ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 June 2012 Berlin Metamodel

ISO JCT1 SC32 WG2 June 2012 Berlin Metamodel for Fact Based Information Model Registration Baba Piprani - [email protected] Serge Valera - [email protected] ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 1 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use The Fact Based Modelling WG Initiated in October 2009 Main objective is to specify means to exchange fact based oriented conceptual data models WG organization Convenor

S. Valera Secretary I. Lemmens B Method representatives CogNIAM FCO/IM F, ESA S. Nijssen NL D. Smeets NL DOGMA R. Meersman B ORM T. Halpin AU Experts C. Heath AU J.P. Koster NL M. Curland US V. Morgante AU

Y. Tang CN H. Balsters NL P. Bollen NL L. Bruil NL A. le Cat NL N. de la Cruz US K. Evans UK B. Piprani CA R. Schmaal NL www.factbasedmodelling.org ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 2 The Fact Based Modelling WG, cont. FBM tools include ActiveFacts - ActiveQuery CaseTalk - CogNIAM Studio CQL DocTool - DOGMA FAMOUS - MS ORM solutions - NORMA Richmond Toward ISO 24/10/2011 WG2N1612_FBM_WD01 1st Draft containing a NORMA view of the FBM Specification 19/04/2012 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 2nd Draft containing a UML representation of means to register FBM models ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 3 Toward Standardization of FBM

ECSS European Cooperation for Space Standardization E-10 System Engineering, Space System Data Repository ECSS-E-TM-10-23A Registering Fact Based Information Models Semantic Information Modelling for Federation RFP Software Engineering Fact Based Modelling and Databases Specifying at Global level using fact based modelling ISO

OMG ESA CCSDS Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 4 Understanding WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 FBM focuses in specifying data requirements using Natural Language e.g. Plain English, in a Controlled way. Modelling with FBM implies Fully specifying all data requirements i.e. addressing semantics, focusing on stakeholders needs be free of logical and physical implementation features

FBM provides the means to reach the 100% principle expressed in ISO TR9007 The Metamodel for Fact Based Information Model Registration shall be able to formally capture the specification of the knowledge for interoperability purpose ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 5 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 Fact 4.34 fact proposition that is taken to be true by the relevant community whereby the proposition is represented by a predicate with an associated ordered set of objects 1. SOHO was launched on the 2nd of December 1995. 2. SOHO was launched on the 2nd of December 1996. 3. Herschel was launched on the 14th of May 2009. 4. Planck was launched on the 14th of May 2009.

5. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 6 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 Fact Facts are used to illustrate a specification but more important to validate the proposed model Modelling facts allows verifying the adequacy of the model to capture the truth but also to detect invalid statements. Value_Position 1. SOHO was launched on the 2nd of December 1995. 2. SOHO was launched on the 2nd of December 1996. 3. Herschel was launched on the 14th of May 2009. 4. Planck was launched on the 14th of May 2009. 5. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 7 Fact

ordinal [1] value [1] 1..* -expressed_fact 1 -owned_value_position -expressing_fact_reading 1..* 1 -owning_fact_reading Fact_Reading fact_reading_text [1] ... WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 Fact Type 4.37 fact type type, each of whose instances are facts that express the same kind of information 1. was launched on 2. The operations of have been extended until

ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 8 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 Fact Type Fact Types define which facts are considered to be in scope. A fact type is a populatable construct, a typed construct, generalizing the facts on the basis of common properties. Fact types can be atomic elementary or existential or compound. Fact_Type 1. was launched on 2. The operations of have been extended until -fact_type_name [1] -containing_fact_type 1 1 -contained_role 1..*

Role role_name [0..1] ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 9 -playing_object_type 0..* -played_role Object_Type object_type_name [1] WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 Predicate reading 4.55 predicate reading (syn. Fact Type Form) sentence with placeholders for object(s) that expresses a logical predicate NOTE A predicate must have at least one predicate reading. 1. was launched on but also for example

translation: 2. a t lan le Reverse reading: 3. On , was launched ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 10 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 Predicate reading Predicate Readings define the mechanism to be used to communicate about the facts and rules about the populations of facts using domain-specific (stakeholders) terminology. Fact_Type -fact_type_name [1] 1. was launched on -owning_fact_type 2. a t lan le

