TOPIC COVERED UNIT & DIMENSION. FORCE : PARALLELOGRAME

TOPIC COVERED  UNIT & DIMENSION.  FORCE : PARALLELOGRAME

TOPIC COVERED UNIT & DIMENSION. FORCE : PARALLELOGRAME OF FORCE. FRICTION : STATIC FRICTION BY INCLINEDPLANE. ACCELERATION : SIMPLE PENDULUM. STRESS STRAIN : YOUNGS MODULUS. HEAT TRANSFER : EXPANSION OF SOLID. ELECTRICITY : OHMS LAW. ELECTRICITY : KIRCHOFFS LAW. ELECTRICITY : WHEATSTONES BRIDGE. TOPIC COVERED ELECTRO CHEMISTRY : JOULE CALORIMETER. APPARATUS USED IN LAB. GENERAL CHEMISTRY.

ELEMENTS & ITS ATOMIC WEIGHT. TITRATION : ACID BASE. PREPARATION OF CHEMICAL : ANILENE. PREPARATION OF CHEMICAL : COPPER SULPHATE. TOPIC COVERED .ACTION OF ACID ON METALS. ACTION OF BASE ON METALS. HYDRO CARBON COMPOUND. PERIODIC TABLE. FERTILIZER & ITS TYPES. PRODUCTION OF UREA. PRODUCTION OF AMONIA. PRODUCTION OF GLASS. PRODUCTION OF CEMENT. PRODUCTION OF PULP.

PRODUCTION OF PAPER. WATER TREATMENT. -varun.ttf PHYSICS Units and Dimension Force and Friction Motion, Speed, Velocity and Acceleration Density and Specific Gravity Stress and Strain Heat and Temperature UNITS & DIMENSIONS Types of Units

Absolute Units Derived Units -Length (cm, m, km) -Velocity (m/s) -Weight (gm, kg) -Acceleration (m/s2) -Time (sec) -Area (m2)

System of Units British System Metric System System International (FPS) (CGS or MKS) Force Newton Work - joule UNITS AND DIMENTION

Units have two types :( 1 ) Fundamental Units. ( 2 ) Derivative Units. Fundamental Units :- The units which used to measurement of Length , Mass and Time are called as Fundamental Units. Derivative Units :- The other units which made from Fundamental Units are called Derivative Units. UNITS AND DIMENTION Measurement of Units have two methods :( 1 ) Metric method. ( 2 ) British method. Metric method :- In this method Length, Mass and Time are measured in res. Centimeter , Gram and Second. British method :- In this method Length , Mass and Time are measured in Foot , Pound and Second.

UNITS AND DIMENTION In Metric method two types of measurement :( 1 ) C. G. S. Method. ( 2 ) M. K. S. Method. Length Mass Time C. G. S. cm gm

sec M. K. S. Meter kg sec UNITS AND DIMENTION S. I. Units ( International System ) :

/ 2

UNITS AND DIMENTION Units of Length :10 mm = 10 cm = 100 cm = 10 meter = 100 meter = 1000 Meter = 1 cm 1 desi meter 1 meter

1 deca mete 1 hecto meter 1 km UNITS AND DIMENTION Units of Mass 10 mg 10 centigram 1000 mg 101 gram 100 gram 1000 Gram := = =

= = = 1 centigram 1 desi gram 1 gram 1 deca gram 1 hecto gram 1 kg UNITS AND DIMENTION Units of Temperature :o C , oF , oR and oK Relation between temperature units :C 5

o = o F 32 9 = o R = 4

K - 273 5 o UNITS AND DIMENTION Units of Time :60 second 60 minutes 24 hours 365 Days = = = =

1 1 1 1 minute hour day year FORCE AND FRICTION FORCE: An effect which causes change in a stationary body or a moving body. Force = mass * acceleration Units = Newton , dyne

FRICTION: When two surfaces kept on each other are forced to move they experience resistance. This resistance is called friction. FORCE FORCE FORCE - A body at rest begins to move and a moving body has its velocity changed when an external effect acts on it is called force. * A force is that physical quantity which changes the state of a body. * Units of force: IN C.G.S. - Dyne. IN M.K.S. - Newton. * Relation b/n Dyne & Newton: 1 Newton = 10 5 Dyne.

