James Danforth Quayle Wikipedia Dan Quayle entry ..Contributing
James Danforth Quayle Wikipedia Dan Quayle entry ..Contributing greatly to the perception of Quayle's incompetence was his tendency to make public statements which were either Self-contradictory "We don't want to go back to tomorrow, we want to go forward Obvious "For NASA, space is still a high priority Geographically wrong I love California. I practically grew up in Phoenix."
Fallacious It's time for the human race to enter the solar system" Or painfully confused and inappropriate, as when he addressed the United Negro College Fund, whose slogan is "A mind is a terrible thing to waste," and said "You take the United Negro College Fund model that what a waste it is to lose one's mind or not to have a mind is being very wasteful. How true that is." The Rehabilitation of Dan Quayle Prediction is very difficult, especially
about the future Niels Bohr (1885 - 1962) The future will be better tomorrow Dan Quayle (1947 - Electronic Publishing Pratt Library School Univ College London Chris Beckett VP Sales and Marketing Atypon
Leader in the Provision of E-publishing Solutions www.atypon.com Agenda The perils of prediction What is e-content hosting and how does it fit into the publishing landscape? What do companies like Atypon do
Understanding technical aspects of hosting How readers navigate to content Information overload today Morphing content The Scale challenge Future Trends Leader in the Provision of E-publishing Solutions www.atypon.com
The Perils of Prediction Electronic publishing Paper can be replaced as the storage and transport mechanism. We can move to electronic publishing and distribution of journals, newsletters, indexes, bibliographies, and so forth. This transition will increase the speed and lower the cost of dissemination.
The journey from electronic publishing to multimedia publishing is short. Journal articles of the future could include audio and video clips when they are appropriate for the situation. Management Information Systems Quarterly Vol 18, No. 3, September, 1994 Creating and Sustaining Global Community of Scholars Capabilities and the need to invest http://www.misq.org/
Multimedia capabilities University of Chicago press site http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/ 10.1086/343751 Annual Reviews site http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/suppl/ 10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.103004.142647 What is required to achieve the potential of electronic publishing?
INVESTMENT How Much? Open Journal Systems (OJS) $400,000 U.S.. is enough to purchase hosting and support services, using Open Journal Systems , for 785 journals! $509 U.S. per year
Heather Morrison The Imaginary Journal of Poetic Economics Thursday, January 25, 2007 Stop fighting the inevitable - and free funds for OA! International Consortium for the Advancement of Academic Publications Journal creation from $3,600 Cdn (about $3,000 US; ongoing journal hosting, maintenance and conversion from 1,840 Cdn
per year (about $1,500 U.S) $1500 per year The Aggregators MetaPress, Ingenta Connect, Atypon Link Probably in the area of $2,000-$5,000 per year per title May include a percentage of any ecommerce revenues Share a single platform
Share functionality Limited bespoke capabilities at this price point. The customised builders HighWire, Scitation (AIP), Atypon, MetaPress Pricing more mysterious In the case of Atypon at least based on a combination of functional complexity and amount of content. Possible with any of these to spend $500k-$1m
a year on a site and it might only have one title So why the disparity ? $500 - $500k? Capabilities and scalability CAPABILITIES What is the electronic content partner offering?
Providing sophisticated and flexible e-publishing solutions Widen readership Create new business models Grow revenue Take control of your content Interact with the reader more effectively Print vs. Electronic Publishing
E-publishing provides an entirely new set of challenges and opportunities when compared to print publishing: No physical storage required in library No postage or shipping No constraints on issue size or how articles are packaged Users can access from anywhere (no need to visit library) Many users can access simultaneously Content is easier to find due to wide metadata distribution Creates richer, faster research environment (e.g. easy to follow both forward and backward references/citations to other
content) Tech maintenance, changes to production process, archiving responsibilities, new skill sets required for staff, costs, changes to library processes Slide courtesy of Gary Coker MetaPress What is a hosting platform? The core online system upon which hosting features are built
Hardware and software Differentiated by: Integration with production systems, types of content supported features offered beyond just basic content access Slide courtesy of Gary Coker MetaPress Example platforms
SpringerLink (MetaPress) OECD (Ingenta) OUP Journals (HighWire) New England Journal of Medicine (HighWire moving to Atypon) Services Offered by Hosting Providers Processing of e-content metadata and full text Normalization & validation Reference parsing & link generation
Metadata distribution to 3rd parties Content indexing Browse and search user interfaces Access website design, customization, and branding Access control and license management Slide courtesy of Gary Coker MetaPress Services Offered by Hosting Providers. Online sales of subscriptions and individual content
objects Articles; Figures; Chapters, Chapter Sections; books; video Reports: usage, accounting, sales Online package management, online subscriber management Marketing features, such as subscriber messaging and RSS feeds Subscriber (library) features, such as authentication, linking, alerting, and usage reporting
Slide courtesy of Gary Coker MetaPress Management Tools On the desktop Real Time Control of Business models; the matching of content bundles, and user and contracts Look and feel Content
Loading Marketing Model differences Off the peg vs. Bespoke Vanilla vs. Tutti Frutti The platforms Atypon Link; Ingenta Connect; MetaPress; HighWire(?) The bespoke builders Atypon, HighWire, Scitation, MetaPress (?);
http://www.aluka.org/ Processing Digital Content The publishers production process produces metadata and full text files, which are transmitted to the hosting provider: Files are produced in standard formats that the hosting provider can process:#Metadata: SGML, XML, etc. Full text: PDF, HTML, TeX, MathML, etc.