Reverse reading: 3. On , was launched 1..* -owning_predicate 1 -containing_fact_type 1 -contained_role 1..* Role -role_name [0..1] -positioned_role 1 but also for example translation: -owned_predicate Predicate 1 Role_In_Predicate_Reading -ordinal [1] -prebound_reading_text [0..1] -positioning_role_position2 -postbound_reading_text [0..1] 1..*

-following_reading_text [0..1] -is_played_by_value_type [0..1] -owned_role_position 1..* -owning_predicate_reading 1 Predicate_Reading -owned_predicate_reading -predicate_reading_text [1] -front_reading_text [0..1] 1..* ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 11 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 Validation rules (VR) Identify the validation rules (a.k.a. the constraints, the integrity rules) that restrict the fact population to those that are considered useful, the set of facts and the transitions between fact populations. Validation rules have the function to restrict the populations permitted by the fact types to useful ones. Constraints such as uniqueness, mandatory, frequency, ring, value comparison, equality, exclusion, subset, value, cardinality constraints ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 12 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02

VR - Uniqueness 4.71 uniqueness constraint constraint over a sequence of one or more roles that requires that in each state of the fact base, each instantiation of that role sequence occurs only once 1. Each was launched on at most one . 2. rules applying to the reverse reading direction: On , zero or more are launched. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 13 Uniqueness_Constraint -owning_uniqueness_constraint 1 -owned_role 1..* Role_Position_In_Uniqueness_Constraint -ordinal [1] WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 VR - Mandatory

4.46 mandatory role constraint constraint requiring that each instance in the population of a given object type must play the constrained role or at least one of the constrained roles (inclusive-or) 1. Each has some . Mandatory_Constraint -restricting_mandatory_constraint 0..* -restricted_role 1..* Role -role_name [0..1] ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 14 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 VR - Frequency 4.40 frequency constraint constraint that restricts, for each state of the fact base, the number of times any given sequence of objects that instantiate the constrained role sequence appears in the population of that role sequence 1. Each

Frequency_Constraint -allowed_in_frequency_constraint 1 -restricting_frequency_constraint 0..* payment plan> consists of at most 2 -allowed_frequency_range 0..* Frequency_Range . -restricted_role 1..* Role -role_name [0..1] ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 15 -minimum_frequency_bound [0..1] -maximum_frequency_bound [0..1] WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 VR Value comparison 4.73 value comparison constraint constraint that specifies how the values of instances of two roles with co-roles played by the same object are related by one of the following comparison operators: <, , >,

1. The of each shall be earlier than its . Value_Comparison_Constraint -owning_value_comparison_constraint 0..* 0..* -comparing_value_comparison_constraint2 0..* -comparing_value_comparison_constraint1 -second_compared_role 1 -first_compared_role 1 -role_name [0..1] -comparing_standard_comparator 1 Standard_Comparator -standard_comparator_name [1] ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 16 Role

WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 VR - Value 4.74 value constraint constraint that specifies the possible values for the instances of a role or a value type 1. The is one of {"low", "medium" or "high}. Object_Type Role -object_type_name [1] -role_name [0..1] -restricted_object_type 0..1 -restricted_role 0..1 -restricting_value_constraint 0..1 -allowed_in_value_constraint 1

-allowed_value_range 0..* Value_Range Value_Constraint -restricting_value_constraint 0..1 -allowed_in_Value_constraint 0..* -allowed_value_instance 0..* Value_Instance minimum_is_included [1] normalized_lexical_value [1] maximum_is_included [1] -owning_value_range2 -maximum_value_instance user_specified_lexical_value [0..1] 0..* 0..1 -owning_value_range1 0..* -minimum_value_instance0..1 ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 17 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 VR - Exclusion 4.30 exclusion constraint

set-comparison constraint that specifies that, for each state of the fact base, the populations of the constrained sequences of role occurrences must be mutually exclusive i.e. do not overlap 1. For each , at most one of the following holds: that is some ; that is some . Exclusion_Constraint -comparing_exclusion_constraint 0..1 -compared_compared_role_list_occurence 2..* Compared_Role_List_Occurence ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 18 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 VR - Equality 4.29 equality constraint set-comparison constraint that specifies that, for each state of