A square which both in front of sides are parallel is called parallelogram. FORCE Law of Parallelogram of Force :- If the two forces acting on a body are represented in direction and magnitude by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, the diagonal passing through the common point of the adjacent sides gives the direction and magnitude of their resultant. FRICTION FRICTION FRICTION - When two surfaces are sliding on one another there is resistance exists and disturbed it called

friction. - Friction has three types : (1) State friction (2) Sliding friction (3) Rolling friction - Co- efficient of state friction using inclined plane. FRICTION FRICTION - When two surfaces are sliding on one another there is resistance exists and disturbed it called friction. Co efficient = Pressure Weight =

P W Mechanical Advantage ( M. A. ) = Weight = W Pressure P MOTION, SPEED, VELOCITY,ACCELERATION MOTION = When an object changes its place relative to another object is called motion. SPEED = Distance travel in unit time is called speed. VELOCITY = Speed in one particular direction within given time limit is called velocity. Velocity = Speed/Time

ACCELERATION = Change in Velocity is called acceleration. Acceleration = Change in velocity/ Time ACCELERATION ACCELERATION -A heavy body suspended from one end of a string of negligible mass and tied to a rigid support at the other end is known as simple pendulum. - Periodic time is the time taken by a body to complete one oscillction or rotation in its motion. - The distance of the center of suspended bob from the rigid support is known as length of pendulam. ACCELERATION

L = l + x + 2r Periodic Time ( T ) = 2 l g l = Length of Pendulum g = Acceleration due to gravity STRESS & STRAIN STRESS = When an external force is applied to body, internal resistive force is produced in unit crosssectional area of the body which is called stress. S = p/a Where, S = stress, p = external force, a = crosssectional area STRAIN = When stress is produced in the body it causes change in its volume or shape which is

called strain. e = 9l/l Where, e = strain , 9l = change in length , l = original length. YOUNGS MODULES YOUNGS MODULUS ( Y ) = Tensile Stress Tensile Strain YOUNGS MODULES STRESS - Restoring force produced internally and acting normally on unit area of the cross-section of wire is

called tensile stress. Tensile stress = Restoring force = F / A N/m 2 Area STRAIN -The ratio of the increase in length and the original of the wire is called tensile strain. Tensile strain = Increase in length = l / l no unit original length YOUNGS MODULES --Stress is proportional to strain. --The ratio as tensile stress and tenste strain is called young's modulus (y) Y=Tensile stress = F/A =F.l Tensile strain l/l A.l Y=mg.l N/m2 r2.l

{F=mg. A= r2} HEAT & TEMPRATURE HEAT = The hotness in substance is called heat. TEMPERATURE = The digit or number indicating the heat surface in substance is called temperature. Units = 0C , 0F , 0K , 0R HEAT TRANSFER IN SOLID In H. T. solid heated by steam which produces from water directly heated by

burner but solid not directly heated by burner. HEAT - TRANSFER IN SOLID Length of rod L=________cm At temp T1 c, spherometer reading L1=____cm At temp T2 c, spherometer readinL2______cm Expansion of solid = (L2 L1) X L (t2 - t1) OHMS LAW OHMS LAW The current which flows into the circuit is

Proportional to the voltage and inverse to resistance. I = V I = 1 R I = V R KIRCHOFFS LAW A - ampere meter V - volt meter K - key E - battery KIRCHOFFS LAW

In circuit at any junction , the current which comes to the junction (+) and the current which go away from the junction ( - ) are equal. So the value of current of any junction is zero. WHEATSTONE BRIDGE WHEATSTONE BRIDGE History of Wheatstone bridge : - -- In 1843 Charles Wheatstone devised an arrangement to determine the value of unknown resistance accurately and rapidly.

