Transformations Exploring Rigid Motion in a Plane What You Should Learn Why You Should Learn It Goal 1: How to identify the three basic

rigid transformations in a plane Goal 2: How to use transformations to identify patterns and their properties in real life You can use transformations to create visual patterns, such as stencil patterns for the border of a wall Identifying Transformations (flips, slides, turns)

Figures in a plane can be reflected, rotated, or slid to produce new figures. The new figure is the image, and the original figure is the preimage The operation that maps (or moves) the preimage onto the image is called a transformation

Blue: preimage Pink: image 3 Basic Transformations Reflection (flip) Translation (slide)

Rotation (turn) ://standards.nctm.org/document/eexamples/chap6/6.4/index.htm Example 1 Identifying Transformations Identify the transformation shown at the left.

Example 1 Identifying Transformations Translation To obtain ABC, each point of ABC was slid 2 units to the right and 3

units up. Rigid Transformations A transformation is rigid if every image is congruent to its preimage This is an example

of a rigid transformation b/c the pink and blue triangles are congruent Example 2 Identifying Rigid Transformations Which of the following transformations appear to be rigid?

Example 2 Identifying Rigid Transformations Which of the following transformations appear to be rigid? The image is not congruent to the preimage, it is smaller

The image is not congruent to the preimage, it is fatter Definition of Isometry A rigid transformation is called an isometry A transformation in the plane is an

isometry if it preserves lengths. (That is, every segment is congruent to its image) It can be proved that isometries not only preserve lengths, they also preserves angle measures, parallel lines, and betweenness of points Example 3 Preserving Distance and Angle Measure

In the figure at the left, PQR is mapped onto XYZ. The mapping is a rotation. Find the length of XY and the measure of Z Example 3 Preserving Distance and Angle Measure

In the figure at the left, PQR is mapped onto XYZ. The mapping is a rotation. Find the length of XY and the measure of Z B/C a rotation is an isometry, the two triangles are congruent, so XY=PQ=3 and m Z= m R =35

Note that the statement PQR is mapped onto XYZ implies the correspondence PX, QY, and RZ Example 4 Using Transformations in Real-Life Stenciling a Room You are using the stencil pattern shown below to create a border in a room. How are the ducks labeled, B, C, D, E,

and F related to Duck A? How many times would you use the stencil on a wall that is 11 feet, 2 inches long? Example 4 Using Transformations in Real-Life Stenciling a Room You are using the stencil pattern shown below to create a border in a room. How are the ducks labeled, B, C, D, E, and F related to Duck A? How many times would you

use the stencil on a wall that is 11 feet, 2 inches long? Duck C and E are translations of Duck A Example 4 Using Transformations in Real-Life Stenciling a Room You are using the stencil pattern shown below to create a border in a room. How are the ducks labeled, B, C, D,

E, and F related to Duck A? How many times would you use the stencil on a wall that is 11 feet, 2 inches long? Ducks B,D and F are reflections of Duck A Example 4 Using Transformations in Real-Life Stenciling a Room You are using the stencil pattern shown below to create

a border in a room. How are the ducks labeled, B, C, D, E, and F related to Duck A? How many times would you use the stencil on a wall that is 11 feet, 2 inches long? 112 = 11 x 12 + 2 = 134 inches 134 10 = 13.4, the maximum # of times you can use the stencil pattern (without overlapping) is 13 Example 4 Using Transformations in Real-Life Stenciling a Room

You are using the stencil pattern shown below to create a border in a room. How are the ducks labeled, B, C, D, E, and F related to Duck A? How many times would you use the stencil on a wall that is 1 feet, 2 inches long? If you want to spread the patterns out more, you can use the stencil only 11 times. The patterns then use 110 inches of space. The remaining 24 inches allow the patterns to be 2 inches part, with 2 inches on each end

Translations (slides) What You Should Learn Why You Should Learn It How to use properties of translations How to use translations to solve reallife problems You can use translations to solve real-life problems, such as determining patterns in music

A translation (slide) is an isometry The picture is moved 2 feet to the right and The points are moved 3 units to the left and Examples http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/activiti es/transform/index.html

Prime Notation Prime notation is just a added to a number It shows how to show that a figure has moved The preimage is the blue ABC and the image (after the movement) is ABC

v Using Translations A translation by a vector AA' is a transformation that maps every point P in the plane to a point P', so that the following properties are true.

