How have these issues divided the U.S. Political

How have these issues divided the U.S. Political

How have these issues divided the U.S. Political Parties over time? Economics Race Democracy Form of Govt. Way of Life What divides the U.S. Political Parties Today?

Party Ideology Democrats Not Ideologically Exclusive! Similar in many respects Believe in the ideals of a Republican, Democratic society with a Capitalist economy This is how the parties are able to chase the same undecided voters!

The state has the answer to problems -Tend to be more Liberal Progressive to help the individual Republicans The individual (with help from family, friends, church, etc) has the answer to problems -Tend to be more Conservative Preservation of family values, etc.

Democrats Party Ideology Increased spending on social welfare Gun control A womans right to abortion Rights for gays and lesbians State healthcare Social Security (Pensions) *Also currently strong on foreign

policy and national security Morality is a private concern Choice, self-expression is necessary for a diverse society Republicans Tougher attitude to criminals and crime Death penalty Low public welfare spending Strong National Defence policy Free market/ Little or no intervention

Believe in small government Okay with prayer in public schools The Religious Right embraces Conservative social aspects of the party Common morality necessary for social stability: Therefore it is a suitable area for government intervention Why are there factions within the parties? Why are there factions within the parties?

* Remember that titles of Conservative/ Liberal are given to people by others. To a Conservative in Alabama, their next-door Democrat might seem very Liberal. * Remember that there is a geographical dimension- Republicans in the Northeast will be on a different part of the spectrum than their fellow Republicans in the South. Republicans: Divided Over: Taxation Deregulation States Rights Morality

What are the differences between these three types? Fiscal Conservatives Social Conservatives Moderate Fiscal Conservatives aim to do the following: Reduce government spending Lower Taxes Balance the Budget Deficit Reduction Pay off national debt Deregulate the economy

Support free market principles & supply-side economics Social Conservatives are associated with the religious right. They wish to do the following: Criminalise abortion Oppose same-sex marriage Oppose gun control Do not support affirmative action Oppose state funding for stem cell research Want religious organisation to have a greater role in delivery of welfare programmes Moderate Republicans are generally fiscal conservatives but

liberal on social policies. They aim to secure the following: A balanced budget Lower taxes Free trade Deregulation Welfare Gay rights Abortion rights Gun control Federal funding of education Abolish the death penalty Civil Rights legislation

Fewer restrictions on legal immigration Tom Fiscal Conservative Senator from Oklahoma Elected 2004 Reduce wasteful spending Protect Liberty Take steps towards a balanced budget Protection of the sanctity of all human life Represents traditional, human values But... Keen to improve health-care access and affordability

Sarah Palin Social Conservative- Previous gov of Alaska Against same-sex marriage & abortion Supports capital punishment Supports Creationism in schools Wants to promote abstinence in schools Against gun control (member of the NRA) Olympia Snow Moderate Senator from Maine Youngest woman elected to Congress

(Aged 31 in 1978) Supports abortion rights Opposes drilling in the Alaska Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Backed proposals long heralded as those of the Democratic platform, including adding drug prescription benefits to Medicare and raising the minimum wage. Democrats: New Deal Democrats -Workers/Unions

New Democrats -Modernisers Market deregulation - Bill Clinton Bill Clinton was the Democratic politician of the 1990s identified with the New Democrats; his promise of welfare reform in the 1992 election epitomised the New Democrat position, as did his promise of a middleclass tax cut. His Third Way successes influenced Tony Blair. New Dems are more open to deregulation than the previous Demo leadership had been. This was evidence in the large-scale deregulation of ag and the telecommunications industries. An important part of the ideas of New Dems is focused on the

economy. During Clintons time in office, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 was enacted that raised taxes on the wealthiest 1.2% of taxpayers whilst cutting taxes on 15 million lowincome families and making tax-cuts available to 90% of small businesses. Harry Reid Senior Senator from Nevada/Senate Majority Leader New Deal Democrat/ New Democrat Tends to vote moderate * But he lobbies hard for legislation that will advance the national Democratic agenda