WHEATSTONE BRIDGE . -- Wheat stone's bridge consists of four resistances R1, R2, R3, and Rx connected so as to form a quadric-lateral ABCD.Galvanometer is connected between points B and D while battery and key is connected between points A and C. The values of the resistances are so adjusted that on closing the key K no deflection is obtained in the Galvanometer G. This means that no Current is flowing through the Galvanometer. Which Implies that the points B and D are at the same potential. In this condition the bridge is said to be balanced. MECHANICAL EQUVALENT OF HEAT (J)

MECHANICAL EQUVALENT OF HEAT (J) Take 80gm of H2O (water) in calorimeter. Then stirrer put in it and closed the caloric-meter. After it prepare the circuit by using the figure. Nothing the initial temp. by using thermometer which put in the caloric- meter. Now colori- meter heated by steam until 10 minutes. During this period note down the V - meter and A - meter. Noting the second temp. After it 5 minutes cooldown it. Then note - down the final- temp.After calculation we get J. CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE CHBT 04 GENERAL CHEMISTRY APPARATUS USED IN LAB

. APPARATUS USED IN LAB APPARATUS USED IN LAB APPARATUS USED IN LAB APPARATUS USED IN LAB APPARATUS USED IN LAB APPARATUS USED IN LAB GENERAL CHEMISTRY

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY SAFETY PRECAUTION IN CHEMICAL LAB ELEMENT , ATOM & MOLECULE ACID, BASE & SALT CHEMICAL BONDING GLASS

DYES CEMENT INSECTISIDES COLLOIDS CORROSION INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY Chemistry is most important branch of science by which we can know about the structure & qualities of substance. Branches of chemistry 1. Organic Chemistry 2. Inorganic Chemistry 3. Physical Chemistry

4. Special Subjective Chemistry 5. Industrial Chemistry 6. Bio Chemistry 7. Agricultural Chemistry Now a days Chemistry is related to different fields like medicine, foods, pesticides, agriculture, alkalis , acids, salts, colors, polymers, soaps, detergents, metals, weather & computer processes etc.. Many fields are co-related with eachohter. In chemistry there is also other branches like Radio Chemistry, Electro Chemistry, Light Chemistry etc.. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN CHEMICAL LAB

Be familiar with first aid measures before using chemicals. Wipe up all spills and bottle rings immediately. Wear a protective apron. Avoid inhaling toxic vapor and use fume hoods where indicated. For protection from flying objects caused by others, wear eye protective device. Use of safety goggles is mandatory. No smoking in the laboratory. GENERAL Molecule ( ) :- CHEMISTRY

. Atom ( ) :- . . Element ( ) :- . :- . :- GENERAL CHEMISTRY

:- . :- . :- . ELEMENT, ATOM & MOLECULE The smallest particle of substance is called atom. Division of atom is not possible.

Combination of two or more types of atoms is called molecule. Molecule is smallest particle of compound. Element is made up of same kind of atoms. Compound is made up of combination of different kinds of atoms. ELEMENTS & Element H He C N

O Na Mg Al ITS ATOMIC WEIGHT Name Hydrogen Helium Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Sodium Magnesium Aluminum

Atomic wt. 1 4 12 14 16 23 24 27 ELEMENTS & ITS ATOMIC WEIGHT Element P S

Cl K Ca Mn Fe Ni Name Phosphorous Sulfur Chlorine Potassium Calcium Manganese Iron Nickel

Atomic wt. 31 32 35.5 39 40 55 56 59 ELEMENTS & ITS ATOMIC WEIGHT Element Cu Zn

Ag Au Hg Pb U Name Copper Zink Silver Gold Mercury Led Uranium Atomic wt.

63.5 65 108 195 197 207 238 ACID , BASE & SALT INTRODUCTION OF ACID ACID INFORMATION INTRODUCTION OF BASE BASE INFORMATION SALT INTRODUCTION OF ACID

The compound which dissolve in water and gives H+ ion is called acid. Most acids are bitter . It converts blue litmus paper into red. It reacts with base and gives salt and water. Electricity passes through the acid solution INTRODUCTION OF ACID The compound which dissolve in water and gives H+ ion is called acid. Most acids are bitter . It converts blue litmus paper into red. It reacts with base and gives salt and water. Electricity passes through the acid solution ACID INFORMATION

SR. . NAME CHEMICAL FORMU LA TYPES OF ACID/BASE MOLECULAR WEIGHT (GM/MOL E)

BASICITY ACID EQUIVALENT I WEIGHT T (GM/EQUIV.) Y 1 Hydrochloric acid HCL

Strong acid 36.5 1 - 36.5 2 Sulfuric acid H2SO4

Strong acid 98 2 - 49 3 Nitric acid HNO3

Strong acid 63 1 - 63 4 Oxalic acid(hydr ated)

H2C2O4.2H2O Weak acid 126 2 - 63 5 Oxalic acid(non

hydrated) H2C2O4 Weak acid 90 2 - 45 6

Acetic acid CH3COOH Weak acid 60 1 - 60 INTRODUCTION OF BASE The compound which dissolve in water and gives OHions called base.

