Mass measurements on very neutron-rich isotopes with a

Mass measurements on very neutron-rich isotopes with a

Mass measurements on very neutron-rich isotopes with a new Penning trap phase detection technique Guy Savard Argonne National Laboratory & University of Chicago Nuclear Structure 2016 Knoxville, Tennessee, July 25-29, 2016 Main original motivation for mass measurements in this region: R-process sensitivity to nuclear physics input Hot r-process Supernova neutrinodriven wind cold r-process Neutron-star merger cold rprocess binding energy neutron-capture rate lifetime From R. Surman et al, EPJ Web of Conferences 66, 07024, 2014

Clear regions of interest for most scenarii need to make them accessible experimentally Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 2 ATLAS/CARIBU facility Stable beams at high intensity and energy up to 10-20 MeV/u Light in-flight radioactive beams light beams, no chemical limitations, close to stability, acceptable beam properties CARIBU beams heavy n-rich from Cf fission, no chemical limitations, low intensity, ATLAS beam quality, energies up to 15 MeV/u State-of-the-art instrumentation for Coulomb barrier and low-energy experiments Operating 5000-6000 hrs/yr (+ 2000 hrs/yr CARIBU stand alone) at about 95% efficiency

Common PAC for ATLAS and CARIBU About 400 users per year performing experiments at ATLAS Access to n-rich region via fission of the most neutron-rich available very heavy nuclei (i.e. 252Cf) Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 3 Neutron-rich beam source: CARIBU front end layout Main components of CARIBU PRODUCTION: ion source is 252 Cf source inside gas catcher Thermalizes fission fragments Extracts all species quickly Forms low emittance beam X-array

SELECTION: Isobar separator Purifies beam DELIVERY: beamlines and preparation pe n ta tio a st Switchyard Low-energy buncher and beamlines Charge breeder to Increase charge state for postacceleration Post-accelerator ATLAS and weak-beam diagnostics Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 4

Expected isotope yield distribution at low energy (50 keV) Thin 1 Ci 252Cf source about 20% of total activity extracted as ions works for all species complementary to uranium fission > than 500 neutron-rich species extracted at > 1/s Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 5 Precision mass measurements in a Penning trap w w w Can use: c

w2 w2 w2 w2 c z Recall: qB wc gm wc depends only on: the mass the magnetic field not on the electric fields or the energy as long as g is small Can use wc to make accurate and precise mass measurements Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016

6 Sample time-of-flight (TOF) spectrum Time of Flight (arb units) qc Bc wc mc q? Bc Unknown: w? m? fc=663,104.706(3) Hz (560 eV/c2) Unknown q? wc m? mc Calibratio n qc w? Well-known calibrant mass is a requirement for accurate measurements, use 133Cs (known to ~ 0.01 keV) in this region. Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging

Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 7 Mass measurements of neutron-rich nuclides Masses determined via a measurement of the ions cyclotron frequency Mass precision ~ 10-7 to 10-8 (1 -100 keV/c2) for masses approaching the r process Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) has measured Original more than 120 neutron-rich nuclides with this technique so far Area II 2012 CARIBU 2013 Currently reaching isotopes produced at the 107 fission branch level For some nuclei, no prior information on the nuclide existed! J. Van Schelt et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 045805 (2012)

J. Van Schelt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 061102 (2013) Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 8 1s 132 Sb 132mSb 0.1 s 3.7 keV (Hz) Typical precision 10-15 keV Guy Savard 132 keV

Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 9 What we really collect? 1000s of scans, each with ~40 frequency points, each with a few ions 105-106 ions for a better than 1 keV/c2 measurement about 1/3 are collected on resonance, others are determining the baseline For a pure sample, can do an acceptable measurement with ~ 1000 ions total Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 10 Main limitations: purity, lifetime and yield pure sample

not so pure sample incomplete cleaning decay in trap random noise Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 11 Sample purity effect Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 12 For Penning trap mass measurements, impurities and short-lived isotopes are a bad mix

