The Relativistic Quantum World A lecture series on Relativity Theory and Quantum Mechanics Marcel Merk University of Maastricht, Sept 14 Oct 12, 2017 Introduction Email: [email protected] Website: www.nikhef.nl/~i93 CV: 1976 1982: High-school St. Maartenscollege, Maastricht 1982 1987: Study Physics at Radboud University, Nijmegen 1987 1991: PhD in Nijmegen and CERN 1991 1994: Postdoc Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh 1994 1997: Postdoc Nikhef, Amsterdam 1997 2000: Fellow of Royal Dutch Academy at Utrecht

2000 today: Research Physicist at Nikhef Amsterdam 2005 today: Extraordinary Professor at the VU, Amsterdam Current Research: - The Large Hadron Collider at CERN. - Study the matter-vs-antimatter asymmetry in the laws of nature. - Why do we have three generations of fundamental particles? Number of events Personal Research Focus Research: - The Large Hadron Collider at CERN. 4 neutrinos - Study the matter-vsantimatter

3 neutrinos asymmetry in the laws of 2 neutrinos nature. measurements Collision Energy (GeV) Why are there three generations of particles and where is the antimatter? Does the Higgs particle/field perhaps play an even more fundamental role? Standard Model Quantum Mechanics Relativity

The Relativistic Quantum World Sept 14: Lecture 1: The Principle of Relativity and the Speed of Light Lecture 2: Time Dilation and Lorentz Contraction Sept 21: Lecture 3: The Lorentz Transformation and Paradoxes Lecture 4: General Relativity and Gravitational Waves Sept 28: Lecture 5: The Early Quantum Theory Lecture 6: Feynmans Double Slit Experiment Oct 5: Lecture 7: The Delayed Choice and Schrodingers Cat Lecture 8: Quantum Reality and the EPR Paradox Oct 12: Lecture 9: The Standard Model and Antimatter Lecture 10: The Large Hadron Collider Lecture notes, written for this course, are available: www.nikhef.nl/~i93/Teaching/

Prerequisite for the course: High school level mathematics. Relativity and Quantum Mechanics There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now. All that remain is more and more precise measurements. -Lord Kelvin on Physics in 1900 However, two unsolved issues: 1. The existence of the mysterious aether Relativity Theory 2. The stability of the atom Quantum Mechanics Albert Einstein Niels Bohr Werner Heisenberg Erwin Schrdinger

Paul Dirac Relativity and Quantum Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Classical Mechanics Smaller Sizes () Higher Speed (c) Newton Bohr Feynman

Einstein Relativity Theory Quantum Field Theory Classical mechanics is not wrong. It is has limited validity for macroscopic objects and for moderate velocities. A Gedanken Experiment A useful tool throughout these lectures: Thought experiments: Consider an experiment that is not limited by our level of technology. Assume the apparatus works perfectly without limitations so that we test only the limits of the laws of nature! Lecture 1

The Principle of Relativity and the Speed of Light If you cant explain it simply you dont understand it well enough -Albert Einstein Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler -Albert Einstein Albert Einstein (1879 1955) Annus Mirabilis 1905: Special theory of relativity: Fundamental change interpreting space and time. Equivalence of mass and energy: E=mc2 The Photo-Electric Effect: QM: light consists of photon-quanta Brownian Motion:

Demonstration of existence of atoms Although these studies were motivated by curiosity, they eventually had a large impact on society: Computing and communication technology, health-care technology, navigation, military, Galilei Transformation law (Bob) . (Alice) w= w= ? v=

S S With which speed do the ball and the outfielder approach each other? Intuitive law (daily experience): 30 m/s + 10 m/s = 40 m/s Galileo Galilei (1564 1642) More formal: Observer S (the Batter) observes the ball with relative velocity: w Observer S (the running Outfielder) observes the ball with relative velocity: w The velocity of S with respect to S is: v w = w + v

This is the Galileian law for adding velocities. Not exactly correct: in lecture 3 we will see: w = 39.999999999999997 m/s ! Galilei Transformation law (Bob) . (Alice) w= w= ? v= S S

With which speed do the ball and the outfielder approach each other? Intuitive law: 250 000 km/s + 200 000 km/s = 450 000 km/s ? Galileo Galilei (1564 1642) More formal: Observer S (the Batter) observes the ball with relative velocity: w Observer S (the running Outfielder) observes the ball with relative velocity: w The velocity of S with respect to S is: v w = w + v This is the Galileian law for adding velocities. Not at all correct: in lecture 3 we will see: w = 290 000 km/s !