Fought for coal-workers rights Worked to keep nuclear waste out of Yucca Mountain national park Pushed for a timetable for withdrawal of US troops from Iraq Max Baucus Senior Senator from Montana Supported President Bushs trillion-dollar tax cut that mainly benefitted the wealthy in 2001 Fought to add a prescription-drug benefit to Medicare (pushed by the Bush admin)

Sought billions on aid for drought-plagued farmers in his home state Advocated opening up foreign markets to wheat and beef Very popular on K Street -Special interest groups What might influence a politicians beliefs within their party? Dick Cheney Michael Bloomberg

Mitt Romney Mayor of NYC- 12th richest person in the United States. Founder of a financial news and information services media co. Bloomberg was a lifetime Democrat before seeking elective office. He switched his registration in 2001 and ran for Mayor as a Republican, winning the election that year and a second term in 2005. Bloomberg left the Republican party over policy and philosophical disagreement in 2007 and ran for his third term in 2009 as an independent candidate. In the fall of 2008, Bloomberg successfully campaigned for an

amendment to NYCs term limits law, in order to allow him to run for a third term in 2009. He won the election on Nov 3, Michael Bloomberg 2009. Current Republican candidate for the presidency. He was the 70th governor of Massachusetts from 2003-2007. The party base of Republicans in Mass are far more Liberal than in other parts of the country and Romney followed that line. Whilst in office, he signed the Massachusetts Health Care Reform legislation, which provided near universal health coverage within the state. In 2008, Romney ran for the Republican nomination, but was

heavily criticised for flip-flopping on issues. Attempting to appeal to the wider Republican audience, he attempted to take a step away from his health bill Romney Care and other more liberal stances condoned by his state. Mitt Romney Now, in 2012, as the strongest Republican candidate, he has been more willing to support his previous measures- in particular health care. The reason for this? As the strongest Republican candidate, what he needs to focus on at the moment is winning the general election in which he must appeal to the wider electorate.

**The importance of suiting your audience in the primaries versus the General Election. What kinds of factions do we see within the party? LCR is an organization that works within the Republican Party to advocate equal rights for all Americans, including gays and lesbians in the US with state chapters and a national office in Washington, D.C. The groups constituency supports the Republican Party and advocates for the rights of gay and

lesbian Americans. What kinds of factions do we see within the party? Blue Dogs The Blue Dog Coalition is a group of US Congressional Reps from the D Party who identify themselves as moderates. It was formed in 1995 to give more conservative members from the party a unified voice after the Republicans managed to capture the Congress in the 1994 Congressional Elections.

Are the parties becoming increasingly polarized? Has their been a movement towards Partisanship since the 60s? [Partisanship is a term used to denote a state of affairs in which members of one party regularly group together in opposition to the members of another party. Partisanship is therefore typified by high levels of party discipline, frequent occurrences of party-line voting and little if any cooperation and compromise between politicians of different parties.] Are the parties becoming increasingly polarized? Some would argue that American political parties are becoming more ideologically cohesive. That although there are different factions

within the parties and different types of Republicans and Democrats, the party base has become more solidified. Bennett argues that the Conservative Democrats are nowadays an endangered species. Most have either died, retired or joined the Republican Party. And that, likewise, moderate Republicans are becoming more scarce. EVIDENCE Blue Dog membership for the 112th Congress is 26 seats, down from 54 seats in the 111th Congress. Why have the parties become increasingly polarized?

1- 5 Reasons to start off! A more ideological president (R) who wooed conservatives away from the D Party whilst making it uncomfortable for moderates to remain in the party. Why have the parties become increasingly polarized? 2From 1941-1980s, the parties had been

united around a similar ideology due to a foreign policy consensus- unity in the face of threat. The collapse of the USSR ended that threat. Why have the parties become increasingly polarized? 3- 1993-2001- something of a paradox Although a moderate D, his policy was highly divisive. Brought out issues of the

60s: sex, the role of women, the nature of authority and morality. Why have the parties become increasingly polarized? 42001-2009- Another divisive president. Ran for office as a uniter, not a divider... but he was. Iraq War ended bipartisan support in Congress and in the country. Why have the parties become increasingly polarized?

5Technology Direct mail, talk radio, cable television, mobile phones, e-mail and the internet enabled ideological soul mates to communicate more efficiently and to spread their ideas. Partisanship is increased and the political debate can get ugly.

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