Impurity hurts squared since we measure TOF, not ion number Impurity hurts once more Limit number of ions in trap to minimize interaction if rate too high, must cut back Good guys are short-lived, impurities are long-lived the longer you take, the worst it gets Need to speed things up, and/or find better way to discriminate against impurities, for the shortest-lived isotopes Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 13 Purity upgrade to CARIBU: MR-TOF system V E + DE E E - DE Fast isobar separation: ~ 1.3 m long MR-TOF

Based on ISOLTRAP/ISOLDE design d R.N. Wolf et al., NIM A 686, 82 (2012). Goals: resolving power > 40,000 transmission > 50% Status: Installed December 2014 Current performance: R ~ 50,000 - 150,000 with 50% transmission in 10 - 30 ms Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 14 New mass measurement technique: PI-ICR 133

Phase imaging ion cyclotron resonance (PI-ICR) Cs (offline source) A=146 from CARIBU 657844.90(8) Hz S. Eliseev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 082501 (2013). The orbital frequency of the ions motion is calculated from the phase change over time. 2n w t Dw D 2Dr t tr Guy Savard Advantages over TOF-ICR: Excitation scheme is faster (therefore dont lose as many ions to decay)

Spend all of the time at resonance (make better use of beamtime) Presence of contaminants is no longer a dominant issue (and also dont lose ions of interest due to decay) Result: factor of roughly 100 gain in sensitivity, with no loss in precision! Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 15 Evolution of PI-ICR signal 16 Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 Evolution of PI-ICR signal

PI-ICR Resolution 17 Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 Evolution of PI-ICR signal PI-ICR Resolution 18 Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 Evolution of PI-ICR signal PI-ICR Resolution 19

Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 Evolution of PI-ICR signal PI-ICR Resolution 20 Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 Evolution of PI-ICR signal PI-ICR Resolution 21 Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging

Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 Evolution of PI-ICR signal PI-ICR Resolution 22 Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 p-hole n-hole interaction around 131 Sn 132 Sn 132

130 Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging In Nuclear Structure 2016 Sn In 131 July 25-29, 2016 23 Isomer separation 75 ms wc excitation 130 In tacc = 75ms Can almost completely resolve

the two states. Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 24 Isomer separation 97.075 ms wc excitation In 130 tacc = 97.075ms Resolution with standard excitation ~70000 Excitation energy ~50 keV. 25 times worst Resolution of ~1.8million in 100ms. Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016

July 25-29, 2016 25 Isomer separation 347.965 ms wc excitation g,m on same turn, n is not. In 130 In 130 m In-g decayed a bit compared to 100ms files. Ing 130 Inn

130 Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 26 Coulomb excitation of 144,146Ba: Direct measurements of B(E1), B(E2) and B(E3) (C. Y. Wu et al., exp 1448) W. Nazarewicz, et. al, NPA429, 269, 1984 Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 27

Coulomb excitation of CARIBU beams with GRETINA/CHICO2 Ba, 146Ba, 142Cs, 110Ru, 100Zr, 98Zr, 98mY, 106Mo 144 650-MeV 144Ba + 208Pb (1mg/cm2) GRETINA + CHICO2 + CARIBU/ATLAS expt. Rochester LLNL LBL- ORNL Liverpool Scotland Ohio U Tennessee Georgia IT Richmond - ANU Washington Toronto - Saclay IHL Warsaw GANIL TU Darmstadt Oslo Notre Dame - ANL collab. GRETINA + CHICO2 provide excellent Doppler reconstruction charge breeder + upgraded ATLAS provide post-acceleration with ~10% total efficiency and exquisite beam properties Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 28

Ba measurements 148 Accumulation time Frequency (Hz) Mass Excess (keV) 78ms 1181998.60(0.05) -575**.*(8.5) 95.11ms 1181998.64(0.04) -575**.*(7.7) 97.129ms 1181998.82(0.05) -575**.*(7.7)

84.965ms 1181999.05(0.06) -575**.*(13.4) 97.075ms 1181998.99(0.05) -575**.*(11.9) Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 29 Ba measurements 149 Accumulation time Frequency (Hz)