the fact base, the populations of the constrained sequences of role occurrences must be equal 1. For each that if and only if that has some . ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 19 Equality_Constraint -comparing_equality_constraint 0..1 -compared_compared_role_list_occurence 2..* Compared_Role_List_Occurence WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 VR - Subset 4.68 subset constraint set-comparison constraint that specifies that, for each state of the fact base, the population of a sequence of one or more role occurrences must be a subset of the population of another compatible sequence of role occurrences 1. If some is for , then that is part of some

related . Subset_Constraint -subset_subset_constraint 0..1 -superset_subset_constraint 0..1 -subset_compared_Role_list_occurence 1 -superset_compared_role_list_occurence Compared_Role_List_Occurence 1 ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 20 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 VR - Cardinality 4.9 cardinality constraint constraint on an object type or role that determines the possible number of instances that the object type or the role may contain for any given state of the fact base -restricting_cardinality_constraint Cardinality_Constraint -restricting_cardinality_constraint 1. For each , exactly one has no .

0..1 -restricted_object_type 0..1 0..1 -allowed_in_cardinality_constraint 1 Role -object_type_name [1] -role_name [0..1] -allowed_cardinality_range 1..* Cardinality_Range minimum_cardinality [0..1] maximum_cardinality [0..1] ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 21 -restricted_role 0..1 Object_Type WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 VR - Ring 4.62

ring constraint logical constraint between two type-compatible role occurrences that specifies how the populations of these role occurrences may be related EXAMPLES irreflexive, asymmetric, intransitive, antisymmetric and acyclic 1. No may cycle back to itself via one or more traversals through is child of . i.e. shall be acyclic and intransitive Ring_Constraint -ring_constraint_type -restricting_ring_constraint1 0..* -restricting_ring_constraint2 0..* -first_restricted_role 1 Role -second_restricted_role -role_name [0..1] 1 ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 22 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 Derivation 4.23

derived fact type fact type, each of whose instances is a derived fact 4.22 derived fact fact that is deduced from other facts by means of a derivation rule NOTE A fact that is not derived is an asserted fact. 4.20 derivation rule rule that specifies how to derive instances of a derived fact type or semi-derived fact type from other facts ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 23 WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 Derivation, cont. Identify the rules required to derive (to calculate) new information (i.e. new facts) on the basis of existing information (i.e. existing and derived facts). Derivation rules describe how to derive new facts on the basis of existing facts. Fact_Type -fact_type_name [1] 0..*

1.The development cost of is . Derivation rule: The of is equal to the sum of all related + the sum of all related . ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 24 -instantiated_fact_type {incomplete, overlapping} -owned_instantiation_method 1 Derived_or_Semiderived_Fact_type 0..* -derived_or_semiderived_fact_type -deriving_derivation_rule 1..* Derivation_Rule derivation_rule_name [0..1] derivation_rule_description [1] Instantiation_method instantiation_method_name [1]

Any questions? ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 25 WHAT is DATA, WHAT is INFORMATION DATA Data on its own carries no meaning. Examples: Val Thorens , 2300 INFORMATION In order for data to become information, it must be interpretable, that means extended with Semantics [meaning the conceptual data model], e.g. what the nouns refer to, what the verb means. Examples: Val Thorens refers to the highest ski resort in Europe. 2300 is meant to be 2300 meters above sea level The missing verb is is located at ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 26 WHAT is KNOWLEDGE

KNOWLEDGE Knowledge is when we know everything about the validation associated with the information. Examples: Val Thorens is a ski resort in Europe ! True Val Thorens is located in the Alps. Val Thorens is the highest ski resort in Europe ! True If one populates all ski resorts located in Europe together with their altitude, it is easy to derive and validate Val Thorens is the highest ski resort in Europe. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 27 that ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 28 Can FBM models be instantiated in ISO 19763 part 12? ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 29 FBM in ISO 19763 part 12, cont. 1 Type-Instance constructs

FBM has only one type-instance construct: the fact type 19763 part 12 currently provides for three type-instance constructs: the entity type the attribute type the relationship type None of these three is able to express the fact type, there is a mismatch. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 30 FBM in ISO 19763 part 12 , cont. 2 Terms and definitions are different between 19763-12 and FBM FBM supports n-ary fact types.

19763-12 Entity type and attributes only maps binary relationships. They cannot handle unary and n-ary relationships without artificial constructs. FBM has fact communication patterns (expressing facts) and rule communication patterns (expressing fact types) 19763-12 does not. Note The Editors note1 on page 1 of 19763-12 comes to a similar conclusion. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 31 FBM in ISO 19763 part 12 , cont. 3 Constraints FBM provides the functionality as available in set theory w.r.t. subset, equality and exclusion.

