ruled until 1911 Manchu rulers were taught Confucian beliefs and applied these principles to governing China The Qing, following the political examples of the Ming, ruled through a highly centralized system of scholar-bureaucrats The Qing were great patrons of the arts and also were responsible for expanding the

empire Under the Qing, trade with foreigners increased, particularly as demand for Chinese TOKUGAWA PERIOD: ISOLATION The Portuguese arrived in Japan in 1543 and established a commercial relationship Products such as tobacco and firearms introduced Christian missionaries arrived Fearful that conversion to Christianity would undermine the shogunate and that firearms were

no match for swords, shoguns began to restrict contact with foreigners A series of seclusion acts were passed By the 1640s, foreign trade was forbidden except for very limited Dutch and Chinese trade; Japanese were forbidden to travel abroad, and few foreigners were allowed in the country Self-imposed isolation relatively peaceful (Pax Tokugawa) TOKUGAWA PERIOD: POLITICAL CHANGE The unification of Japan in the late 1500s led to the establishment of a military government led by a shogun, which brought nearly 300 years of

peace and stability to Japan (Pax Tokugawa) Shoguns (supreme military rulers) sought to centralize their authority and maintain stability In prior periods, a decentralized feudal structure had allowed for the daimyo (landowning families) to gain power and rule independent of the emperor; shoguns centralized authority and took power away from daimyo Daimyo estates were broken up, and attendance at the imperial court in Edo (modern-day Tokyo) was required; daimyo needed permission of shogun to marry and even repair castles TOKUGAWA PERIOD: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES

The peace and stability in this period brought about great changes Socially, the samurai and daimyo classes, who had previously been involved in fighting civil wars, now found they could concentrate their time and wealth on new endeavors, including the arts New crops led to a population increase As Japanese cities grew and trade increased, the merchant class benefited greatly Cities were centers of new cultural traditions, including the development of kabuki theater OTTOMAN EMPIRE: RISE AND EXPANSION

In 1453, the Ottoman Turks, nomads from central Asia, captured the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul; Ottoman control continued until the 20th century Ottoman military success came from their command of gunpowder technology (diffused from China) The Islamic empire quickly expanded as the Ottomans took control of much of the Middle East and then extended their control to the Balkans and the Crimean Peninsula, creating a multinational empire By the mid 1500s, the Ottoman Empire was the largest and most power empire in Europe and the Middle East SLEYMAN THE MAGNIFICENT

As sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566, he expanded the empire into southern Europe and created an efficient centralized bureaucracy Modernized the Ottoman army Known as the Lawgiver for improving the legal system laws were based on sharia, Islamic law He was a great patron of the arts and known for his religious tolerance MILLET SYSTEM

In the Ottoman Empire, legally protected religious communities of non-Muslims Millets were permitted to maintain their own traditional religious beliefs Major millets were composed of Jews, Greeks, and Armenians who promised not to undermine the sultans authority JANISSARIES Soldiers in the Ottoman Empire that trained to protect and serve the sultan Many of the soldiers were young Christian

boys taken from the Balkan regions and forced into the sultans service They were forced to convert to Islam and pledge absolute loyalty to the sultan; in return, they gained great privileges and honor Over time, they sought to gain influence and control of the government SAFAVID EMPIRE Following the Battle of Chaldiran, fought against the Ottoman Turks in 1514, the Safavid family consolidated their control over modern-day Iran and ruled until 1736 They established the Shiite sect of Islam as

the official religion of the empire Under Shah Abbas the Great (r.1588-1629) the capital was moved to Isfahan, the army was modernized and long-distance trade flourished Constant conflict with the Ottomans, coupled with the threat of an increasingly stronger Russian Empire to the north and the Mogul Empire to the south, led to decline MOGUL EMPIRE An Islamic empire, established in India following the defeat of the Delhi Sultanate by the Moguls in 1526

The Moguls unified much of the subcontinent and under the leadership of Akbar established a strong centralized empire in the region During the Mogul golden age Islamic art and architecture flourished as evidenced by the building of the Taj Mahal The empire began to decline in late 1600s: emperors abandoned policies of religious toleration (majority of subcontinent Hindu), and the arrival of Europeans posed a serious challenge to Mogul rule AKBAR THE GREAT A ruler of the Mogul Empire (r. 15561605), he clearly established the

absolute authority of the emperor and a policy of tolerance toward the many religions in his empire Eliminated the jizya, a tax imposed on Hindus, and allowed Hindus to rise to positions of power in his government Modernized the army and encouraged long-distance trade Generous patron of the arts TAJ MAHAL A tomb built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, who died giving birth An excellent example of Islamic and Hindu architecture

Design elements include a large dome, minarets, a reflecting pool, expansive courtyards, and the use of symmetry BRITISH ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN INDIA Beginning in the early 1600s, Mogul emperors granted concessions to allow the British to trade in India Trading posts were set up along the coast in places such as Madras and Bombay The British East India Company established forts to protect its commercial interest and controlled

trade in India throughout the 1600s and early 1700s In the mid 1800s, following the Sepoy Rebellion, the British government took control of trade and replaced the RUSSIAN EMPIRE: RISE AND EXPANSION After breaking free of Mongol control in the late 1400s, Muscovite princes began to take control over much of Russia, eliminating the authority of local princes Ivan III, a grade prince of Moscow, developed a policy that encouraged