It converts red litmus paper into blue. It reacts with acid and gives salt and water. Electricity passes through base solution. INTRODUCTION OF ACID SR NO.. NAME TYPES OF ACID/BA SE CHEMICA L

FORM ULA MOLECULA R WEIGH T (GM/ MOLE) BASICIT Y ACIDITY EQUIVALEN T

WEIGHT (GM/EQ UIV.) 1 Sodium hydroxide Strong base NaOH 40 - 1

40 2 Potassium hydroxide Strong base KOH 56 - 1

56 3 Sodium carbonate Weak base Na2CO3 106 - 2

53 4 Potassium carbonate Weak base K2CO3 138 - 2

69 5 Sodium bicarbonate Weak base NaHCO3 84 - 1

84 6 Potassium bicarbonate Weak base KHCO3 100 - 1

100 7 Calcium hydroxide Weak base Ca(OH)2 74 - 2

37 8 Barium hydroxide Weak base Ba(OH)2 171.40 - 2

85.7 9 Ammonium hydroxide Weak base NH4OH 35 - 1

35 INTRODUCTION OF ACID When a reaction is made within acid & base , water & salt is produced. There are three types of salt. (1) Simple Salt (2) Double Salt (3) Complex Salt TITRATION Strong acid or base takes in burette. Normal acid

or base takes in pipet. TITRATION NaOH N - 1 40

1 1 4.0 0.1 1 49 1 N H2SO4

N TITRATION Strong Acid -- Strong Base Strong Acid -- Normal Base Normal Acid -- Strong Base Burette -- Strong Base / Acid. Pipet -- Normal Acid / Base. INDICATOR Phenolphthalein Methyl orange Litmus paper COLOUR IN ACID colour less

red red COLOUR IN BASE pink orange blue TITRATION

TITRATION TITRATION :- . / :- / .

:- - ANILENE Nitro benzene + conc. Hydrochloric acid + Ferrous ( In powder form ) ANILENE Raw-material :Nitro benzene ------- C6 H5 NO2 ---- 15ml Hydrochloric Acid -- HCL ---------- 80ml Ferrous (powder) ----- Fe ----------- 8gm C6 H5 NO2 + 3Fe + 7HCL C6 H5 NH2 + HCL + 3FeCl2 + 2H2 O

COPPERSULPHATE Hydrochloric acid + Nitric acid + Copper metals COPPER- SULPHATE Raw material :Pieces of copper --- Cu --------- 8 gm Nitric Acid -------- HNO3 ---- 50 ml Sulphuric Acid --- H2 SO4 --- 25 ml Cu + 2H2 SO4 HNO3 CuSO4 + 2H2O + SO2 ACTION OF ACID ON METALS ACTION OF ACID ON METALS H2SO4

Al Metal melt & gas produces From it & after some-times solution made white colour. HCL Solution boiling with gas & solution made white

colour. Metal melt & after solution made white colour. HNO3 Bubbles produces & solution made oilley colour. ACTION OF ACID ON METALS H2SO4 Fe

Bubbles produces & metal melt in acid. HCL Gas produces & solution made green colour & after sometimes made white colour. HNO3 Solution made light

yellow colour & yellow colour produces & solution made wooden colour. ACTION OF ACID ON METALS H2SO4 No effect. Cu HCL

Bubbles produces & solution made light colour. HNO3 Solution made colour & wood colour gas produces & metal melt & solution made blue colour.

ACTION OF BASE ON METALS ACTION OF BASE ON METALS NaOH KOH Al Bubbles produces and very effective Smell comes and solution made white Colour. Bubbles produces and very

effective smell comes and solution made white colour. Cu No effective. No effective. Fe No effective. No effective.