19763-12 only permits the referential integrity (a very special case of subset) and exclusion on association ends. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 32 FBM in ISO 19763 part 12 , cont. 4 ISO TR9007 FBM is based on the ISO TR9007 100% and Conceptualization principles. The 100% principle requires much more expressive power in integrity rules than currently possible in 19763-12. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 33 FBM in ISO 19763 part 12 , cont. 5 Arity on roles FBM permits any arity in the fact type.

19763-12 does not permit unary associations. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 34 FBM in ISO 19763 part 12 , cont. 6 Type of constraints over sets and roles FBM has a full set of integrity rules to satisfy the ISO TR9007 100% principle (provided that derived fact types can be freely expressed, see next slide) 19763-12 cannot represent among others the non-overlap constraint, cardinality on combinations (e.g. There are at maximum two subjects awarded per Nobel category per year; there are at maximum three Nobel Laureates per Nobel category per year) and the ring constraints. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 35 FBM in ISO 19763 part 12 , cont. 7 Recognition of derived concepts

One of the ways to satisfy the 100% principle is to apply the engineering rule to replace a complicated expressions with a series of related but easy to understand expressions. This requires the concept of derived fact type as fully supported by FBM. This concept is currently not represented in 19763-12. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 36 FBM in ISO 19763 part 12 , cont. 8 Recognition of objectified concepts FBM offers the subject matter expert the option to include nominalization (objectification, reification) in their information models. In 19763-12 this functionality is not represented. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 37 ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 38 Extra Motivation

by Prof. G.M. Nijssen ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 39 Introduction (1) Why is it recommended to have FBM in ISO 19763? The answer to this question can be given in a historical perspective ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 40 Historical perspective (1) 1963 Up till 1963 automatic business data processing was based on sequential record processing. The distance between business processes and IT was quite large. In 1963 Charlie Bachman introduced IDS (Integrated Data Store) at GE. From then on business facts could be encoded both as attributes of a record as well as through pointer structures using hardware addresses of a record instance.

ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 41 Historical perspective (2) 1971 In 1971 CODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages) issued a standard for DDL and DML. It was basically an extension of IDS of 1963. The result was that there were then three IT fact encoding mechanisms: 1. Attributes in a record instance 2. Pointer structures between record instances and 3. Repeating groups within a record. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 42

Historical perspective (3) 1971 CODASYL DDL and DML (as well as IMS of IBM, a hierarchical data structure system with about the same expressives as CODASYL DDL) were then considered major steps forward in the IT solution space. Ted Codd published his famous article in the Communications of the ACM about the relational model. A few years later the historical debate between Charlie Bachman and Ted Codd took place. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 43 Historical perspective (4) 1974 Establishment of IFIP (International Federation of Information Processing) WG 2.6 Databases.

WG 2.6 concentrated from the very beginning on true conceptual aspects, fully independent of IT implementations but based on natural language to make models understood by the business and on logic to be able to apply more productive techniques. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 44 Historical perspective (5) 1978-1987 Several persons involved in IFIP WG 2.6 started a wider cooperation in ISO. The work was performed during the ten year period 1978 trough 1987. In 1987 the ISO TR9007 was published: Concepts and Terminology for the Conceptual Schema and the Information Base. The intent was to produce a purely conceptual modeling language; for practical consensus reasons an ER dialect was also included

ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 45 Historical perspective (6) Mid and late 1980s Many ER dialects were introduced and OO was being accepted as the big (IT) step forward. Early 1990s OMG came with the proposal for a standard for the various ER dialects to be combined with some OO aspects: UML was born. UML became a fantastic success in terms of followers. It became the de-facto modeling standard, strongly biased by IT. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 46 Today Second decade of the 21st century The need for much better specifications independent of IT signed off

by the business and expressed in a language business understands, became clear. FBM 2012 - The re-birth of ISO TR9007 ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 47 Today (2) There is an increasing demand for systems to interoperate by exchanging data. For these data exchanges to be meaningful it is essential that the business information requirements that are met by the data stored in these systems are understood so that suitable data exchange mechanisms can be developed. Business information requirements, including the semantics of the information, need to be represented by conceptual data models before any software development and associated logical and physical database schema. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 48 Metamodel for FBM model Registration