Einstein! Coordinate Systems A reference system or coordinate system is used to determine the time and position of an event. Reference system S is linked to observer Bob at position (x,y,z) = (0,0,0) An event (batter hits the ball) is fully specified by giving its coordinates in time and space: (t, x, y, z) w Reference system S is linked to observer Alice who is moving with velocity v with respect to S of Bob.

How are the coordinates of the event of Bob (batter hits the ball) expressed in coordinates for Alice (t, x, y, z) (running outfielder) ? eg.: Is it true that t = t ? (universal time Galilei) How is the trajectory of the ball for Alice related to that for Bob? Alice, Bob and Real Speed Alice cycles with v = 20 km/h The boat moves with w = 10 km/h Bob sees 20 km/h + 10 km/h = 30 km/h What is the real speed? Imagine Alice has a windowless cabine and wants to determine whether the boat moves

by doing an experiment. Can she find out shes moving 30 km/h? (here illustrated for an airplane) Astronauts in the ISS dont notice that they move with 29 000 km/h! Absolute velocity does not exist!!! Inertial frames: Observers that move with a constant relative velocity Special Relativity Postulates of Special Relativity Two observers in so-called Inertial frames, i.e. they move with a constant relative speed to each other, observe that: 1) The laws of physics for each observer are the same, 2) The speed of light in vacuum for each observer is the same. A thought experiment:

Bob measures the speed of light rays. What does he find? Alice also measures the speed of light rays. What does she find? Einstein: No ! Galilei: v = 3+1 = 43 x 108 m/s? m/s! Bob Alice A clear contradiction with the Galilei law of addition of velocities!

Lets do the experiment Experiments: If its green and it wiggles, its biology, If it stinks, its chemistry, If it doesnt work, its physics. Measurement of the Speed of Light Electromagnetism (Maxwell): Light consists of propagating waves of perpendicular electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields Propagation speed: c = 299 792 km/s E

B Measure the speed directly: 1849: Armand Fizeau: c = 315 000 km/s 1862: Leon Foucault: c = 298 000 km/s Measurement of the Speed of Light Light waves were believed to be carried by the aether Earth moves through the aether: 30 km/s earth aether Measure the light speed with an interferometer along two perpendicular directions

Michelson-Morley Experiment (1887) Interferometer What do we expect to find for the travel times? Comparison with water in a river Swimmer crossing a river with flowing water Light propagating through the aether wind Flow w= Expect that the time traversing 100 meter is shorter than the time for 100 meter upand downstream

Measurement with light: no effect, travel times are the same! The speed of light is always constant! The vacuum is the same for any observer Crossing vs Up-and-Down 1. Swimming AD + DA Time = time1 + time2= = 100 / (5-3) + 100 / (5+3) = 100 /2 + 100 / 8 = 50 + 12.5 = 62.5 s d 2. Swimming AB + BA Have to swim under an angle toward AC to compensate the flow 3 m/s Effective crossing speed= (52-32) = (25-9) = (16) = 4 m/s

Time = time1 + time2= = 100 / 4 + 100 / 4 = 25 + 25 = 50 s Flow w= 3m/s 4m/s 5m/s Crossing vs Up-and-Down 1. Swimming AD + DA Time = time1 + time2= = d/(v-w) + d/(v+w) = d(v+w) / (v2-w2) + d(v-w) / (v2w2) = 2dv / v2(1-w2/v2) = 2d/v * 1/(1 w2/v2)

d 2. Swimming AB + BA Have to swim under an angle toward AC to compensate the flow w Effective crossing speed= (v2-w2) = v * (1-w2/v2) Time = time1 + time2= = d/(v2-w2) + d/(v2-w2) = 2d / (v * (1-w2/v2) ) = 2d/v * 1/ (1-w2/v2) Translated to light, replace: vc in aether wind w, tA = 2d/c * 1 / (1-w2/c2) tB = 2d/c * 1 / (1-w2/c2) Measure:

tA = t B (no aether) Flow w= Absolute Velocity for Alice and Bob c = 3 x 108 m/s How can we ever measure an absolute velocity in vacuum? When are we standing still with respect to the vacuum? The only absolute reference is the speed of light and it is always 300 000 km/s. In special relativity absolute velocity has no meaning, only relative velocities do. Hence: Theory of relativity.

Absolute velocity is meaningless Completely Counterintuitive! How about the cosmic microwave background?