CHEMICAL BONDING When two or more than two atoms of same element or different elements are chemically bond and make a molecule. This process is called chemical bonding e.g. 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l) Chemical bonding is strong attractive force between two or more atoms. HYDRO-CARBON COMPOUND ALKANE NAME Methane

Ethane EQUATION CH4 C2H6 STRUCTURE H I H -- C -- H I H H H

I I HCCH I I H H HYDRO-CARBON COMPOUND ALKANE NAME Propane EQUATION STRUCTURE

C3H8 H H H I I I HC -- C--C--H I I I H H H H Butane H H H

C4H10 I I I I H --C CCCH I I I I HYDRO-CARBON COMPOUND NAME Pentane ALKANE EQUATION C5H12 STRUCTURE

H H I H I H I I H I H--CCCCC

Hexane C6H14 I I I H H H

I I H H H H H H H H I I I I I I HCCC--C CC--H I I I I I I H H H H H H

HYDRO-CARBON COMPOUND ALKENE NAME EQUATION STRUCTURE Methene ----- ---- Eathene

C2H4 H H I I H C = C --H HYDRO-CARBONCOMPOUND ALKENE NAME Propene

Butene EQUATION STRUCTUR C3H6 H H H I I I HC = C -- C H I H

C4H8 H H H H I I I I H - C=CCCH I I H H HYDRO-CARBON COMPOUND NAME Pentene Hexene

ALKENE EQUATION C5H10 C6H12 STRUCTURE H H H H H I I I I I H--C=CCCC I I I H H H H H H H H H

I I I I I I HC=CCCCC I I I I H H H H HYDRO-CARBON COMPOUND NAME Methyne Ethyne ALKYNE EQUATION -----

STRUCTURE ----- C2H2 HC CH HYDRO-CARBON COMPOUND ALKYNE NAME EQUATION STRUCTURE H

I Propyne C3H4 HC CCH I H HYDRO-CARBON COMPOUND ALKYNE Butyne C4H6

H H I I HC CCC -- H I I H H HYDRO-CARBON COMPOUND ALKYNE NAME EQUATION STRUCTURE H Pentyne

C5H8 I H H I I HC CC -- CCH I H I I

H H HYDRO-CARBON COMPOUND ALKYNE H Hexyne C6H10 H H I I I H

I HC CCCCC--H I I H H I I H H FERTILIZER AND ITS TYPES Fertilizer ( ) :- .

. 16 . . ( 1 ) :- C , O , H. ( 2 ) :- O , H. ( 3) :- N , P , K , Ca , FERTILIZER AND ITS TYPES :( 1 ) :- N , P , K. ( 2 ) :- Ca , Mg , S , I , Cu , Zn , Mn , Cu , Cl , Mb. : :- .

FERTILIZER AND ITS TYPES :- . :- . . N . FERTILIZER AND ITS TYPES :, , , , , ,

. PRODUCTION OF UREA Formula : NH2 CO NH2 Molecule Wt. : 60 gm / mol. Melting Point : 135o C. Density : 1.32 gm / cc. Sp. Heat. : 0.32 calorie / gm. Color less, smell less, test less substance. PRODUCTION

OF UREA Two process available for production of urea : ( 1 ) Convectional process. ( 2 ) Streaming process. Raw material :CO2 , NH3 , cooling water , steam , power. Chemical reaction :CO2 + 2NH3 NH4 COO NH2 NH4 COO NH2 NH2 CO NH2 + H2O PRODUCTION OF

UREA :-- ( 46 % ) . -- . -- . -- , PRODUCTION OF AMONIA

:- , , , - , - . ( 1 ) :- ( 2 ) :- 1 85 % : :- 0.21 PRODUCTION OF AMONIA :--

. -- . -- , , PRODUCTION OF GLASS Raw material :Na2CO3 ( Soda ash ) CaCO3 ( Lime stone ) SiO2 ( Sand ) Chemical Reaction :Na2CO3 + SiO2 Na2SiO3 + CO2 CaCO3

CaO + CO2 GLASS INTRODUCTION OF GLASS TYPES OF GLASS OTHER TYPES OF GLASS COLORING OF GLASS INTRODUCTION OF GLASS Glass is a transparent mixture of Sand,Sodium

carbonate or Sodium sulfate or both or potassium carbonate or calcium carbonate or lead acetate . Glass is not a Compound but mixture of various silicates so it has no any chemical formula and has not accurate melting point. Generally there is no effect of air, water and acid on it but it dissolve in Hydro Flouric acid. TYPES OF GLASS 1.SODA LIME: It is a mixture of sand ,lime stone and sodium carbonate. Its chemical formula is Na2o.Cao.Sio2. 2. POTASH LIME GLASS: It is a mixture of potassium and calcium silicate. Its chemical formula is K2O.CaO.6Sio2.