This new part of ISO/IEC 19763 intends to provide a generic framework for registering these information models using the Fact Based Modelling approaches. This standard treats ISO TR9007 (1987) as its base. The combination of the ISO TR9007 100% principle and the ISO TR9007 Conceptualization principle make a new dimension possible in conceptual modeling, namely the automatic transformation of a model expressed in one conceptual notation into another conceptual notation. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 49 Metamodel for FBM model Registration 2 The ISO TR9007 opens the way to a productive approach that is able to trap all errors as early as possible in the conceptual specification and have the subject matter experts involved in the validation as early as possible, long before program code development and testing.

The ISO TR9007 based architecture permits true 100% conceptual modelling and transformation. ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 50 ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 51 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use Overview of the FBM Protocol by Prof. G.M. Nijssen ISO/JCT1/SC32/WG2 | Serge Valera | 06/06/2012 | Slide 52 FBM in ISO 19763 53. Term What is Fact Based Modeling? (1) Definition What assumed to be known is assumed to be known

Fact see next few slides Based assumed to be known Modeling the process that results in a Conceptual Schema (ISO TR9007) 53 FBM in ISO 19763 54. 1. What is Fact Based Modeling? (2) Fact Based Modeling (FBM) uses only 1 type/instance construct, namely: fact type and fact. 2. FBM is a protocol which systematically uses concrete examples for developing the model as well as for immediate verification and completeness validation of the

model. 54 FBM in ISO 19763 55. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. What is a fact? By example (1) Mozart visited Italy in 1769. Mozart visited France in 1763. Verdi visited France in 1853. Mozart was born in Austria. Mozart died at the age of 35. Verdi was born in Italy. Verdi died at the age of 87. The capital of Austria is Vienna. The capital of Italy is Rome. Bach was born in Germany.

T Thehese e 1 s inedei xaxampl 10 0 es s vidm (orin p d u l i : e (or: favcitdu al fas sh how fact inaslt fa cts ow inst ancctes anc s) es) 55 FBM in ISO 19763 56. What is a fact? By example (2)

T Thehese e 3 inse e xam divixam ple 3 1. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010 d s (oinrd (or: : ifvaicdtuaualpflaecs shshow fact inlsftac ts ow was awarded to Robert G. Edwards inst antcse anc s) es) for the development of in vitro fertilization. 2. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006 was awarded jointly to Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello " for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA". 3. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966 was divided equally between to Peyton Rouse "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses" and Charles Brenton Huggins "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer". 56 FBM in ISO 19763

57. What is a fact? By example (3) T Thehese e 3 inse e xam 3 in divixdam ple (ord ifvid ualpfles s sho : ( actssho w 1. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002 or: fa actuia l f n a w ct in stacnts stan ces was awarded jointly to Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz ces ) ) and John E. Sulston "for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death". 2. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977 was divided, one half jointly to Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally "for their discoveries concerning

the peptide hormone production of the brain" and the other half to Rosalyn Yalow "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones". 3. For the year 1942 no Nobel Prize was awarded in Physiology or Medicine. 57 FBM in ISO 19763 58. What is a fact? By definition A fact is a proposition that is taken to be true by the relevant community. 58 FBM in ISO 19763 59. An example in FBM and UML (1) Situation 1 in FBM: visited in . Situation 1 in UML: 59

FBM in ISO 19763 60. An example in FBM and UML (2) Situation 2 in FBM 1: was born in . 2: died at age . 3: has as its capital. 4: visited in . 60 FBM in ISO 19763 61. An example in FBM and UML (3) Situation 2 in UML 61 FBM in ISO 19763 62. Comparison of FBM and UML based information models

FBM Natural language based focusing on specification UML Software technology based focusing on implementation Logic based Part of ISO TR9007 (1987) Standard in OMG and ISO Extensive protocol No known protocol 62 FBM in ISO 19763 63. How does FBM relate to OWL? FBM OWL

Natural language based Only unary and binary sentences Logic based Logic based Part of ISO TR9007 (1987) Standard in W3C Extensive protocol No known protocol 63 FBM in ISO 19763 64. How does FBM relate to relational? FBM Relational

Natural language based Mathematics based (n-tuples) Logic based Logic based Part of ISO TR9007 (1987) Standard in ISO Extensive protocol Normalization 64 FBM in ISO 19763 65. Preview on UML metaclasses of WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 In the following slides the most important UML metaclasses of WG2N1640_FBM_WD02 will be illustrated. Also some slides have been incorporated to describe to what extent ISO TR9007 is in the process of adoption at OMG.