1. PP' = AA' 2. PP' || AA' or PP' is collinear with AA' Coordinate Notation Coordinate notation is when you write things in terms of x and y coordinates. You will be asked to describe the translation using coordinate notation. When you moved from A to A, how far did your x travel (and the

direction) and how far did your y travel (and the direction). Start at point A and describe how you would get to A: Over two and up three Or (x + 2, y + 3) Vector Notation Example 1 Constructing a Translation

Use a straightedge and dot paper to translate PQR by the v vectorv = 4,3 Hint: In a vector the 1st value represents horizontal distance,

the 2nd value represents vertical distance v v P R Q

Example 1 Constructing a Translation Use a straightedge and dot paper to translate PQR by the vector v v = 4,3

What would this be in coordinate notation? v v P' R'

P R Q' (x + 4, y + 3) Q Using Translations in Real Life

Example 2 (Translations and Rotations in Music) Formula Summary Coordinate Notation for a translation by (a, b): (x + a, y + b) Vector Notation for a translation by (a, b)

Ro tat i on s What You Should Learn Why You Should Learn It How to use properties of rotations How to relate rotations and rotational symmetry

You can use rotations to solve reallife problems, such as determining the symmetry of a clock face Using Rotations A rotation about a point O through x degrees (x) is a transformation that maps every point P in the plane to a point P', so that the following properties are true 1.

If P is not Point O, then PO = P'O and m POP' = x 2. If P is point O, then P = P' Examples of Rotation Example 1 Constructing a Rotation Use a straightedge, compass, and

protractor to rotate ABC 60 clockwise about point O Example 1 Constructing a Rotation Solution Place the point of the compass at O and draw an arc clockwise from point A Use the protractor to measure a 60 angle, AOA' Label the point A'

Example 1 Constructing a Rotation Solution Place the point of the compass at O and draw an arc clockwise from point B Use the protractor to measure a 60 angle, BOB' Label the point B' Example 1

Constructing a Rotation Solution Place the point of the compass at O and draw an arc clockwise from point C Use the protractor to measure a 60 angle,COC' Label the point C' Formula Summary Translations Coordinate Notation for a translation

by (a, b): (x + a, y + b) Vector Notation for a translation by (a, b): Rotations Clockwise (CW):

Counter-clockwise (CCW): (x, y) (y, -x) 90 (x, y) (-y, x) 180 (x, y) (-x, -y) 180 (x, y) (-x, 90 270 (x, y) (-y, x)

y) 270 (x, y) (y, -x) Rotations What are the coordinates for A? A(3, 1) What are the

coordinates for A? A(-1, 3) A A Example 2 Rotations and Rotational Symmetry Which

clock faces have rotational symmetry? For those that do, describe the rotations that map the clock face onto itself. Example 2 Rotations and Rotational Symmetry Which clock faces have rotational symmetry? For those that do, describe the rotations that map the clock face onto

itself. Rotational symmetry about the center, clockwise or counterclockwise 30,60,90,120,150,180 Moving from one dot to the next is (1/12) of a complete turn or

(1/12) of 360 Example 2 Rotations and Rotational Symmetry Which clock faces have rotational symmetry? For those that do, describe the rotations that map the clock face onto itself. Does

not have rotational symmetry Example 2 Rotations and Rotational Symmetry Which clock faces have rotational symmetry? For those that do, describe the rotations that map the clock face onto itself.

Rotational symmetry about the center Clockwise or Counterclockwise 90 or 180 Example 2

Rotations and Rotational Symmetry Which clock faces have rotational symmetry? For those that do, describe the rotations that map the clock face onto itself. Rotational 180 symmetry about its center

Reflections Reflections What You Should Learn Why You Should Learn It Goal 1: How to use properties of reflections Goal 2: How to relate reflections and line symmetry You can use reflections to solve real-life problems, such as building

a kaleidoscope Using Reflections A reflection in a line L is a transformation that maps every point P in the plane to a point P, so that the following properties are true 1. If P is not on L, then L is the perpendicular bisector of PP 2. If P is on L, then P = P Reflection in the

Coordinate Plane Suppose the points in a coordinate plane are reflected in the x-axis. So then every point (x,y) is mapped onto the point (x,-y) P (4,2) is mapped onto P (4,-2) What do you notice about the x-axis? It is the line of reflection It is the perpendicular

bisector of PP Reflections & Line Symmetry A figure in the plane has a line of symmetry if the figure can be mapped onto itself by a reflection How many lines of symmetry does each hexagon have? Reflections & Line Symmetry

How many lines of symmetry does each hexagon have? 1 2 6 Reflection in the line y = x Generalize the results when a point is reflected about the line y = x

y=x (1,4) (4,1) (-2,3) (3,-2) (-4,-3) (-3,-4) Reflection in the line y = x Generalize the results when a point is reflected about the line y = x y= x

(x,y) maps to (y,x) Formulas Translations Coordinate Notation for a translation by (a, b): (x + a, y + b) Vector Notation for a translation by (a, b): Rotations

Clockwise (CW): 90 (x, y) (y, -x) 180 (x, y) (-x, -y) 270 (x, y) (-y, x) Counter-clockwise (CCW): 90 (x, y) (-y, x) 180 (x, y) (-x, -y) 270 (x, y) (y, -x) Reflections

(x, y) (x, -y) y-axis (x = 0) (x, y) (-x, y) Line y = x (x, y) (y, x) Line y = -x (x, y) (-y, -x) x-axis (y = 0) Any horizontal line (y = n): (x, y) (x, 2n - y) Any vertical line (x = n): (x, y) (2n x, y) 7 Categories of Frieze