It is used to make combustion tube, hard test tube and side Glass of furnace. 3. POTASH LEAD GLASS: It is a mixture of potassium silicate and lead silicate. Its chemical formula is K2O.PbO.6SiO2. 4. PYREX GLASS: It is made from sand, borax and Aluminium oxide by heating. It is also known as SODIUM ALUMINIUM BOROSILICATE. It is used for preparation of laboratory equipments. OTHER TYPES OF GLASS 1.GINA GLASS: It is a mixture of Zinc and Barium boro silicate. It is used for preparation of laboratory equipments. 2.CRUCKS GLASS: It is used for preparation of eye goggles.

3.CRYSTAL GLASS: It is a mixture of Sodium carbonate, Magnesium oxide,Zink Oxide It is used for preparation of electric bulb. 4. QUARTZ GLASS: 5. BOTTLE GLASS: 6. GROUND GLASS: 7. RAINFORCED GLASS: 8. LAMINATED GLASS: COLORING OF GLASS Metallic oxides are added to color the glass. These metallic oxides are added with charged raw materials and fine powder. Following are the different oxides of color: 1. Blue glass : Cobalt oxide and Copper oxide.

2. Green glass : Chromium oxide or Ferrous oxide. 3. Violet glass : Manganese Dioxide. 4. White glass : Tin oxide, Tri Calcium oxide 5. Red glass : Cupric oxide or Selenium oxide. 6. Yellow glass : Ferric oxide. 7. Lemon yellowish : Cadmium Sulfide PRODUCTION OF

Types of glass :( 1 ) Soda lime glass. ( Soft glass ) ( 2 ) Potash lime glass ( Hard glass ) ( 3 ) Potash led glass or Flint glass ( 4 ) Pyrex glass ( 5 ) Bottle glass ( 6 ) Safety glass GLASS PRODUCTION OF GLASS Colouring of glass :-- Blue glass

-- White glass -- Ruby glass -- Green glass -- Violet glass Note :- Glass made colouring by using addition of metallic oxide. CEMENT INTRODUCTION OF CEMENT TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT OTHER TYPES OF CEMENT RELATIVE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH MAJOR MNUFACTURER OF CEMENT INTRODUCTION TO CEMENT Cement is a generic name for powdered materials,

which initially have plastic flow when mixed with water or other liquid, but form a solid structure in several hours with varying degree of strength and bonding properties which continue to improve with varying degree of strength and bonding properties which continue to improve with age. Portland cement is defined as finely ground calcium, aluminates and silicates of varying compositions which hydrate when mixed with water to form a rigid continuous structure with good compressive strength. TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT REGULAR(type1): 40-60% C3S, 10-30% Ca2S, 7-13% Ca3A; MODIFIED(type2): higher C2S/C3S to resist sulfate attack.

HIGH EARLY STRENGTH(type3): Attains strength of type I in 3 days. C3S and C3A percentage with finer grinding to increase hydration rate. LOW HEAT(type4): low C3S and C3A SULFATE RESISTANT(type5): C3A<4% OTHERE TYPES OF CEMENT HIGH ALUMINA Manufactured by fusing limestone and bauxite; rapid of strength development to high values but with high heat rate liberation; superior resistance to sea and sulfate waters. POZZOLANA- mixture of volcanic ash, burnt clay or shale in 2-4 parts with hydrated lime. Mixed with Portland cement as a cheap extender. HYDRAULIC LIME used only for brick mortar composition, low price and strength. MAGNESIUM OXYCHLORIDE-high strength ,spark proof, wear resistant flooring, high bonding strength to wood fibers. CEMENT INTRODUCTION OF CEMENT TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT OTHER TYPES OF CEMENT RELATIVE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH MAJOR MNUFACTURER OF CEMENT RELATIVE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TYPE PORTLAND

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH(kg/cm2) 1day 3days 28days Type 1 37 120 340

Type2 28 83 260 Type 3 103 240 440

Type 4 20 49 177 Type 5 28 88 214

14 30 480 690 HYDRATED LIME ALUMINOUS 280 MAJOR MANUFACTURER OF CEMENT

Associated Cement Companies ltd. Birla Jute Industries Ltd. Grasim Industries Ltd. Gujarat Ambuja Cement Ltd. J.K.Corporation Ltd. Larsen and Toubro Ltd.

