Methodology for Choosing Datacenter for Cloud Providers in

Methodology for Choosing Datacenter for Cloud Providers in West Africa Region Ahmed Alharthi April 25, 2014 UCCS Masters Project Report Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 1 Agenda Introduction Why Africa The proposed Methodology Selection Results Conclusion / Future Work

References Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 2 Introduction Research and process for selecting the best location to build data centers for cloud providers in West Africa. Main Considerations: Network performance, Costs, Submarine cables Other factors : Environmental, Economical and Politics stabilities. Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 3 Problems Lack of information regarding to data centers in

Africa. Demand of the services Globalizations moment Cloud provider numbers Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 4 Cloud providers Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 5 Related Work McConnell A., Parr G.P., Mc Clean S.I., Khan, K [38] Khosrow Ebrahimi, Gerard F. Jones, and Amy S. Fleischer [11] In terms of Africas network connectivity, M.

Zennaro, E. Canessa, K.R. Sreenivasan , A.A. Rehmatullah and R.L. [12] Sanjay M. Parekh, Robert B. Friedman, Neal K. Tibrewala, and Benjamin Lutch [28] Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 6 Why Africa ? Number of data centers Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 7 Why Africa ? Number of Data centre around the world Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 8 Why Africa ?

Growing demand Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 9 Why Africa ? Africa Submarine cables Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 10 Why Africa ? Geographical & Climate Characteristics of the region Climate & topography of the continent Tornados & Hurricanes & Tsunami Earthquake Politic Systems on the region Economic Status Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 11

The Proposed Methodology Intel Considerations are : WAN infrastructure availability of water for cooling Also, costs workforce, water, power or landscape. HP Considerations are : size, price and geographical quality of the land, the availability of power and communication network in the region. Cost of Operations [ electricity, water, network access, Free cooling] Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 12 The Proposed Methodology Methodology is mix of Intel , HP and IBM approaches Main considerations : Costs of Powering, Cooling and landscape. Communication network and their capabilities. Secondary considerations :

Politics status Geographical & Climate location Submarine cables Economy Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 13 The Proposed Methodology Decision Process Senegal, Guinea, Liberia, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Cameron, Cote d'ivoire, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Namibia. Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 14

The Proposed Methodology Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 15 The Proposed Methodology Network measurements Latency Round Trip Time Packet loss Bandwidth Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 16 The Proposed Methodology Network measurements Amazon Linux AMI 2014.03.1 machines In Singapore, Sydney and Sao Paulo Linux commands : Ping and Traceroute Tool used : Nmap ( Network mapper) Visual route

Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 17 The Proposed Methodology Network measurements from North America Country Latency Round trip time Packet loss Number of Hops Ghana 197.253.65.36 23 ms 220 ms 10 % 17 South Africa 41.74.178.82

27 ms 265 ms 0% 20 Senegal 41.83.255.255 30 ms 182 ms 0% 17 Nigeria 41.222.211.58 27 ms 182 ms 0% 18 300 265 250 220

200 182 182 150 100 50 0 23 Ghana 27 South Africa Latecny Ahmed- Master's Project Report 30 27 Senegal Nigeria RTT 4/25/2014 18 The Proposed Methodology

Network measurements from East Asia (Singapore) Country Latency Ghana 197.253.65.36 South Africa 41.74.178.82 Senegal 41.83.255.255 Nigeria 41.222.211.58 28 ms 48 ms 24 ms 27 ms Round trip time 270 ms 476 ms 236 ms 274 ms Packet loss 0% 0% 0% 0% Number of Hops 12 20 13 19

500 476 450 400 350 300 274 270 236 250 200 150 100 50 0 28 Ghana 48 South Africa 24 27 Senegal

Nigeria Latency Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 19 The Proposed Methodology Network measurements from East Asia (Sydney) Country Latency Round trip time Ghana 197.253.65.36 South Africa 41.74.178.82 Senegal 41.83.255.255 Nigeria 41.222.211.5 44 ms 44 ms 42 ms 42 ms 440 ms 493 ms 428 ms 448 ms

Packet loss Number of Hops 17 25 17 23 0% 0% 0% 0% 600 493 500 440 448 428 400 300 200 100 0 44 Ghana

44 South Africa Latency Ahmed- Master's Project Report 42 42 Senegal Nigeria RTT 4/25/2014 20 The Proposed Methodology Network measurements from South America (Brazil) Country Ghana 197.253.65.36 South Africa 41.74.178.82 Senegal 41.83.255.255 Nigeria 41.222.211.58 Latency 30 ms 36 ms 31 ms