65 FBM in ISO 19763 66. Fact Based Modeling using the FBM protocol Fact Based Modeling using the FBM protocol to specify a Conceptual Domain Model (CDM) Experience the methodology by utilizing a concise but relevant example: Number of different years famous composers visited various countries 66 FBM in ISO 19763 67. From facts to the Conceptual Domain Model A. More than 99.9 % of all business communication consists of facts. B. Users, management and subject matter experts are very familiar with such facts. C. FBM is so far the only protocol (methodology) that takes these facts as a solid starting point for a protocol to develop the Conceptual Domain Model in a way that the subject matter expert and the conceptual modeler can productively work together, including quality control. Hence this is a

learnable and repeatable process.. D. The steps from the familiar fact to the corresponding cornerstone of the Conceptual Domain Model, the fact type, will subsequently be illustrated. 67 FBM in ISO 19763 68. Facts: the solid starting point FBM assumption 1: Concrete facts make up more than 99.9% of all business communication. Number of different years famous composers visited various countries: Mozart Verdi Italy Belgium The Netherlands France 5

3 2 5 3 Russia 2 Presenting facts in the form of a spreadsheet is common practice to most business users. 68 FBM in ISO 19763 69. Facts: the solid starting point FBM assumption 1: Concrete facts make up more than 99.9% of all business communication. Number of different years famous composers visited various countries: Mozart Verdi

Italy Belgium The Netherlands France 5 3 2 5 3 Russia 2 Famous composer Famous composer Definition: Person who writes music Definition: Person who writes music and is well-known for his work. and is well-known for his work. 69

FBM in ISO 19763 70. Facts: the solid starting point FBM assumption 1: Concrete facts make up more than 99.9% of all business communication. Number of different years famous composers visited various countries: Mozart Verdi Italy Belgium The Netherlands France 5 3 2 5

3 Russia 2 Country Country Definition: Political division of a geographical entity, Definition: Political division of a geographical entity, a sovereign territory, most commonly a sovereign territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state associated with the notions of state or nation and government. or nation and government. 70 FBM in ISO 19763 71. Facts: the solid starting point FBM assumption 1: Concrete facts make up more than 99.9% of all business communication. Number of different years famous composers visited various countries: Mozart

Verdi Italy Belgium The Netherlands France 5 3 2 5 3 Russia 2 mber of different years ber of different years inition: Mathematical sum of all the non-overlapping years. ition: Mathematical sum of all the non-overlapping years. For example, if Mr. Smith visited France once in 1881, For example, if Mr. Smith visited France once in 1881,

twice in 1883, and finally stayed in France from 1886 twice in 1883, and finally stayed in France from 1886 through 1888, he visited France during 5 different years. through 1888, he visited France during 5 different years. 71 FBM in ISO 19763 72. Facts: the solid starting point FBM assumption 1: Concrete facts make up more than 99.9% of all business communication. Number of different years famous composers visited various countries: Mozart Verdi Italy Belgium The Netherlands France 5

3 2 5 3 Russia 2 nition: To be in a specific Country at a certain moment in time, where ion: To be in a specific Country at a certain moment in time, where the Country is not the Country of birth. the Country is not the Country of birth. 72 FBM in ISO 19763 73. Verbalization of facts Italy Belgium The Netherlands

France Russia Mozart Verdi Verbalize to a colleague: Mozart visited Italy in 5 different years. Mozart visited Belgium in 3 different years. Verdi visited France in 3 different years. 73 FBM in ISO 19763 74. Determine variable and constant positions in facts T Thehe Sub a wuebr jejcect Ma ansnsS wer s: tYMa tter s: EStter Exp YES ! Ex ert

p e rt ! Are the following equivalent? Mozartvisited Italy in 5 different years. Mozartvisited Belgium in 3 different years. Verdi visited France in 3 different years. and: Mozartvisited Italy in 5 different years. Mozart Verdi Belgium 3 France 3