Patterns Reflection in the line y = x Generalize what happens to the slope, m, of a line that is reflected in the line y = x y= x 2 y= x+2 3

3 y = x 3 2 Reflection in the line y = x Generalize what happens to the slope, m, of a line that is reflected in the line y 2 =x y= x+2 3

The new slope is 1 m 3 y = x 3 2 The slopes are reciprocals of each other Find the Equation of the

Line Find the equation of the line if y = 4x - 1 is reflected over y = x Find the Equation of the Line Find the equation of the line if y = 4x - 1 is reflected over y = x Y = 4x 1; m = 4 and a point on the line is (0,-1) So then, m = and a point on the line is (-1,0) Y = mx + b 0 = (-1) + b

=b y = x + Lesson Investigation It is a translation and YY'' is twice LM Theorem If lines L and M are parallel, then a reflection in line L followed by a

reflection in line M is a translation. If P'' is the image of P after the two reflections, then PP'' is perpendicular to L and PP'' = 2d, where d is the distance between L and M. Lesson Investigation Compare the measure of XOX'' to the acute angle formed by L and m Its a rotation

Angle XOX' is twice the size of the angle formed by L and m Theorem If two lines, L and m, intersect at point O, then a reflection in L followed by a reflection in m is a rotation about point O. The angle of rotation is 2x, where x is the measure of the acute or right angle

between L and m Glide Reflections & Compositions What You Should Learn Why You Should Learn It How to use properties of glide reflections

How to use compositions of transformations You can use transformations to solve real-life problems, such as creating computer graphics Using Glide Reflections A glide reflection is a transformation that consists of a translation by a vector, followed by a reflection in a line

that is parallel to the vector Composition When two or more transformations are combined to produce a single transformation, the result is called a composition of the transformations For instance, a translation can be thought

of as composition of two reflections Example 1 Finding the Image of a Glide Reflection Consider the glide reflection composed v v = 5,0 of the translation by the

vector , followed by a reflection in the x-axis. Describe the image of ABC Example 1 Finding the Image of a Glide Reflection v

v = 5, 0 Consider the glide reflection composed of the translation by the vector , followed by a reflection in the x-axis. Describe the image of ABC C' A' B'

The image of ABC is A'B'C' with these vertices: A'(1,1) B' (3,1) C' (3,4) Theorem The composition of two (or more)

isometries is an isometry Because glide reflections are compositions of isometries, this theorem implies that glide reflections are isometries Example 2 Comparing Compositions Compare the following transformations of

ABC. Do they produce congruent images? Concurrent images? Hint: Concurren t means meeting at the same point Example 2

Comparing Compositions Compare the following transformations of ABC. Do they produce congruent images? Concurrent images? From Theorem 7.6, you know that both compositions are isometries. Thus the triangles are congruent.

The two triangles are not concurrent, the final transformations (pink triangles) do not share the same vertices Does the order in which you perform two transformations affect the resulting

composition? Describe the two transformations in each figure Does the order in which you perform two

transformations affect the resulting composition? Describe the two transformations in each figure

Does the order in which you perform two transformations affect the resulting composition? YES Describe the two transformations in each figure Figure 1: Clockwise rotation of 90 about the origin, followed by a counterclockwise rotation of 90 about the point (2,2) Figure 2: a clockwise rotation

of 90 about the point (2,2) , followed by a counterclockwise rotation of 90 about the origin Example 3 Using Translations and Rotations in Tetris Online Tetri s

Frieze Patterns What You Should Learn Why You Should Learn It How to use transformations to classify frieze patterns How to use frieze patterns in real life You can use frieze patterns to create decorative borders for reallife objects such as fabric, pottery, and buildings

Classifying Frieze Patterns A frieze pattern or strip pattern is a pattern that extends infinitely to the left and right in such a way that the pattern can be mapped onto itself by a horizontal translation Some frieze patterns can be mapped onto themselves by other transformations:

A 180 rotation A reflection about a horizontal line A reflection about a vertical line A horizontal glide reflection Example 1 Examples of Frieze Patterns Name the transformation that results in the frieze pattern Name the transformation that

results in the frieze pattern Horizontal Translation Horizontal Translation Or 180 Rotation Horizontal Translation Or

Reflection about a vertical line Horizontal Translation Or Horizontal glide reflection Frieze Patterns in Real-Life 7 Categories of Frieze Patterns

Classifying Frieze Patterns Using a Tree Diagram Example 2 Classifying Frieze Patterns What kind of frieze pattern is represented? Example 2 Classifying Frieze Patterns

What kind of frieze pattern is represented? TRHVG It can be mapped onto itself by a translation, a 180 rotation, a reflection about a horizontal or vertical line, or a glide reflection Example 3Classifying a Frieze Pattern A portion of the frieze pattern on the above building is shown. Classify the

frieze pattern. TRHVG