The French Revolution "Radical" Phase: 1792-1794 Attitudes &

The French Revolution "Radical" Phase: 1792-1794 Attitudes &

The French Revolution "Radical" Phase: 1792-1794 Attitudes & actions of monarchy & court Fear of CounterRevoluti

on Religio us divisio ns The Causes of Instability in France 1792 - 1795 Econom

ic Crises War Politic al divisio ns The National Convention The Decree of Fraternity

* it offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments. When France sneezes, all of Europe catches cold! The First Coalition &

The Brunswick Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed, Manifesto Paris will be leveled!! FRANCE 1792 1792 -1797 1797

AUSTRIA PRUSSIA BRITAIN SPAIN PIEDMONT French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie! The Storming of the

Tuilieres: August 9-10, 1792 The September Massacres, 179 Buveurs de sang [drinkers of blood.] Over 1,000 Parisians killed! The First French

Republic: 1792-1795 The Jacobins Jacobin Meeting House A Jacobin Club Meeting The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working

Class The Sans-Culottes Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist. Attempts to Control the Growing Crisis 1. Revolutionary Tribunal in Paris try suspected counter-revolutionaries. A. Representatives-on-Mission

* sent to the provinces & to the army. * had wide powers to oversee conscription. B. Watch Committees [comit de surveillance] * keep an eye on foreigners & suspects. C. sanctioned the trial & execution of rebels and migrs, should they ever return to France. Attempts to Control the Growing Crisis

2. The printing of more assignats to pay for the war. 3. Committee of Public Safety [CPS] * to oversee and speed up the work of the govt. during this crisis. 4. Committee of General Security [CGS] * responsible for the pursuit of counter-revolutionaries, the treatment of suspects, & other

Committee for Public Safety Revolutionary Tribunals. 300,000 arrested. 16,000 50,000 executed. Maximillian Robespierre (1758 1794)

Georges Jacques Danton (1759 1794) Jean-Paul Marat (1744 1793) The Death of Marat by Jacques Louis David, 1793 The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday, 1793

Marat by Charlotte Corday (Paul Jacques Aimee Baudry, 19c) The Leve en Masse:

An Entire Nation at Arms! 500,000 Soldier An army based on merit, not birth! The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- Robespierre Let terror be the

order of the day! Louis XVIs Head (January 21, 1793) he Death of Citizen Louis Cap Matter for reflection for the crowned jugglers.

So impure blood doesnt soil our land! Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793 War of Resistance to the

Revolution, 1793 Vende Revolt, 1793 Drowning the Traitors! Why was there a Revolt in the Vende? 1. The need for 300,000 French troops for the war effort. 2. Rural peasantry still highly taxed. 3. Resentment of the Civil Constitution

the Clergy. 4. Peasants had failed to benefit from the sale of church lands. TARGETS: Local gvt. officials National Guardsmen Religious Terror: De-Christianization (1793-1794)

The Catholic Church was linked with real or potential counter-revolution. Religion was associated with the Ancien Rgime and superstitious practices.

Very popular among the sans-culottes. Therefore, religion had no place in a rational, secular republic! The De-Christianization Program 1. The adoption of a new Republican Calendar: * abolished Sundays & religious

holidays. * months named after seasonal features. * 7-day weeks replaced by 10-day decades. * the yearly calendar was dated from the creation of the Republic [Sept. 22, 1792] The Convention symbolically divorced the state from the Church!!

A Republican Calendar The New Republican Calendar New Name Meaning Time Period Vendemaire Vintage September 22 October 21

Brumaire Fog October 22 November 20 Frimaire Frost November 21 December

20 Nivose Snow December 21 January 19 Pluviose Rain

January 20 February 18 Ventose Wind February 19 March 20 Germinal Budding

March 21 April 19 Floreal Flowers April 20 May 19 Prairial Meadow

May 20 June 18 Messidor Harvest June 19 July 18 Thermidor Heat

July 19 August 17 Fructidor Fruit August 18 September 21 A New Republican I 1792 1793 Calendar

Year II 1793 1794 III 1794 1795 IV 1795 1796 V

1796 1797 VI 1797 1798 VII 1798 1799 VIII

1799 1800 IX 1800 1801 X 1801 1802 XI

1802 1803 XII 1803 1804 XIII 1804 1805 XIV

1805 The Gregorian System returned in 1806. The De-Christianization Program 2. The public exercise of religion was banned. 3. The Paris Commune supported

the: * destruction of religious & royal statues. * ban on clerical dress. * encouragement of the clergy to give up their vocations. 4. The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was turned into the Temple of The Temple of Reason Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this temple,

Become the goddess of the French people. The Festival of Supreme Bein A new secular Backlash to the De-Christianization Program

It alienated most of the population (especially in the rural areas). Robespierre never supported it. * he persuaded the Convention to reaffirm the principle of religious

toleration. The Terror Intensified: March to July, 1794 Jacques Jacques Hbert Hbert & & the the Hrbetists Hrbetists

Executed in March, 1794. Danton Danton & & the the Indulgents Indulgents Executed in April, 1794. Law of 22 Prairial [June 10, 1794].

* Trials were now limited to deciding only on liberty OR death, with defendants having no rights. * Were you an enemy of the people? (the law was so broadly written that almost anyone could fall within its definition!) e Thermidorean Reaction, 17 P July 26 Robespierre gives a

speech illustrating new plots & conspiracies. * he alienated members of the CPS & CGS. * many felt threatened by his implications. P July 27 the Convention arrests Robespierre. P July 28 Robespierre is tried & guillotined!

The Arrest of Robespierre The Revolution Consumes Its Own Children! Danton Awaits Execution, 1793 Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the

Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.

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