74 FBM in ISO 19763 75. Determine variable and constant positions in facts Are the following equivalent: Mozartspent time in Italy during 5 different years. Constant parts during 3 different years. Mozartspent time in Belgium Verdi spent time in France during 3 different years. and: Mozartvisited Italy in 5 different years. Mozart

Verdi Belgium 3 France 3 75 FBM in ISO 19763 76. Determine variable and constant positions in facts Are the following equivalent: Mozartspent time in Italy

during 5 different years. Variable parts during 3 different years. Mozartspent time in Belgium Verdi spent time in France during 3 different years. and: Mozartvisited Italy in 5 different years. Mozart Verdi Belgium 3 France 3

76 FBM in ISO 19763 77. Further qualify the variable positions (if necessary) Conceptual domain modeler: Do you prefer to use the following representation, in which we have added further qualification: The famous composer Mozart visited the country Italy in 5 different years. T Thehe Sub a wuebr jejcect Ma ansnsS s: t M tter (w e N r

e s (nNe ith:eN NOa!tter Exp r O! Exp ert neeeeidtheedr ququ alifi e rt ded in m ali cat in m yfcicoat ion is on i y co mim s mm un unit ity) y) 77 FBM in ISO 19763 78. Abstract from fact instances to fact types Given the previously introduced facts, Mozart Mozart

Verdi visited Italy in 5 Belgium 3 France 3 different years. the Conceptual Domain Modeler proposes the associated fact type: visited in different years. The correspondence between a fact and a fact type is a cornerstone of the FBM Conceptual Domain Modeling protocol.

78 FBM in ISO 19763 79. Abstract from fact instances to fact types Given the previously introduced facts, Mozart Mozart Verdi visited Italy in 5 Belgium 3 France 3

different years. the Conceptual Domain Modeler proposes the associated fact type: visited in different years. 79 FBM in ISO 19763 80. Abstract from fact instances to fact types Her NOT e H o e N simre o ne OT E: sim ilarint e cleaE: insiltari iesclea rly s different years.

inst antciees betrw ly s ees b anc s aetw eeenes the es a nd teen thethe nd t he f the fac he f act tfac t act ypet type Given the previously introduced facts, Mozart Mozart Verdi visited Italy in 5 Belgium 3

France 3 the Conceptual Domain Modeler proposes the associated fact type: visited in different years. 80 FBM in ISO 19763 81. Abstract from fact instances to fact types Given the previously introduced facts, Mozart Mozart Verdi visited Italy in 5 Belgium

3 France 3 different years. the Conceptual Domain Modeler proposes the associated fact type: visited in different years. 81 FBM in ISO 19763 82. Abstract from fact instances to fact types Her NOT H

E: difefere e oneNOT o c E diffe renne lear: c c i r n l e e nce s beearlyly see different years. inststan s be twesee s th anc ces twe en tshth e e s a a nd nd t theenf the e feac he f act tfac t act ypet

type Given the previously introduced facts, Mozart Mozart Verdi visited Italy in 5 Belgium 3 France 3 the Conceptual Domain Modeler proposes the associated fact type: visited in different years. 82 FBM in ISO 19763

83. Abstract from fact instances to fact types Given the previously introduced facts, Mozart Mozart Verdi visited Italy in 5 Belgium 3 France 3 different years.

Sub Sub ject a j Mat agrgereeecst M t varies wiatthterer Exp vari ablw p E x p e rt able e intham prorop oer nam esposesetd es d the Conceptual Domain Modeler proposes the associated fact type: visited in different years. Variable names proposed by the Conceptual Domain Modeler to the Subject Matter Expert 83 FBM in ISO 19763

84. Populate the fact type to verify the common understanding The Conceptual Domain Modeler populates the fact type with the 3 fact instances which were verbalized previously: visited in different years. Mozart Italy Mozart Belgium Verdi 5 France Conceptual Domain Modeler: 3 3 T Thehe Sub

a wuebr jejcect Ma ansnsS wer s: tYMa tter s: EStter Exp YES ! Ex ert pe r t ! Do these 3 facts correspond in meaning with the original 3 facts? 84 FBM in ISO 19763 85. Determine the integrity rules The next step in developing the Conceptual Domain Model is to determine the integrity rules, starting with the most essential one: the uniqueness constraint. In a protocolled manner the Conceptual Domain Modeler and the Subject Matter Expert discuss the various combinations of facts. The outcome of this dialog is the establishment of the uniqueness constraint (or constraints) for the fact type. 85 FBM in ISO 19763