Madras Cement Ltd. Mysore Cement Ltd. Shree Digvijay Cement Company Ltd. PRODUCTION Composition of Cement :CaO 62 % SiO2 22 % Al2O3 7.5 %

MgO 2.5 % Fe2O3 2.5 % SO3 1.5 % Na2O 1.0 %

OF CEMENT PRODUCTION OF Raw material :Portland cement 1 Clay ( ) 0.3 ton ton

Lime stone 1.2 ton Gypsum 0.05 ton Col 0.4 ton

Water 3 ton Electricity 80 KWH CEMENT PRODUCTION

Types of cement :( 1 ) Portland cement. ( 2 ) High Alumina. ( 3 ) Pozolona. ( 4 ) Hydraulic lime. ( 5 ) Magnesium Oxychloride. ( 6 ) Blast furnesh cement. ( 7 ) Snow cem. ( 8 ) Morter OF CEMENT DYES

INTRODUCTION OF DYES BASIC REQUISITES OF TRUE DYE GENERAL PROPERTIES EQUATION USE CLASSIFICATION CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATON INTRODUCTION OF DYES A dye is a substance imparting color to any material of which it becomes an integral part. CHEMISTRY OF DYES Aromatic ring structure coupled with side chain construction is nearly always required to give resonance and in turn impart color.

COLOR PHENOMENA Resonance structures which cause displacement or appearance of absorption bands in the visible spectrum are responsible for visible colors. BASIC REQUISITES OF TRUE DYE The requisites of a true dye are as follows. A dye must have a suitable color. It must have an attractive color. It must be able to attach it self to material from solution or to be capable of fixed on it. It must be soluble in water.

It must be fast washing , dry cleaning , perspiration , light , hear etc. It must be able to absorb dye from dye bath under suitable conditions of concentration Temp. and PH. GENERAL PROPERTIES SYNTHESIS EQUATION: DYE= CHROMOGEN--+AUXOCHROME CHROMOPHORE INSECTISIDES INTRODUCTION OF INSECTICIDES

MODE CLASSIFICATION CHEMICAL NATURE CLASSIFICATION INTRODUCTION OF INSECTISIDES Insecticides are such chemicals which contacted by cuticle or by oral ingestion of stomach poison or by the action of fumigants from air or used to destroy or to control the insects. CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTICIDES Insecticides are classified by two ways: (A) According to mode of application. (B) According to their chemical nature. MODE CLASSIFICATION According to mode of application ,insecticides are classified by following ways. 1. STOMACH INSECTICIDES:

Insecticides which are eaten by insects are called stomach insecticides. These are also known as internal insecticides. 2. CONTACT INSECTICIDES: Insecticides whish destroy the insects externally are called contact insecticides. These are also known as external insecticides. 3. FUMIGANTS: Insecticides which diffuse their action by gaseous form are called fumigants. BHC, Nicotine and CS2 are such fumigants. 4. ATTRACTANTS: Insecticides which attracts insects by climax are called attractants. 5. REPELLENTS: These insecticides are slow poison. These are used for termites and household insects CHEMICAL NATURE CLASSIFICATION

According to chemical nature ,insecticides are classified as following ways: 1.IN-ORGANIC INSECTICIDES: These insecticides act as stomach insecticides 2.NATURAL ORGANIC INSECTICIDES: Generally these insecticides act as contact insecticides. These insecticides used with other toxicants. 3.SYNTHETIC ORGANIC INSECTICIDES: Generally these insecticides act as stomach and contact insecticides. These are further classified in three categories: (a) Halogen derivatives (b) Nitrophenols (c) Organo phosphorous. COLLOIDS

COLOIDAL SOLUTION PHYSICAL STATE CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION BASED ON NATURE OF PARTICLES CLASSIFICATION BASED ON INTER ACTION OF PHASES APPLICATION OF COLLOIDS TRUE SOLUTION AND SUSPENSION COLLOIDS TRUE SOLUTION: It is a homogeneous dispersed phase and dispersion medium. e.g. Common salt (NaCl) ,Sugar etc dissolve in water and constitute (one phase) true solution. Solute and solvent can not be separated into their

original forms. SUSPENSION: It is a heterogeneous mixture of a dispersed phase and dispersed medium. e.g. sand, powdered glass etc. in water behave as suspension. Solute particles settle down at the bottom due to their large size solute and solvent can be separated easily by some physical mean. APPLICATION OF COLLOIDS Colloids play a very important role in nature and in our daily life. Some of the important applications of colloids are following: In Medicines.