Cossacks (peasants) to settle in the lands that he had conquered Ivan centralized his authority, claimed divine right to rule, and named himself czar Moscow was established as the capital of the new Russian Empire IVAN THE TERRIBLE Russian czar (r. 1533-1584) who continued to expand the empire and to consolidate the czars absolute authority Sought to eliminate opposition to his authority by killing boyars (Russian nobles) he suspected of disloyalty

and confiscated their lands His actions, while harsh and cruel, ensured that there would be few challenges to the Russian autocracy THE ROMANOVS Following a period of civil unrest in Russia, Mikhail Romanovs election as czar established the Romanovs as the new royal family They ruled Russia from the early 1600s until 1917 They continued the tradition of autocratic rule established by previous czars

Encouraged Russification and allegiance to the Eastern Orthodox Church WESTERNIZATION Occurs as societies are influenced by Western culture and assimilate and/or adopt Western ideas In this time period, the West (western Europe) impacted numerous societies around the world Some regions responded by isolating themselves, as was the case in Japan (although during its Meiji Restoration, Japan borrowed many Western ideas) and to a

lesser degree in Russia (until Peter the Great began his program of PETER THE GREAT Russian czar (r. 1682-1725) best known for centralizing his authority and bringing Western ideas to the Russian Empire In an attempt to modernize the empire, he traveled to the West and brought back new ideas about science and technology Russians were sent abroad to learn modern military

and industrial techniques He introduced many reforms that changed Russia economically and socially, yet he remained committed to autocracy and divine right He modernized the army and navy Socially, women were extended more freedoms and society in general was encouraged to look more Western laws required men to shave their beards and wear Western clothing ST. PETERSBURG Located on the Baltic Sea, was established as the capital of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great Served as a visible symbol of Russias efforts to modernize, as well as of the absolute

authority of the czar Also known as the window to the west, the city welcomed western Europeans and their knowledge of science and technology CATHERINE THE GREAT A Russian czarina (r.1763-1796), she continued Peter the Greats policy of modernization while ensuring the absolute authority of the monarch Continued to expand the empire, she gained land from the Ottoman Empire and took control of Alaska Gained access to a warm-water port, a goal

never realized by Peter, and took control of Poland Known as an Enlightened despot, she built schools and hospitals and was tolerant of the different religions found throughout her empire, yet remained an autocratic ruler SERFDOM IN RUSSIA As the result of unpaid debts, many peasants were forced into serfdom Serfdom provided a labor force for the agrarian-based economy Serfs were laborers who were tied to the land, and although not slaves, they could not be

sold Czars passed laws limiting the rights of serfs, in large part to gain the favor of the nobility ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Technological innovations in the 1700s led to industrialization, the mass production of goods using machine power (rather than hand power) Began in England due to availability of workers, numerous natural resources (notably coal and iron ore), an expansive canal network and easily navigable rivers, a large number of wealthy individuals willing to invest capital in new businesses, and a government that encouraged capitalistic

efforts Key inventions flying shuttle, spinning jenny designed to make cotton spinning quicker and more efficient INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: NEW MACHINES Textile industry first to industrialize Flying shuttle and spinning jenny designed to make cotton spinning quicker and more efficient First machines powered by wind and water (early factories located along rivers) by late 1700s, steam engine was powering machines also

making changes in transportation industry Advances in steam power and steel production (for example, the Bessemer process) revolutionized the transportation industry steamships and railroads were used to transport cargo Within a century industrialization spread throughout Western Europe, to Russia, the United States and to Japan EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ON SOCIETY Mass production of goods drove down the price of consumer items, and the resulting

increase in demand encouraged the development of quicker and more efficient methods of production The standard of living rose Also development of the working class in factories and mines Rapid urbanization led to building tenements overcrowded conditions and spread of diseases Women saw roles change as men became wage earners a large number stayed at POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION Governments passed legislation protecting

workers (for example, the establishment of a minimum wage) Unions were formed to protect workers rights Industrialization caused many to reconsider the ownership of production and of products Adam Smith articulated his laissez-faire philosophy in The Wealth of Nations, while Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels condemned capitalism and promoted socialism FACTORY SYSTEM: SOCIAL IMPACT Prior to industrialization, societies were agriculturally based although in some places in Europe the domestic system existed, in which individuals worked on one part of production (for example, making cloth from

wool), most people still worked on farms Mass production drove down the price of consumer goods while demand increased cheaper goods meant more affordable prices and as a result the standard of living rose Conditions in factories in early years harsh and dangerous low wages, long hours, unsafe working conditions over time, reform movements and government intervention (minimum wage laws) and labor unions FACTORY SYSTEM: ECONOMIC IMPACT Developed as a way to house large and expensive machines in a single location, near a source of power, in

order to mass-produce goods Mass production saw a significant increase in the development of interchangeable parts (parts that were uniformly produced and thus could be easily replaced and fixed) and the creation of the assembly line Competition among factories encouraged the development of quicker and more efficient methods of AMERICAN REVOLUTION: CAUSES The thirteen British colonies in North America resented legislation passed by the British Parliament levying taxes and infringing on their rights

Under the banner No taxation without representation they sought the right to govern themselves In 1774, the Continental Congress was formed to oversee the colonists anti-British actions, and on July 4, 1776, the congress adopted the Declaration of Independence greatly influenced by the Enlightenment document was a justification for seeking independence arguing that government is based on the consent of the governed and that its purpose is to protect and secure rights of its citizens

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