There is a great deal of variation in the specific metadata fields provided by the publisher and how those fields are processed by the hosting provider, requiring a high level of integration between the publishers production process and the hosting provider Slide courtesy of Gary Coker MetaPress Metadata Metadata is all the information attributes that describe an
article Article title, author names, author affiliations, journal name, chronology / enumeration, abstract, subjects, keywords, etc. NOT the full text Most users discover content via metadata,so the richer the metadata provided, the more likely users will find the content Trends: Wider distribution of metadata (CrossRef, Google Scholar, etc.)
User-generated metadata (tagging, ratings, reviews, etc.) Slide courtesy of Gary Coker MetaPress Full Text
Full text refers to the entire contents of an e-journal article, including the actual text as well as images, graphs, tables, etc . Adobes PDF format is the de facto standard full text format Exactly duplicates the print journal, providing consistency Self-contained (a single downloadable file, unlike HTML)
But easier to share with others in violation of license agreements Trends: Move towards FT XML in the production process allows for disaggregated product delivery. Content-specific formats that provide richer media possibilities Slide courtesy of Gary Coker MetaPress Processing Digital Content
For content that is not born digital, such as historical backfiles, digitization of print is often necessary Digitization can be performed by the publisher, by the hosting provider, or by a 3rdparty digitization service Human-vs. computer-based digitization Metadata and full text files are transferred regularly from the publisher (or their production provider) to the hosting provider: Most transfers occur online, such as via FTP Large initial loads may be delivered via physical media, such as DVDs
Speed of processing by the hosting provider is critical Slide courtesy of Gary Coker MetaPress Processing Digital Content - Production Once metadata and full text files are in-house at the hosting provider, they must be processed into a form that allows online access: Normalization and validation software
transforms text files into records in the hosting platforms content database A metadata index is created for end user browsing and searching of metadata A full text index is created for end user searching of full text content Reference linking is enabled Slide courtesy of Gary Coker MetaPress Processing Digital Content Discoverability
Distribution of processed content to 3rd parties Full text or metadata Aggregators e.g. database vendors, econtent gateways ( a mix of FT and Metadata) Search engines (e.g. Google) Updates to subscribers access control records Generation of alerts and RSS feeds to inform users of the contents availability Creation and indexing according to taxonomies Discoverability Recommended articles
Discoverability Recommended articles Marketing Inclusion of an additional content Supplementary data files, video, podcast Provision of sophisticated business model support, beyond simple subscriptions in order to support non-institutional sales channels Branding and site editing capabilities
Portal building capabilities. E-commerce capabilities Marketing - Multimedia capabilities University of Chicago press site http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/ 10.1086/343751 Annual Reviews site http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/suppl/ 10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.103004.142647
Marketing - Multimedia capabilities Marketing - Multimedia capabilities Access Control & License Management Access control ensures that only authorized users gain access to only the content to which they are entitled Hosting providers provide support for a multitude of access control models, including support for free content
and pay-per-view User name and password IP range Shibboleth Athens Open Id Integration with 3rdparty access control entities (subscription agents, libraries, ATHENS, etc.) How Readers Navigate to Content
Simon Inger and Chris Beckett Gateways and Hosts Google or other search engine Subject A&I Primary Primary
Scholarly Scholarly Content Content Web Gateway (Sub Agent, Ingenta, Portals) Library Web space
When you need to find a specific online journal article and when you already have a reference or citation where do you start your search? 4.5 4 3.5 Relative Score 3
2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 A specialist bibliographic database Library web
pages A specialist site A publishers for your web site. subject The journals homepage A journals
gateway. A general web search engine A Scholarly Society web page When you wish to view the latest issues of your core journals, how do you navigate on the web to those journals?