Mass Excess (keV) 75.017ms 1174022.68(0.1) -528**.*(32.1) 97.125ms 1174022.76(0.07) -528**.*(25.4) 98.219ms 1174022.8(0.05) -528**.*(7.0) Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016

30 Ba measurements 150 Accumulation time Frequency (Hz) Mass Excess (keV) 60.005ms 1166165.27(0.09) -495**.*(21.3) 80.131ms 1166165.21(0.05) -495**.*(7.8) 80.131ms 1166165.22(0.04) -495**.*(5.5)

85.174ms 1166165.4(0.04) -495**.*(7.3) 84.402ms 1166165.29(0.03) -495**.*(32.6) 95.2ms 1166165.45(0.05) -495**.*(7.1) 80.135ms 1166165.31(0.06) -495**.*(32.3) 95.134ms 1166165.4(0.04)

-495**.*(7.1) 80.135ms 1166165.28(0.06) -495**.*(32.8) Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 31 Weighted Averages Nuclide Mass Excess Weighted Average (keV)* Ba -575**.*(5.1) Ba

-528**.*(5.4) Ba -495**.*(4.4) 148 149 150 *Uncertainty does not account for systematic uncertainties only statistical uncertainties are represented here. Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 32 Barium Masses relative to AME 1000 ME (Experiment - AME) (keV)

500 0 149Ba 148Ba 150Ba CPT AME -500 -1000 -1500 -2000 Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 33

Barium Masses relative to AME 1000 ME (Experiment - AME) (keV) 500 0 149Ba 148Ba 150Ba CPT AME FRS-ESR -500 -1000 -1500 Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016

July 25-29, 2016 34 150Ba ion rate dependence on time in trap (t1/2 = 0.3s) 2 shots - 0.097ips Guy Savard 95.194mswc Penning Trap Phase Imaging 8 shots - 0.011ips Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 35 150Ba ion rate dependence on time in trap (t1/2 = 0.3s) 2 shots - 0.037ips Guy Savard

80.135mswc Penning Trap Phase Imaging 8 shots - 0.019ips Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 36 Barium Masses, Experimental & Evaluated, relative to AME 1000 500 ME-AME (keV) 0 CPT ESR AME -500 -1000 -1500

140 142 144 146 148 150 A Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 37 Barium S_2n values, Experimental & Evaluated 11000 10500 10000

S2n (keV) 9500 CPT AME 9000 8500 8000 7500 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147

148 149 150 A Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 38 Barium Masses, Theoretical, Relative to CPT 1000 500 0 ESR FRDM2012 HFB-27 DZ-28 WS-4 + RBF

CPT ME-CPT (keV) -500 -1000 -1500 -2000 -2500 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147

148 149 150 A Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 39 Status CPT mass spectrometer now operating at CARIBU with phase sensitive cyclotron motion detection new technique allows us to beat the Fourier limit: a factor of ~25 gain in resolution for short-lived isotopes compared to standard technique MR-TOF in operation at CARIBU to improve beam purity when combined with phase sensitive cyclotron motion, gain of > 100 in sensitivity Penning trap mass measurement program has measured over 140

neutron-rich isotopes so far, mostly aimed at nuclei with r-process sensitivity but also to nuclear structure studies and applications Recent improvements to CPT detection system will allow us to continue measurements one to two neutrons outside the predicted range for the CARIBU facility Guy Savard Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 40 CPT collaboration M. Burkey, J.A. Clark, J.P. Greene, A.F. Levand, A. Perez Galvan, G. Savard, B.J. Zabransky A. Czeszumska, E.B. Norman, S. Padgett, N.D. Scielzo, B. Wang A. Aprahamian, M. Brodeur, S. T. Marley, M. Mumpower, A. Nystrom, N. Paul, K. Siegl, S. Y. Strauss T. Hirsh, G. E. Morgan,

K.S. Sharma Guy Savard F. Buchinger, J.E. Crawford, R. Orford Penning Trap Phase Imaging Nuclear Structure 2016 July 25-29, 2016 41

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