32 ms Round trip time 312 ms 343 ms 281 ms 297 ms Packet loss 0% 0% 0% 0% Number of Hops 14 16 14 12 400 343 350 312 300 297 281 250

200 150 100 50 0 30 Ghana 36 South Africa 4 Latency Ahmed- Master's Project Report 31 32 Senegal Nigeria RTT 4/25/2014 21 The Proposed Methodology Ghana Observation core4.LDNLondon.as6453.net

[[email protected] cs701]$ ping -c 10 197.253.65.36 PING 197.253.65.36 (197.253.65.36) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 197.253.65.36: icmp_seq=1 ttl=43 time=981 ms 64 bytes from 197.253.65.36: icmp_seq=2 ttl=43 time=983 ms 64 bytes from 197.253.65.36: icmp_seq=3 ttl=43 time=973 ms 64 bytes from 197.253.65.36: icmp_seq=4 ttl=43 time=968 ms 64 bytes from 197.253.65.36: icmp_seq=5 ttl=43 time=972 ms 64 bytes from 197.253.65.36: icmp_seq=6 ttl=43 time=960

ms 64 bytes from 197.253.65.36: icmp_seq=7 ttl=43 time=1003 ms 64 bytes from 197.253.65.36: icmp_seq=9 ttl=43 time=967 ms 64 bytes from 197.253.65.36: icmp_seq=10 ttl=43 time=972 ms --- 197.253.65.36 ping statistics --- 10 packets transmitted, 9 received, 10% packet loss, time 8997ms Ahmed- Master's Project Report Goes to WASC submarine cables TATA 4/25/2014

22 The Proposed Methodology Estimating the Coast of Space, Cooling and Powering Data center Estimation based on HP Cost model for planning, development and operation of a data center Assumptions Facility size is 30000 sq ft 10 MW datacenter Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 23 The Proposed Methodology Cost of Space

Country Average rent (per sq ft) Lagos, Nigeria $6.48 8.00 Accra, Ghana $5.7-10.5 Dakar, Senegal $ 5.5 9.5 Cape Town, South Africa $ 10 - 14 Space Cost / sqft $60 $41 $38

$36 Lagos, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Dakar, Senegal Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 Cape Town, SA 24 The Proposed Methodology Cost of Power delivery Count ry Rate/sqft / Unit Lagos, $ 0.072/ft Nigeria Accra, $ 0.115 /ft Ghana Dakar, $0.151 /ft Senega

l Cape $ 0.172 Town, SA Cost of Power /sqft $0.17 $0.15 $0.12 $0.07 Lagos, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Dakar, Senegal Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 Cape Town, SA 25 The Proposed Methodology Cost of Cooling

Countr y Cooling Cost / sqft Rate / sqft Lagos, Nigeria $0.017/ft Accra, Ghana 0.030/ft Dakar, Senegal 0.040/ft Cape 0.047/ft Town, SA $0.05 $0.04 $0.03 $0.02

Lagos, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Dakar, Senegal Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 Cape Town, SA 26 The Proposed Methodology Total cost Total Cost /sq ft $60.22 $41.15 $37.44 $36.44 Lagos, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Dakar, Senegal Cape Town, SA

Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 27 Selection Results Ranking the country based on RTT Country Nigeria Senegal Ghana 1 South Africa 4 North America Singapore 1 2 1 4

3 Sydney 2 1 4 3 Brazil 2 1 4 3 Ahmed- Master's Project Report 3 4/25/2014 28 Selection Results Bandwidth 300

250 Bandwidth KB/s 200 150 Max Min 100 50 0 Ghana Nigieria Senegal South Africa Country Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 29 Selection Results

Total Space, Power and Cooling costs Total Cost /sq ft $60.22 $41.15 $37.44 $36.44 Lagos, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Dakar, Senegal Ahmed- Master's Project Report Cape Town, SA 4/25/2014 30 Conclusion

Senegal, Nigeria, Ghana and South Africa are the ideal locations to host data center for cloud provider. Nigeria has the most suitable features to host one. Africa has a good opportunity to host datacenter for a cloud provide. Costs of datacenter may be vary from city to other one. Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 31 Future Work Relevant criteria to select the best location of data center for a cloud provider should be identified. The data gathered from latency, round trip time and bandwidth should be gained from relevant data center of a cloud provider in real world. review Ping and trace utility data multiple time in different times. Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 32 References Amazon