In Sewage disposal. In Purification of water. In Cleansing action of soap. In Formation of delta. In Smoke precipitation. In Photography. In Artificial rain. In Smoke screen. In Rubber industry Blood is a colloidal solution. CORROSION INTRODUCTION OF CORROSION TYPES OF CORROSION PREVENTION OF CORROSION

INTRODUCTION OF CORROSION The process by which the metals have tendency to go back their combined state is called corrosion. In other words , corrosion is exactly the reverse of extraction of metals. It is called the weeping of metals. Recently corrosion has been defined as the destruction of a substance because of its reaction with its environment. Under this definition , the term corrosion may be applied to gradual transformation of the metals into compound state, to weathering of timbers and concrete, to the leading of glass, to the cracking of

plastics, etc. TYPES OF CORROSION Corrosion can be classified into two broad types according to the environment in which corrosion occurs: (A) Corrosion by gaseous environment: In this type of corrosion , the metal is surrounded by gases present in the surrounding environment. 1. Metal sheltered from rain : (1) Moisture: (2) Suspended impurities in air: a. essentially active particles: b. essentially neutral particles: c. neutral particles: (3) Effect of active gases:

(4) Nature of the primary film of corrosion: 2. Metals exposed to outdoor atmosphere TYPES OF CORROSION B) Corrosion in liquids and solutions: (C) Immersed corrosion: It is of three types: 1. Chemical Corrosion 2. Under-water Corrosion: 3. Under ground Corrosion: PREVENTION OF CORROSION The methods adopted for protection of metals can be classified into three main parts: (A) Methods based on treatment of metals: This includes the following methods:

a. Alloying of the metals: b. Removal of strains: c. Polishing the surface: d. Producing insoluble oxide coating: e. Electroplating: f. Covering with metals by methods other than electron deposition: 1) Hot-dipping: 2) Metal spraying: 3) Cementation: g. Covering with paints: h. Making the metal Cathodic by external c.m.f.: PREVENTION OF CORROSION B) Methods based on the treatment of medium.: a. Change of state of medium: b .Corrosion Inhibitors:

(C) Methods based on external influences.: a. Painting the metals with light proof paints: b. Detection and removal of spray currents: c. Prevention of bacterial growth: PRODUCTION OF PULP Three process available for pulp :( 1 ) Ground wood. ( 2 ) Chemical ( 3 ) Semi Chemical Types of pulp :( 1 ) Sulphate pulp. ( 2 ) Sulphite pulp.

PRODUCTION OF PULP Raw material :( These raw material need for 1 ton prod-n of pulp ) Bamboo or wood 2.2 To 2.5 Ton Make up lime 18 kg.

Make up salt Na2SO4 50 kg. Sulphur 8 kg. PRODUCTION OF PAPER Method for production of paper devided in

two steps :( 1 ) Production of pulp from wood. ( 2 ) Transfer of pulp into the paper. Types of paper product :( 1 ) Wrapping paper. ( 2 ) Tissue paper. ( 3 ) Book paper. PRODUCTION OF PAPER ( 4 ) Writing paper. ( 5 ) Ground wood printing paper. ( 6 ) Paper board. Raw material :( 1 ) Fibrous raw material -- paper pulp, rease pulp

( 2 ) Non - Fibrous raw material -- In organic raw material , clay, organic raw material, resin. WATER TREATMENT Sources of natural water :( 1 ) Rainey water. ( 2 ) River water. ( 3 ) Spring or well water. ( 4 ) Sea water. WATER TREATMENT :-- ,

, . -- . -- : , ,. -- (260 mm) 0o C 100o C . WATER TREATMENT :( 1 ) :- .

( 2000o C) . ( 2 ) :- . . WATER TREATMENT :-- . -- . -- .

-- . -- 20 WATER TREATMENT :-- ( cooling ) -- -- -- -- --

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