86. Determine the integrity rules Fact ID Famous composer Country Number of years RF Mozart Italy 5 1 Mozart Italy 6

2 Mozart Germany 5 3 Beethoven Italy 5 T Thehe Sub ansSu jec ans webrsjec t Ma wer : tNMa tter s: O!tter Exp NO! Exp er t e rt Conceptual Domain Modeler:

Can the Reference Fact (RF) and fact 1 occur at the same time? 86 FBM in ISO 19763 87. Determine the integrity rules Fact ID Famous composer Country Number of years RF Mozart Italy 5 1

Mozart Italy 6 2 Mozart Germany 5 Italy 5 Conclusion: 3 Beethoven No duplicates are permitted for the combination of the variables (roles) Famous composer and Country in any population of this fact type. In other words: the variables Famous composer and Country are the independent (determining) variables and the variable Number of years is the dependent (determined) variable. 87

FBM in ISO 19763 88. Determine the integrity rules Fact ID Famous composer Country Number of years RF Mozart Italy 5 1 Mozart Italy

6 2 Mozart Germany 5 3 Beethoven Italy 5 T Thehe Sub ansSu jec ans webrsjec t Ma wer : tYMa tter s: EStter Exp YES ! Ex ert p e rt !

Conceptual Domain Modeler: Can the Reference Fact (RF) and fact 2 occur at the same time? 88 FBM in ISO 19763 89. Determine the integrity rules Fact ID Famous composer Country Number of years RF Mozart Italy 5 2

Mozart Germany 5 2 Mozart Germany 5 Italy 5 Conclusion: 3 Beethoven No integrity rule needs to be added to allow for the combination of these facts. 89 FBM in ISO 19763

90. Determine the integrity rules Fact ID Famous composer Country Number of years RF Mozart Italy 5 1 Mozart Italy 6

2 Mozart Germany 5 3 Beethoven Italy 5 T Thehe Sub ansSu jec ans webrsjec t Ma wer : tYMa tter s: EStter Exp YES ! Ex ert p e rt ! Conceptual Domain Modeler: Can the Reference Fact (RF) and fact 3 occur at the same time?

90 FBM in ISO 19763 91. Determine the integrity rules Fact ID Famous composer Country Number of years RF Mozart Italy 5 3 Beethoven

Italy 5 2 Mozart Germany 5 Italy 5 Conclusion: 3 Beethoven No integrity rule needs to be added to allow for the combination of these facts. 91 FBM in ISO 19763 92.

Concept Definitions The function of the Concept Definitions in the Conceptual Domain Model is to define every term or group of terms: 1. That are used in expressing the fact instances; 2. For which the assumption is made that their meaning may not be fully clear to the intended audience. Ultimately, the goal is to achieve complete disambiguation of the meaning of the terms used in the Conceptual Domain Model. 92 FBM in ISO 19763 93. Concept Definitions for our Conceptual Domain Model Famous composer Definition: Person who writes music and is well-known for his work. Country Definition: Political division of a geographical entity, a sovereign territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation and government. Number of years Definition: Mathematical sum of all the non-overlapping years. For example, if Mr. Smith visited France once in 1881, twice in 1883, and finally stayed in France from 1886

through 1888, he visited France during 5 different years. Visit Definition: To be in a specific Country at a certain moment in time, where the Country is not the Country of birth. 93 FBM in ISO 19763 94. Noteworthy quotes (1) We only communicate by referencing shared concepts with agreed meanings using common symbols. We can write these down and use them. (excerpt from email message from Cory Casanave, sent to OMG Semantic Information Modeling for Federation (SIMF) team, April 28, 2012) 94 FBM in ISO 19763 95. Noteworthy quotes (2) "The conceptual data model is a comprehensive and exhaustive specification of

system level data. (source: VSD (Virtual Spacecraft Design) Final Presentation, Introduction and Overview, ESA Conference, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, May 15th, 2012) 95 FBM in ISO 19763 96. Noteworthy quotes (3) "Model driven S/W engineering is key to manage development costs." (source: VSD (Virtual Spacecraft Design) Final Presentation, Introduction and Overview, ESA Conference, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, May 15th, 2012) 96

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