Web Services. (2014). Global Infrastructure. Retrieved from http://aws.amazon.com/about-aws/globalinfrastructure/ John. DATA CENTER SITE SELECTION. Tech. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print. "BlackSwan Zine." Data Center: 10 Places You Dont Want to Build. Blackswanzine, 2010. Web. 2 Jan. 2014. [4] Chang, Shin-Jyh Frank, Susmit Harihar Patel, and James Marc Withers. "An optimization model to determine data center locations for the army enterprise."Military Communications Conference, 2007. MILCOM 2007. IEEE. IEEE, 2007. [5] Hugos, M. H., & Hulitzky, D. (2011). Business in the cloud: What every business needs to know about cloud computing. New York: Wiley. [6] Lanier, J. (2013). Who owns the future?. London: Allen Lane. [7] Wang, L. (2012). Cloud computing: Methodology, systems, and applications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. [8] Agrawal, G. P. (2010). Fiber-optic communication systems (Vol. 222). John Wiley & Sons. [9] "How to Meet a Growing Need for More Data Center Capacity."Http://www.ibm.com/us/en/. IBM, Sept. 2012. Web. Oct. 2013. [10] Nozick, Linda K., and Mark A. Turnquist. "A two-echelon inventory allocation and distribution center location analysis." Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 37.6 (2001): 425-441. [11] Ebrahimi, Khosrow, Gerard F. Jones, and Amy S. Fleischer. "A review of data center cooling technology, operating conditions and the corresponding low-grade waste heat recovery opportunities." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 31 (2014): 622-638. [12] Zennaro, M., et al. "Scientific Measure of Africa's Connectivity." Information Technologies & International Development 3.1 (2006). [13] Nozick, Linda K., and Mark A. Turnquist. "A two-echelon inventory allocation and distribution center location analysis." Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 37.6 (2001): 425-441. [14] Cloud Computing in Africa Situation and Perspectives. Tech. ITU, 20 Apr. 2012. Web. Feb.-Mar. 2014. [15] Data Center Map." - Colocation, Cloud, Managed Hosting Etc. N.p., n.d. Web. Mar. 2014. . [16] Submarine Telecoms INDUSTRY REPORT. Rep. Terabit Consulting, 2013. Web. [17] African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania. African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania. Web. 15 Feb. 2014. [18] Pappa, Farrah. "The Do's and Dont's of Data Center Planning." The Do's and Dont's of Data Center Planning. Web. 15 Feb. 2014. [19] Map of Earthquakes Today." Map of Earthquakes Today. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. Rath, [20] Earthquakes .Web. Feb. 2014. .

Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 33 References [21] P&S. "Tsunami Strikes African Coast." Tsunami Strikes African Coast. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. "Nigeria Economy Set to Leapfrog South Africa on Data Revamp."Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg, 7 May 2014. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. [23] Nigeria. Official Website. Web. Feb. 2014. . [24] "Selecting A Data Center Site: Intel's Approach." N.p., Feb. 2014. Web. Feb. 2014. [25] Selecting a Location for an HPC Data Centre. Tech. N.p.: n.p., 2013. Web. . [26] "Africas International Bandwidth Growth to Lead the World." Africa's International Bandwidth Growth to Lead the World. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2014. [27] Hurricanes VS Tornadoes. Diffen, n.d. Web. Mar. 2014. [28] Parekh, Sanjay M., et al. "Systems and methods for determining collecting and using geographic locations of Internet users." U.S. Patent No. 6,757,740. 29 Jun. 2004. [29] Nmap Free Security Scannar. Web. Jan. 2014. . [30] TATA, n.d. Web. Apr. 2014. . [31] Patel, Chandrakant D., and Amip J. Shah. "Cost model for planning, development and operation of a data center." (2005). [32] "Nigeria Becomes Africa's Biggest Economy." BBC. N.p., 06 Apr. 2014. Web. 06 Apr. 2014. . [33] "Cloud Uptake Set to Explode Across Africa." Cisco. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. . [34] Hanson, Stephanie. "Nigerias Creaky Political System." Council on Foreign Relations, Apr. 2007. Web. . [35] "Top 10 Internet Countries in Africa." PC Tech Magazine. N.p., Feb. 2014. Web. Apr. 2014. .

[36] "Political System." Wikipedia. Web. Mar. 2014. . [37] "GLOBAL BROADBAND." Netindex. N.p., n.d. Web. Feb. 2014. . [38] McConnell, A., et al. "Selecting a Data C based Location." [22] Ahmed- Master's Project Report 4/25/2014 34

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