5.00 4.50 4.00 3.50 Relative Score 3.00 2.50 2.00
1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 A specialist bibliographic database Library w eb pages
A specialist site for your subject A key research group A A publishers departmental w eb site.
listing Email based alerts The journals homepage A journals gatew ay.
A general w eb search engine A Scholarly Society w eb page When you need to do a search for articles on a specific subject, where on the web do you start that search? 5.00
0.50 0.00 A specialist bibliographic database Library w eb pages A specialist site for your
subject A key research group A A publishers departmental w eb site. listing
Email based alerts The journals homepage A journals gatew ay. A general w eb search
engine A Scholarly Society w eb page Subject A&I Gateway: CSA Illumina http://www.csa.com Search Engine Gateway: Google
http://www.google.com Sub Agent Gateway: SwetsWise http://www.swetswise.com Library Gateway: Chicago, USA http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/e/db/eresources.html
Three Types of Aggregator Hosts the content owners or their service providers web sites Gateways web sites that index and link to the hosts Full text aggregators companies that license publishers content, host it and sell it as a collection See paper on aggregators: http://dx.doi.org/10.1087/095315101753141383
Wrap-Up The world has settled on A relatively small number of scholarly content hosts: aggregations of journals and books representing many publishers, and publisher web sites A relatively small number of gateways to content with different unique selling points Library web sites, which are effectively
gateways themselves Role of the librarian Gateways and Hosts Google or other search engine Subject A&I
Library Web space The Role of the Librarian For most scholarly e-resources, the great majority of usage comes from library-enabled site-licences There are two distinct points to be made here: Library web environments are a major starting point for readers
Libraries are also responsible for arranging licences so that the content appears to be free of charge to the user The user can access the content in addition to merely discovering it What Librarians are Trying to Achieve (Broadly) Provide and direct patrons to appropriate resources
Appropriate, in this context, means quality, reliable sources of information Maximise usage and return on investment in these resources Gateways and Hosts Google or other search engine Subject A&I
Primary Primary Scholarly Scholarly Content Content Web Gateway (Sub
Agent, Ingenta, Portals) Library Web space Information overload today The first learned societies and journals could encompass all disciplines Today: ~90% of the scientists who have ever lived are alive today
c. 3% annual growth in articles since 1981 c. 1.5M articles published in 2007 (Mabe, 2007) Specialisation is inevitable Even then, in most fields a researcher cant cover it all Slide courtesy of Sally Morris Morris Associates Output of science & technology articles 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000
400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 European Union United States Asia-10 World total
1995 Slide courtesy of Mike Mabe - STM 2005 Making it easier to do what you already do THEN NOW
Letter, phone Paper submission, post to/from publisher and reviewers Print journals Printed indexes Looking up citations Recommendation, citation Email Online journal submission and peer review
E-journals Online search engines Citation linking Human (or machine) tagging Slide courtesy of Sally Morris Morris Associates Making it possible to do completely new things Distributed data collection, sharing and analysis
New forms of communication: blogs, wikis etc Developing ideas as a group/community The possibilities of behavioural tracking Slide courtesy of Sally Morris Morris Associates The changing role of data Data collection Distributed/international
Previously unimaginable scale E.g. Global Ocean Observing System (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/phod/goos.php) Data sharing E.g. Dataverse Project (http://thedata.org/) Data analysis Previously unimaginable speed and complexity E.g. SETI project (http://setiathome.berkeley.edu) Data (and text) mining (e.g. BioText, http://biotext.berkeley.edu/) Slide courtesy of Sally Morris Morris Associates
Where do journals and articles fit in all of this? The individual article Should we insist on a single, fixed, version of record? Slide courtesy of Sally Morris Morris Associates Where do journals and articles fit in all of this? The individual article Should we insist on a single, fixed, version of
record? or should it be an evolving agglomeration of data, descriptive text, discussion, and other relevant media? Slide courtesy of Sally Morris Morris Associates The end [email protected]
"Charity begins at home" to justify unconcern Rebuttal: We can never reach our homeland, so time will never come to send out missionaries! 2. Heathen are too depraved and quote, "The holy things of God are not to be cast...
Masonry Walls When exterior walls are masonry or concrete, the walls continue down to the footing. If interior walls are masonry or concrete the same detail is used. On the plan, these walls are cross-hatched to show masonry construction. Masonry...
Carly Parry PhD, Heather Edwards PhD, Miho Tanaka PhD * These can be elaborated even further And if we think about this there may be more in here we need to describe and understand that affects screening. But think about...
This is like renting a space (house/flat), with a lease. The new system is a digital system. It works offline. ... The computerised system for market management and ticket sales is only of added value when human effort is made...